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war establishment

The level of equipment and manning laid down for a military unit in wartime.

La Dell, Edwin

La Dell, Edwin (7 January 1919)   Reference library

Benezit Dictionary of British Graphic Artists and Illustrators

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2013

..., illustrator . Murals. Edwin La Dell studied at Sheffield School of Art and at the Royal College of Art in London under John Nash and Barnett Freedman. During World War II he made several independent submissions to the War Artists Advisory Committee and was commissioned to produce public murals and design camouflage for the Civil Defence Camouflage Establishment in Leamington Spa. After the war he was appointed Head of the Printmaking Department at the Royal College of Art and in 1969 he was elected an associate of the Royal Academy. La Dell is best...

Beer Halls

Beer Halls   Reference library

Paul Ruschmann

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Food and Drink in America (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2013

...quickly took a liking to lager. Beer hall proprietors, many of whom were German, catered to the newfound taste for lager. In some cities they built establishments with high ceilings and filled them with trees and plants in an effort to capture the atmosphere of an outdoor park—even in winter. Although they were roofed and enclosed, these establishments were commonly referred to as “beer gardens.” After the Civil War, there were an estimated three to four thousand beer halls in New York City alone. The largest, such as the Atlantic Beer Garden, entertained...

Preparedness Controversy

Preparedness Controversy   Reference library

Keith L. Nelson

The Oxford Encyclopedia of American Military and Diplomatic History

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2013

...Controversy The outbreak of war in Europe in August 1914 provoked significant disagreement over its implications for the United States. Conservatives, who had espoused patriotic service and national power since at least the 1890s, portrayed the war as clear proof that the United States needed to enlarge its military establishment. Reformers and radicals, suspicious of conservative business interests, viewed the conflict within the context of America's traditional antimilitarism and antipathy to large standing armies. A small group of northeastern...

Stimson, Henry

Stimson, Henry (1867–1950)   Reference library

Timothy J. Lynch

The Oxford Encyclopedia of American Military and Diplomatic History

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2013

...Policy ; Religion, Influence of, on U.S. Diplomacy ; Patton, George S., Jr. ; Philippine War (1899–1902) ; Post-traumatic Stress Disorder ; Preparedness Controversy ; Roosevelt, Franklin Delano ; Root, Elihu ; State, U.S. Secretaries of ; Taft, William Howard ; War Crimes Trials, Nuremberg and Tokyo ; World War I (1914–1918) ; and World War II (1939–1945) .] Bibliography Fabry, Mikulas . Recognizing States: International Society and the Establishment of New States since 1776 . Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2010. Krepon, Michael . Better...

Council on Foreign Relations

Council on Foreign Relations   Reference library

Peter Grose

The Oxford Encyclopedia of American Military and Diplomatic History

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2013

...community, the banker David Rockefeller ( 1915 – ) guided the council's growth as chair and benefactor. The Vietnam War fractured the American consensus on foreign policy, and the council's preeminence suffered accordingly; new centers of expertise and deliberation sprang up outside the traditional East Coast establishment. The council became a flashpoint for ideological criticism from the right and left alike. The end of the Cold War in 1989 opened an array of new issues for research and analysis. Gradually adapting to these altered circumstances, the...

Cummings, Richard Osborn

Cummings, Richard Osborn (1908–1973)   Reference library

Andrew F. Smith

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Food and Drink in America (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2013

...a reference ever since its publication. It was republished by Arno Press in 1970 . The book had a major influence on the National Nutrition Conference for Defense at the beginning of World War II. This group put forward the idea of “recommending the establishment of the allowances for good nutrition as a national goal.” In short, this book contributed to the establishment of the Recommended Dietary Allowance, which evolved into today's Dietary Reference Intakes. In the early 1940s Richard Cummings worked with the Bureau of Agricultural Economics at the U.S....

Vietnam War

Vietnam War   Reference library

Ray Pratt

The Grove Dictionary of American Music (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2013
Subject:
Music, Social sciences, Regional and Area Studies
Length:
1,207 words

...War . The Vietnam War period can be dated from the establishment of the US Military Assistance Command in 1963 to the fall of Saigon to North Vietnamese forces in 1975 . References to the war and reflections on its meaning in popular music began to reach a wide listenership by 1965 . Because millions of Americans were drafted to serve in the US military during the war period, its impact on individuals of military age, their social peers, friends, and families was almost as widespread as that of World war ii . From Johnny Wright's “Hello, Vietnam”...

