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war establishment

The level of equipment and manning laid down for a military unit in wartime.

Reggio Emilia

Reggio Emilia   Quick reference

A Dictionary of Education (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2015
Subject:
Social sciences, Education
Length:
1,070 words

...the comparative poverty of southern Italy to the more prosperous industrial north, including the district of Reggio Emilia. The care and education of children whose parents were both working outside the home was of major parental concern, and so provided added impetus to the establishment of pre-schools which were run as cooperative ventures with heavy parental involvement. Indeed, the importance of parental involvement is a central element of the Reggio Emilia approach. Parents are accorded respect as the child’s initial teacher, and are involved in every...

Teacher Quality in Singapore

Teacher Quality in Singapore   Reference library

Sylvia Chong and Saravanan Gopinathan

Oxford Encyclopedia of Global Perspectives on Teacher Education

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2020
Subject:
Social sciences, Education
Length:
5,851 words
Illustration(s):
1

...the challenges of post-elementary schooling. A further strengthening of teacher preparation came with the transformation of the Teachers Training College (TTC) into the Institute of Education (IE), whose mission was to prepare both primary and secondary school teachers. IE’s establishment marked the beginning of a commitment to quality via “full time preparation, rigour and standardization” ( Chen & Koay, 2010 ). 1978–1997. The first challenge to such an ambitious education reform agenda was going to be the challenge of implementation. While the money was found...

The “Crisis” in Teacher Education

The “Crisis” in Teacher Education   Reference library

Michael Schapira

Oxford Encyclopedia of Global Perspectives on Teacher Education

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2020
Subject:
Social sciences, Education
Length:
7,464 words

...of “teaching to the test” and public funding is shifted from public schools to charter schools. Similar critiques of accountability have been enunciated in Great Britain, where “League Tables” have been produced following the 1988 Education Reform Act. Much like NCLB, the establishment of a common standard was meant to incentivize a minimal level of acceptable achievement and the publishing of school and teacher performance was meant to give parents a more informed basis on which to make educational decisions for their children. Yet the effects have been...

Teacher Education in New Zealand

Teacher Education in New Zealand   Reference library

Fiona Ell

Oxford Encyclopedia of Global Perspectives on Teacher Education

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2020
Subject:
Social sciences, Education
Length:
6,963 words

...the establishment of schools came a need for teachers, and the colonists borrowed methods from England and established a pupil-teacher system. In 1877 New Zealand’s first Education Act made the supply of teachers a national responsibility, rather than a local provincial responsibility. This began the establishment of training colleges for teachers in Dunedin ( 1876 ), Christchurch ( 1877 ), Wellington ( 1880 ), and Auckland ( 1881 ). Associated with this was the establishment of normal schools (in the primary sector), which preceded the establishment of the...

Teacher Education in Singapore

Teacher Education in Singapore   Reference library

Jason Loh and Guangwei Hu

Oxford Encyclopedia of Global Perspectives on Teacher Education

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2020
Subject:
Social sciences, Education
Length:
9,392 words

...in the establishment of the institute was announced. It was only on April 1, 1973 , that the IE was established to take over functions of the TTC, the former School of Education of the University of Singapore (NUS), and the Research Unit of the MOE. Even though NUS’s School of Education had a teacher education program, it had problems meeting its objectives: The student recruitment was low due to the high opportunity cost of studying full-time, unlike the counterparts at the TTC who were earning a stipend during training. As such, with the establishment of the...

Teacher Education and Lesson Study

Teacher Education and Lesson Study   Reference library

Peter Dudley

Oxford Encyclopedia of Global Perspectives on Teacher Education

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2020
Subject:
Social sciences, Education
Length:
7,597 words
Illustration(s):
1

...for developing and mobilizing progressive teaching practices, as a discipline for re-injecting subject discipline back into the curriculum, and (repeatedly and at different times) as a means to develop a “science” of teaching. Following World War II, this notion of a “science of teaching” led to the establishment for the first time of faculties of education in five Japanese universities, and has been taken up more recently on an international scale by a one-time student of Stenhouse, Professor John Elliott ( 2012 ) , and the World Association of Lesson...

