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war establishment

The level of equipment and manning laid down for a military unit in wartime.

Sino-American Relations

Sino-American Relations  

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With the establishment of the People's Republic of China (PRC) in 1949, China's new leaders opted for a close political-military alliance with the Soviet Union. This was soon followed in ...
Eelco Nicolaas Van Kleffens

Eelco Nicolaas Van Kleffens  

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(b. Heerenveen, 17 Nov. 1894; d. Almoçagême, Portugal, 17 June 1983)Netherlandish; Minister of Foreign Affairs After law study at Leiden, which he completed in 1918 with a dissertation on the ...
W. M. Ball

W. M. Ball  

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William Macmahon Ball (1901–86) is a key figure in the history of political studies in Australia. His groundbreaking efforts at the University of Melbourne culminated in 1939 in the establishment ...
Dirk Uipko Stikker

Dirk Uipko Stikker  

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(b. Winschoten, 5 Feb. 1897; d. Wassenaar, 24 Dec. 1979)Netherlandish; Foreign Minister 1948–52, Secretary-General of NATO Having studied law in Groningen, Stikker occupied different functions in ...
Hubert Humphrey

Hubert Humphrey  

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(b. Wallace, South Dakota, 27 May 1911; d. Waverly, Minnesota, 13 Jan. 1978)US; Vice-President 1964–8 Humphrey qualified from the University of Minnesota in pharmacy and political science and ...
Hiram Johnson

Hiram Johnson  

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(b. Sacramento, California, 2 Sept. 1866; d. Bethesda, Maryland, 6 Aug. 1945)US; Governor of California 1911–17, US Senator 1917–45 After two years at the University of California in Berkeley, ...
Lloyd Bentsen

Lloyd Bentsen  

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(b. Mission, Texas, 11 Feb. 1921; d. Houston, Texas, 23 May 2006)US; Member of the US House of Representatives 1949–54, US Senator 1970–92, Secretary to the US Treasury 1993–4 The son of a wealthy ...
Nelson Wilmarth Aldrich

Nelson Wilmarth Aldrich  

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(b. Foster, Rhode Island, 6 Nov. 1841; d. New York City, 15 Apr. 1915)US; member of the Rhode Island House of Representatives 1875–77, member of the US House of Representatives 1879–83, US Senator ...
Gral Maximiliano Hernandez Martínez

Gral Maximiliano Hernandez Martínez  

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(b. San Salvador, 21 Oct. 1882; d. Jamastrán, Honduras, 17 May 1966)Salvadorean; President of the Republic 1931–44 El Salvador's most colourful and eccentric President came to power in a coup in ...
Jean-Marie Le Pen

Jean-Marie Le Pen  

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(b. La Trinité-sur-Mer, 20 June 1928)French; Presidential candidate 1974, 1988, 1995, 2002, and 2007, President, National Front 1972–  Born in the western department of Morbihan, the son of a ...
Belisario Betancur Cuartas

Belisario Betancur Cuartas  

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(b. Amagá, Antioquia, Colombia, 4 Feb. 1923)Colombian; President 1982–6 The second son of twenty-two children, sixteen of whom died as children, Betancur was born into an extremely poor family. He ...
Harold Washington

Harold Washington  

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(b. Chicago, 15 Apr. 1922; d. Chicago, 25 Nov. 1987)US; member of Illinois State Legislature 1966–80, member of the US House of Representatives 1981–2, mayor of Chicago 1983–7 The son of a Methodist ...
Turkish National Movement

Turkish National Movement   Quick reference

A Dictionary of Politics in the Middle East

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2018
Subject:
Social sciences, Politics
Length:
121 words

...Turkish National Movement Political movement that emerged after the Ottoman defeat in the First World War and played an influential role in the establishment of the Turkish Republic in 1923 . Formed in June 1919 , the Turkish National Movement rejected the post-war Allied occupation of Istanbul and the partition of Turkish areas of the Ottoman Empire in the Treaty of Sèvres in 1920 . Mustapha Kemal was prominent in unifying Turkish nationalism and launching a Grand National Assembly in Ankara in April 1920 . Members of the Turkish National Movement...