Romulus

Romulus (Europe)   Quick reference

A Dictionary of World Mythology

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2003

...Sabine maidens at a festival. After ruling for forty years Romulus vanished and became the god Quirinus. During the late fourth century bc the Romulus myth first rivalled that of Aeneas as the supposed city founder. The she wolf had been the symbol of nationality since the establishment of the Republic in 510 bc . Although imperial patronage gave to Aeneas the official glory (on the nine hundredth anniversary of the traditional foundation of Rome in 148 , coins were issued which gave pride of place to the city's Trojan origins) interest in Romulus and...

Ricordi

Ricordi   Reference library

Jonas Westover

The Grove Dictionary of American Music (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2013
Subject:
Music, Social sciences, Regional and Area Studies
Length:
207 words

...was founded in Milan, Italy, in 1808 by Giovanni Ricordi. From 1888 to 1912 it was directed by Giovanni's grandson Giulio Ricordi, who was responsible in 1911 for the establishment of a branch in New York. Franco Colombo, whose father Alfredo Colombo was president of Ricordi Milan from 1940 to 1961 , joined the New York office in 1937 . He later returned to Italy and after World War II created a department there dealing in American popular music, then in 1949 became managing director of the New York branch. He established the firm as an American...

Harbert, Wilhelmina K(eniston)

Harbert, Wilhelmina K(eniston) (27 Dec 1888)   Reference library

William B. Davis

The Grove Dictionary of American Music (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2013
Subject:
Music, Social sciences, Regional and Area Studies
Length:
205 words

...Stockton, California ( 1933 ). She used her formidable talents as a pianist and vocalist to entertain American troops hospitalized in France during World War I. Her experiences with physically and emotionally injured soldiers, and later as a volunteer in New England settlement houses, hospitals, and institutions, solidified her desire to pursue a career in music therapy well before the formal establishment of the profession in 1950 . Though she lacked formal training in music therapy, Harbert began teaching courses in the same at the College (now University)...

Coffeehouses

Coffeehouses   Reference library

Mark Pendergrast

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Food and Drink in America (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2013

...with the kaveh kanes , as fifteenth- and sixteenth-century Arab establishments were known, coffeehouses have provided a place for people to socialize over a cup of coffee and a bite to eat. The coffeehouse combined with café has a longer European pedigree, but the American Revolution was planned in Boston's Green Tavern, a coffeehouse that also served ale. In the 1950s smoky, atmospheric coffeehouses in cities such as San Francisco and New York fueled hipsters and beatniks. In the Vietnam War era, GI coffeehouses outside army bases promoted antiwar...

Office of Strategic Services

Office of Strategic Services   Reference library

Paul M. McGarr

The Oxford Encyclopedia of American Military and Diplomatic History

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2013

...its access to valuable military resources and support. On 13 June 1942 , President Roosevelt formally approved the COI's transformation into the Office of Strategic Services ( OSS ). The establishment of the OSS marked a watershed in the history of American intelligence. The OSS's mission was to collect and analyze strategic information and to undertake special operations requested by the JCS. Never before had a single agency of the U.S. government been tasked with conducting a full range of intelligence-related activities, including espionage, covert...

Military Service Academies

Military Service Academies   Reference library

Todd Forney and Timothy J. Lynch

The Oxford Encyclopedia of American Military and Diplomatic History

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2013

...who did not owe allegiance to society, but to the institutions that employed them. The Revolutionary War, however, raised doubts about the skills of the citizen-soldier, especially in a severe national emergency. Ex-Continental Army officers and Federalist Party members like George Washington and Alexander Hamilton advocated a regular officer corps. Ironically, it was the Federalists’ archrival, Thomas Jefferson , who authorized the establishment of the U.S. Military Academy at West Point, New York, in 1802 . West Point's founders, understanding the...

Atlantic Charter

Atlantic Charter   Reference library

Theodore A. Wilson

The Oxford Encyclopedia of American Military and Diplomatic History

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2013

...conditions for all, renunciation of territorial expansion, and protection against forced territorial changes. The remaining three embodied liberal internationalist thinking about the causes of war and the foundations of world peace. These were freedom of the seas, open access to markets and raw materials, and disarmament of aggressor nations, pending the establishment of a permanent structure to assure world peace. The Atlantic Charter reflected American ideals embodied in President Woodrow Wilson 's Fourteen Points of 1918 and articulated in FDR's January...