Teacher Education in México

Teacher Education in México   Reference library

Edmund T. Hamann, Juan Sánchez García, and Yara Amparo López López

Oxford Encyclopedia of Global Perspectives on Teacher Education

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2020
Subject:
Social sciences, Education
Length:
9,724 words
Illustration(s):
2

...preparing the small governing class. The ideological foundation for Mexico’s War of Independence ( 1810–1820 ) was the Enlightenment, and the 1824 constitution, written after the war was finished, promised public education. However, only limited schooling was available, mainly in Mexico City, that reflected these promises and ideals in the decades after independence ( Berger, 1947 ). Schooling got more of a boost during Mexico’s reform period (which followed the disastrous war with the United States [ 1845–1848 ] and its related loss of territory). At...

Critical Realism for Ethnography

Critical Realism for Ethnography   Reference library

Grant Banfield

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Qualitative Research Methods in Education

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2020
Subject:
Social sciences, Education
Length:
7,954 words

...and opinions are not only appropriate content of social science but also open to critique. In this regard, the anti-naturalism of Hammersley’s “subtle realist” approach to ethnography is evident: For me, the ethnographer must neither be in the service of some political establishment or profession nor an organic intellectual seeking to further the interests of marginalised, exploited, or dominated groups. Both of these orientations greatly increase the danger of systematic bias. ( 2006 , p. 11) For Hammersley, the question of objectivity is important....

Ethnography Across Borders

Ethnography Across Borders   Reference library

Marta Sánchez

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Qualitative Research Methods in Education

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2020
Subject:
Social sciences, Education
Length:
10,921 words

...centers for final deportation. This constant zig-zagging movement of foreign nationals across distinct national regions and jails—the Eastern Seaboard, the Midwest, and so on—puts on display U.S. domination over its proverbial neighbor to the south and allows for the establishment and reinforcement of new borders ( Manos, 2016 ). Other migrants in the United States create political power within the host nation-state. Rivera-Salgado ( 2000 ) discusses the “transborder political activism” (p. 144) of Mixtec migrants in California. Originally from the...

Teacher Education in Germany

Teacher Education in Germany   Reference library

Ewald Terhart

Oxford Encyclopedia of Global Perspectives on Teacher Education

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2020
Subject:
Social sciences, Education
Length:
8,471 words

...observed and evaluated by different audiences. Meanwhile the earlier hopes to create a direct and stable relation between educational research on one hand, and educational politics and administration on the other, are slowly fading. Nevertheless, this gives new hope for the establishment of a realistic relation between the two, in which both sides are clearly conscious of the demarcation line between them, and the dangers of crossing that line. References Bauer, J. , & Prenzel, M. (2012). European teacher training reforms. Science , 336 , 1642–1643. Beck...

Educational Qualitative Research in Colombia

Educational Qualitative Research in Colombia   Reference library

Paula Andrea Echeverri-Sucerquia and Carlos Tobon

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Qualitative Research Methods in Education

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2020
Subject:
Social sciences, Education
Length:
9,906 words

...is done, but hardly any is publicly presented and discussed” (p. 454). After the 1990s, educational research was characterized by an emphasis on “what works,” resulting in the recurrence of mixed methods research. The emphasis on evidence-based research increased with the establishment of research policies inspired by neoliberal ideals, because they priviledged research that measured accountability. The natural result of this is, as Cannela argued, the “redeployment of public funds in ways that narrow scholarship, and the corporatization of knowledge...

Bourdieu and Education

Bourdieu and Education   Reference library

Michael Grenfell

Oxford Encyclopedia of Global Perspectives on Teacher Education

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2020
Subject:
Social sciences, Education
Length:
9,527 words

...“conviction,” and a certain “presence of mind” (p. 420). There is a methodological point to be made here about language in that any study of such a situation cannot be made simply in terms of a discourse analysis of the text of the exams but requires a methodological establishment of relations … between the space of discursive stances and the space of the positions held by the producers and recipients of the discourse … in the present case, in other words, the entire field of the grandes écoles and its relations to the field of power. (1996b, p. 420) Teacher...

