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war establishment

The level of equipment and manning laid down for a military unit in wartime.

Bosnia and Herzegovina

Bosnia and Herzegovina   Quick reference

A Guide to Countries of the World (4 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2016
Subject:
Encyclopedias, Geographical reference, Social sciences, Regional and Area Studies
Length:
1,342 words
Illustration(s):
2

...that had accompanied all these events erupted into full-scale civil war as each group sought to seize territory while driving out the members of the other communities in a bitter and savage process of ‘ethnic cleansing’. The war was to kill a quarter of a million people, drive one million people out of the country as refugees, and displace another million or so internally. In 1994 , the USA brokered a ceasefire and in 1995 an agreement reached in Dayton, Ohio, brought the war to an end. This established a central government with a rotating...

Slovenia

Slovenia   Quick reference

A Guide to Countries of the World (4 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2016
Subject:
Encyclopedias, Geographical reference, Social sciences, Regional and Area Studies
Length:
1,267 words
Illustration(s):
2

..., the Yugoslav army made a half-hearted attempt to reassert control, but the Slovenes fended them off in a largely bloodless ten-day war. Since independence, politics has generally been consensual, based on broad coalitions. In 1992 Slovenes opted for familiar figures. The largest single party was the centre-left Liberal Democracy of Slovenia ( LDS ), led by Janez Drnovšek , a member of the previous communist establishment who formed a coalition with the Slovene Christian Democrats ( SKD ). In 1996 voters once again made the LDS the largest party,...

Ethiopia

Ethiopia   Quick reference

A Guide to Countries of the World (4 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2016
Subject:
Encyclopedias, Geographical reference, Social sciences, Regional and Area Studies
Length:
1,450 words
Illustration(s):
2

...and staffed by the Chinese. Contemporary politics Ethiopia has been through a series of political traumas and civil wars. Following a famine in 1972–74 , which cost an estimated 200,000 lives, political unrest led to the overthrow of the monarchy of Haile Selassie and in 1975 to the establishment of a socialist republic. But civilian groups failed to cohere into viable political parties, leaving the way clear for the establishment of a 17-year military regime, the Provisional Military Administrative Council, known in Amharic as the ‘Derg’. From 1977...

Guatemala

Guatemala   Quick reference

A Guide to Countries of the World (4 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2016
Subject:
Encyclopedias, Geographical reference, Social sciences, Regional and Area Studies
Length:
1,396 words
Illustration(s):
2

...for genocide in the civil war, including Montt. Initially popular, he soon faced demands from peasant farmers who marched on the capital demanding faster rural development. However, his administration was corrupt and in September 2015 he resigned and was charged with corruption and bribery in relation to a customs scam, as was his vice-president; and other charges followed. This scandal developed as the campaign for the next presidential elections got under way. The election result showed a rejection of the political establishment by the electorate who...

Croatia

Croatia   Quick reference

A Guide to Countries of the World (4 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2016
Subject:
Encyclopedias, Geographical reference, Social sciences, Regional and Area Studies
Length:
1,509 words
Illustration(s):
2

...largest private company that was about to collapse. In 2017 the Permanent Court of Arbitration at The Hague ruled that Slovenia should have direct access to the high seas through an area which Croatia regards as its territorial waters. The dispute dates back to the establishment of the two countries, and Croatia immediately rejected the ruling. Both countries have ruled out further negotiations, and Slovenia has taken Croatia to the European Court of Justice over the dispute, and its ruling is awaited. The inability of two EU countries to agree on...

Turkey

Turkey   Quick reference

A Guide to Countries of the World (4 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2016
Subject:
Encyclopedias, Geographical reference, Social sciences, Regional and Area Studies
Length:
1,910 words
Illustration(s):
2

...the EU hardened, as the state reversed some of its liberalization measures in its fight against the PKK’s demands for Kurdish independence. As a result negotiations have stalled. Following his inability to name the next president owing to the opposition of the republican establishment, Erdogan called new elections in 2007 . In these, the AKP increased its share of the popular vote to 47 per cent. Erdogan and the AKP were returned for a third term in 2011 , though with a smaller majority. One of their objectives was to replace a constitution that had been...