Army, U.S.

Army, U.S.   Reference library

Graham A. Cosmas, Don Higginbotham, William B. Skelton, Joseph G. Dawson, James L. Abrahamson, Graham A. Cosmas, and Timothy J. Lynch

The Oxford Encyclopedia of American Military and Diplomatic History

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2013

...a role that led to the tragic Trail of Tears ( 1838–1839 ) and the long guerrilla conflict in Florida known as the Seminole Wars ( 1818 , 1835–1842 , 1855–1858 ). The demands of national expansionism brought occasional increases in army strength. The army reintroduced mounted regiments in 1833 and 1836 , the first since the War of 1812 and, with the outbreak of the Mexican War in 1846 , the army's basic establishment swelled to 17,812. Congress supplemented this force, achieved mainly by filling the understrength units with recruits, with 10...

Pan-Turkism

Pan-Turkism   Reference library

The Oxford Encyclopedia of the Islamic World

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2009

...of the Balkan Wars ( 1912–1913 ) and the First World War ( 1914–1918 ). At certain times, it became official ideology and gained the patronage of the CUP (Committee of Union and Progress). The sudden rise (following the Bolshevik Revolution) and collapse (after the Armistice of Mudros and the establishment of the Sovyet Sosyalist Cumhuriyetler Birliği [SSCB]) of Turanism deeply disappointed the Turanists. Although both factions of Pan-Turkists had supported and played major roles during the War of Independence ( 1919–1922 ) and the establishment of the Republic...

Bombing, Strategy and Ethics of

Bombing, Strategy and Ethics of   Reference library

James Turner Johnson and Timothy J. Lynch

The Oxford Encyclopedia of American Military and Diplomatic History

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2013

...unintentional effect of legitimate acts of war (the “rule of double effect”). The total damage caused, moreover, must not be disproportionate to the justifiable ends achieved. In the seventeenth and eighteenth centuries, writers such as John Locke and Emmerich de Vattel extended the traditional idea of noncombatant immunity to prohibit acts of war aimed at civilian property and values of common benefit to humanity. The codification of positive international law on war, marked by the Lieber Code and the establishment of the International Red Cross in the mid-...

Mexican War

Mexican War (1846–1848)   Reference library

Robert E. May

The Oxford Encyclopedia of American Military and Diplomatic History

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2013

...eleven soldiers, wounding others, and taking sixty-three prisoners. Polk asked Congress for war on 11 May, asserting that Mexico had “shed American blood upon American soil.” That same day, the House of Representatives passed a war bill by a vote of 173 to 14. The Senate followed suit on 12 May, by a 40-to-2 margin. Although the United States entered the war with an army of fewer than seven thousand officers and men (less than one-third the size of Mexico's establishment), American troops invaded Mexico and repeatedly defeated numerically superior Mexican forces...

Rotc

Rotc   Reference library

John Whiteclay Chambers and Timothy J. Lynch

The Oxford Encyclopedia of American Military and Diplomatic History

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2013

...membership, or simply reading military manuals. The Civil War expansion of the army showed the need for a more widespread training of such citizen-officers. The idea of including military training in public colleges was incorporated into the Morrill Act of 1862 , which granted public lands for the establishment of colleges and provided that military tactics should be offered as part of the curriculum in these land-grant institutions. The federal government provided some funding and the War Department assigned some active-duty or retired officers as...

Early Republic, U.S. Military and Diplomatic Affairs during the

Early Republic, U.S. Military and Diplomatic Affairs during the   Reference library

Leonard J. Sadosky

The Oxford Encyclopedia of American Military and Diplomatic History

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2013

...only by their code letters—X, Y, and Z—thus giving the diplomatic incident its name, the XYZ affair. The Adams administration put the nation on a war footing in 1798 . Congress formally re-created the U.S. Navy and Marine Corps. Although the Continental Congress had created a Continental navy during the Revolutionary War, a formal naval establishment was not effected until 1798 . With a potential naval war with France looming, Congress and the Adams administration created the new Department of the Navy with a cabinet-level secretary. Benjamin Stoddert ,...

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