Early Childhood Teacher Education in Global Perspective

Early Childhood Teacher Education in Global Perspective   Reference library

Olivia N. Saracho

Oxford Encyclopedia of Global Perspectives on Teacher Education

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2020
Subject:
Social sciences, Education
Length:
9,823 words

...most teacher education programs and child care centers in the United States depend completely on the National Association for the Education of Young Children guidelines ( NAEYC, 2012 ) to define “quality” care and education ( Tobin, 2005 ). Based on the intellectual establishment of majority-world standards, which are supported by Euro-Western theories of child development and developmentally appropriate practices, Akpovo et al. ( 2018 ) studied the concept of quality in early childhood education and care during two international field experiences...

Teacher Education and Refugee Students

Teacher Education and Refugee Students   Reference library

Kevin Roxas and Ramona Fruja

Oxford Encyclopedia of Global Perspectives on Teacher Education

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2020
Subject:
Social sciences, Education
Length:
11,615 words

...an independent field of scholarly research. Although research efforts in refugee studies have grown, in particular over the last three decades, there is also important work that dates back to studies on the displacement caused by the two World Wars, therefore prior to the emergence of the field itself or the establishment of associated centers and institutions ( Black, 2001 ). In the education literature, the adaptation of refugee students and its implication for theory and practice emerged only later, starting at first with the role of migration in the...

Listening to Students in Schools

Listening to Students in Schools   Reference library

Marilene Proença Rebello de Souza and Silvia Helena Vieira Cruz

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Qualitative Research Methods in Education

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2020
Subject:
Social sciences, Education
Length:
9,533 words

...relations, gender and disability issues, public policies to decrease the disparate rates between the child’s age and school year, family income and schooling improvement policies, children’s and adolescents’ participation in school management, child protagonism, and the establishment of a culture of peace at school, among other subjects central to the fields of psychology and education ( Caldas & Souza, 2014 ). It is important to consider the research carried out with children entering the first grades of elementary school. When they are invited to...

Spiritual Development and the Preparation of Teachers

Spiritual Development and the Preparation of Teachers   Reference library

Sunil Behari Mohanty

Oxford Encyclopedia of Global Perspectives on Teacher Education

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2020
Subject:
Social sciences, Education
Length:
11,988 words

...Texas, has published many research studies and other works highlighting the role of spiritual development for sustainable development. The Bahá’í International Community ( 2001 ) stated that “unless and until spiritual issues become central to the development process, the establishment of a sustainable global civilization will prove impossible.” Universal Religion and Spirituality Since the 19th century , efforts have been made to strive for a universal religion, a general form of spirituality. At the Parliament of Religions, convened in September 1893 in...

Biographical Approaches in Education in Germany

Biographical Approaches in Education in Germany   Reference library

Bettina Dausien and Peter Alheit

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Qualitative Research Methods in Education

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2020
Subject:
Social sciences, Education
Length:
12,591 words

...fundamentally restructured, and as a consequence of which problems of individualization and integration came to the fore. This interrelationship between biographical research and the development of society is briefly elucidated later in this article. In a first approach, the establishment of biographical research in educational and social science can be interpreted as a reaction to social modernization processes that are characterized by the increasing experience of the contingency with which individual lives are led, accompanied simultaneously by an increasing...

Participatory Action Research in Education

Participatory Action Research in Education   Reference library

Anne Galletta and María Elena Torre

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Qualitative Research Methods in Education

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2020
Subject:
Social sciences, Education
Length:
12,668 words

...students out of district schools and into charter schools as a result of provisions of No Child Left Behind, as one of several consequences for districts with underperforming schools. Also, federal funds flowed to states through legislation specifically supporting the establishment of charter schools. Schools faced closure, followed by the opening up of educational facilities once publicly owned to privatized entities through charter school start-ups and new theme-based district schools in partnership with industry and nonprofit organizations. These...

Reggio Emilia

Reggio Emilia  

Reference type:
Overview Page
An approach to the education of young children in the pre‐school and primary phase which is based on the belief that children's learning should be unconstrained by formal curriculum planning, but ...

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