Bolivia

Bolivia   Quick reference

A Guide to Countries of the World (4 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2016
Subject:
Encyclopedias, Geographical reference, Social sciences, Regional and Area Studies
Length:
1,329 words
Illustration(s):
2

... presidential election to Hugo Banzer Suarez , formerly a military dictator. He retired due to ill health in 2001 , and was succeeded by Jorge Quiroga Ramirez, but in the 2002 elections, Sánchez de Lozada returned to power. There was a major protest vote against the establishment, with the indigenous representative of the coca growers, Evo Morales, of the Movimiento al Socialismo ( MAS ), obtaining the second largest vote, with 20.9 per cent. Sánchez de Lozada ’s second term was brief. After violent protests over a proposed gas pipeline he was...

Italy

Italy   Quick reference

A Guide to Countries of the World (4 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2016
Subject:
Encyclopedias, Geographical reference, Social sciences, Regional and Area Studies
Length:
1,634 words
Illustration(s):
2

...it was further weakened when Berlusconi was banned from public office and pulled his party out of the coalition. In early 2014 Letta resigned to be replaced by Matteo Renzi , the radical mayor of Florence. His main challenges were to reform the political and bureaucratic establishment in order to stimulate growth. In 2014 Italy’s GDP was still 10 per cent below that of 2007 and unemployment was continuing to rise. Renzi’s plans for constitutional change that would centralize more power in the national government were defeated in a referendum in late 2016...

Pakistan

Pakistan   Quick reference

A Guide to Countries of the World (4 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2016
Subject:
Encyclopedias, Geographical reference, Social sciences, Regional and Area Studies
Length:
2,001 words
Illustration(s):
2

...with the government burdened by extensive debts to China. With the PML being led by Nawaz Sharif’s brother and the PPP by Benazir Bhutto’s son, many felt that the establishment had not delivered. The beneficiary of this was Imran Khan and his Pakistan Tehreek-e-Insaf (PTI) party, which became the lead party in a coalition government with various minor parties. Khan combined popular non-establishment views with the backing of the military. Keeping these two very different groupings happy while reviving the economy and the country’s self-esteem, will be a...

Hong Kong

Hong Kong   Quick reference

A Guide to Countries of the World (4 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2016
Subject:
Encyclopedias, Geographical reference, Social sciences, Regional and Area Studies
Length:
1,231 words
Illustration(s):
1

...and 20 per cent of the population are estimated to be below the national poverty line. At 2.4 mobile phones per resident, it has the highest ownership figure in the world. In 2017, Hong Kong’s per capita GDP was just ahead of that of the USA. The economy Since its establishment, Hong Kong has always been an entrepôt for trade with mainland China, and it is now the seventh-largest importing and exporting territory in the world. Much of this trade is handling goods either coming in or leaving China, but it does also have its own manufacturing sector,...

Israel

Israel   Quick reference

A Guide to Countries of the World (4 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2016
Subject:
Encyclopedias, Geographical reference, Social sciences, Regional and Area Studies
Length:
1,720 words
Illustration(s):
2

...21 per cent of the population living below the poverty line. The economy Over its lifetime, Israel has shifted from a simple agricultural society to an export-driven high-tech industrial economy—particularly during the 1990s, with the influx of new professionals and the establishment of communications technology and software enterprises concentrated around Tel Aviv. Israel also has high-tech agriculture which has to make sophisticated use of limited water resources. As well as being self-sufficient in food, Israel is a major exporter of citrus and other fruits...

United Kingdom

United Kingdom   Quick reference

A Guide to Countries of the World (4 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2016
Subject:
Encyclopedias, Geographical reference, Social sciences, Regional and Area Studies
Length:
2,257 words
Illustration(s):
2

...impacted on many working families, was reversed after the House of Lords rejected the change. In November 2015 , parliament voted to join the bombing campaign against the so-called Islamic State in Syria, a vote that divided the Labour Party, now led by the left-wing, anti-establishment Jeremy Corbyn . Cameron concluded his negotiation over the UK’s terms of membership of the EU in February 2016 and a referendum was held in June 2016 on whether the UK should stay or leave the EU. The result showed that 52 per cent of those who voted wished to leave the...

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