Sharon, Ariel

Sharon, Ariel (1928–2014)   Quick reference

A Dictionary of Politics in the Middle East

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2018
Subject:
Social sciences, Politics
Length:
166 words

...Sharon, Ariel ( 1928–2014 ) Prime Minister of Israel between 2001 and 2006 . Ariel Sharon fought in the Arab–Israeli War of 1948 and commanded forces in the Six Day War in 1967 and the Yom Kippur War in 1973 . Involved in the establishment of the Likud Party in 1973 alongside Menachem Begin , Sharon was appointed Minister of Defence in 1981 but resigned in 1983 in response to a critical report into the 1982 Israeli invasion of Lebanon. Sharon remained in government as Minister without Portfolio ( 1983–4 ), Trade and Industry (...

Kurdistan Democratic Party

Kurdistan Democratic Party   Quick reference

A Dictionary of Politics in the Middle East

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2018
Subject:
Social sciences, Politics
Length:
117 words

...and populist party associated with the Barzani family since its establishment in 1946 . Founded by Mustafa Barzani while in exile in Iran, the KDP demanded autonomy for Kurdish communities in Iraq. After the defeat of the Kurdish rebellion in Iraq in 1974 , the Patriotic Union of Kurdistan ( PUK ) challenged the KDP for political influence in Iraqi Kurdistan. Although the KDP cooperated initially with the PUK in administering the Kurdistan Regional Government after the Gulf War of 1991 , they engaged in conflict from 1994 to 1998 . Since 2005 ,...

war crimes

war crimes   Quick reference

Andrew Hurrell

A Concise Oxford Dictionary of Politics and International Relations (4 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2018
Subject:
Social sciences, Politics
Length:
303 words

... crimes Individual responsibility for violations of the laws or customs of war. Such responsibility covers both the commission of such crimes and the ordering or facilitating of them and the rule violated must belong either to the body of customary international law or be part of an applicable treaty. The first, although unsuccessful, attempts at the prosecution of war crimes took place after the First World War. The issue of individual responsibility re-emerged during the Second World War, with allied declarations in 1942 and 1943 expressing the...

War

War   Reference library

David Fisher

The Oxford Companion to International Relations

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2014
Subject:
Social sciences, Politics
Length:
3,674 words

...the abolition of war and the establishment of an international court for the settlement of disputes by arbitration. It is one of the ironies of history that The Hague convention not only failed to prevent World War I but that the follow-up conference planned for 1915 had to be abandoned because of the war. Despite all the protestations at the end of World War I that it had been a war to end all wars, twenty-one years later, Europe was once again convulsed with war. For many, hopes of abolishing, or at least reducing the incidence, of war rest on the...

War Crimes

War Crimes   Reference library

Yoram Dinstein

The Oxford Companion to International Relations

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2014
Subject:
Social sciences, Politics
Length:
895 words

...Japanese atrocities perpetrated during the course of World War II. Apart from the two major trials conducted by the international military tribunals, thousands of lesser war criminals were prosecuted before national courts in more than a dozen countries. Notwithstanding the overall success of the post–World War II trials, there was a prevailing reluctance to proceed with war-crimes trials subsequent to the multiple regional wars of the Cold War era. The zeitgeist changed in the 1990s. The establishment of the Yugoslav Tribunal, and the renewal of interest in...

War Crimes

War Crimes   Reference library

The Oxford Companion to Politics of the World (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2004
Subject:
Social sciences, Politics
Length:
873 words

...the overall success of the post–World War II trials, there was a prevailing reluctance to proceed with war crimes trials subsequent to the multiple regional wars of the Cold War era. The zeitgeist changed in the 1990s. The establishment of the Yugoslav Tribunal, and the renewal of interest in the creation of a permanent international criminal court, reflect the growing public desire to ensure that war criminals do not escape trial and punishment. (See also Genocide ; War, Rules of .) Yoram Dinstein, et al. , War Crimes in International Law (The Hague,...

War Crimes Tribunals

War Crimes Tribunals   Reference library

The Oxford Companion to Politics of the World (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2004
Subject:
Social sciences, Politics
Length:
608 words

...with jurisdiction over war crimes, crimes against humanity, genocide, and in theory the crime of aggression which has been left undefined. The Rome Statute is not yet in force, and several of its key provisions—relating both to the exercise of jurisdiction and to the definition of crimes—are controversial. It is nevertheless clear that, if only in broad outlines, the new concept of a permanent international criminal court is almost universally supported. The establishment of such a court reflects growing public desire to ensure that war criminals do not escape...

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