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war establishment

The level of equipment and manning laid down for a military unit in wartime.

William Paterson

William Paterson  

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Overview Page
(1658–1719).Founder of the Bank of England. Paterson was born in Dumfries but brought up in England. He made a rapid fortune in trade in America and the Low Countries. A supporter of the Glorious ...
Clifford Hugh Douglas

Clifford Hugh Douglas  

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(1879–1952)British engineer and economist. Before and during World War I he developed his theory of social credit, arguing that in every productive establishment the total cash issued in wages, ...
Robinson, Abraham

Robinson, Abraham (1918–74)   Reference library

The Biographical Dictionary of American Economists

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2010
Subject:
Social sciences, Economics
Length:
379 words

...where he changed the spelling of his last name and joined the Free French Air Force. In 1941 his mathematical ability was put to use when he was appointed as a Scientific Officer in the Royal Air Force Establishment at Farnborough. He spent the rest of the war working on aerodynamics, and in this capacity was sent to Germany in 1945 . At the end of the war Robinson took up a post as a senior lecturer at the College of Aeronautics at Cranfield, England, and in the same year was awarded a master's degree from the Hebrew University. He then undertook doctoral...

Milnes, Alfred

Milnes, Alfred (1849–1921)   Reference library

The Biographical Dictionary of British Economists

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2010
Subject:
Social sciences, Economics
Length:
540 words

...the war years. Milnes then proceeds through a series of lectures outlining the basic theory of international trade and foreign exchange. He is strongly in favour of free trade, acknowledging his debt here to Adam smith , and firmly rebuts arguments in favour of protectionism. He calls for the establishment of an international body to ensure free trade, and sees a strong economic role for the proposed League of Nations. On the future of industrial policy in Britain, Milnes believes that trades unions restrict production, and that the restoration of pre-war...

Baring, Francis

Baring, Francis (1740–1740)   Reference library

The Biographical Dictionary of British Economists

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2010
Subject:
Social sciences, Economics
Length:
896 words

...although he was rather more hazy about the impact on foreign exchanges. A promising debate between the two men was cut Short when Boyd was detained in France following the renewed outbreak of war in 1802 . BIBLIOGRAPHY Observations on the Establishment of the Bank of England, and on the Paper Circulation of the Country (1797). Further Observations on the Establishment of the Bank of England, and on the Paper Circulation of the Country (1797). Observations on the Publication of Walter Boyd, Esq, M.P. (1801). Further Reading Ziegler, P. The Sixth Great...

Allen, Ruth Alice

Allen, Ruth Alice (1889–1979)   Reference library

The Biographical Dictionary of American Economists

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2010
Subject:
Social sciences, Economics
Length:
357 words

...economics department. Allen's focus and progressive views would bring her to criticize the Texan economic order and the political establishment that bolstered it. The Texas model represented the epitome of what would later constitute ‘trickle-down economics.’ Allen also worked for the United States government. During the New Deal years ( 1934–5 ) she served as a district manager of the Bureau of Labor Statistics and served on the War Labor Board, where her expertise on women's issues was consulted. Allen retired from the University of Texas in 1959 at age 70...

Liebknechts, the

Liebknechts, the   Reference library

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Economic History

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Subject Reference
Current Version:
2005
Subject:
Social sciences, Economics
Length:
647 words
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1

...from East Prussia into tsarist Russia, resulted in the charges being dropped. He played a principal role in the establishment of the International Union of Socialist Youth Organizations in Stuttgart. His campaign against militarism led to his eighteen-month imprisonment for treason after the publication of his book Militarismus in 1907 . While in prison, he won a seat in the Prussian Landtag and entered the Reichstag in 1912 . During World War I, Karl Liebknecht became a leading figure in the antiwar campaign, which brought him into closer contact with ...

Trotsky, Leon

Trotsky, Leon   Reference library

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Economic History

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2005
Subject:
Social sciences, Economics
Length:
596 words
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1

...socialism could not be built in Russia without technical aid from the more advanced West. It was Trotsky's hope that this aid would be provided by sympathetic socialist regimes. Viewing the outbreak of the World War I as a revolt of the productive forces against the narrow confines of state frontiers, Trotsky became interested in the establishment of socialist transnational state structures, mainly a “United States of Europe” and a “Federative Balkan Republic,” that could better manage economic progress. By guaranteeing ethnic and cultural rights, Trotsky ...

Spengler, Joseph J.

Spengler, Joseph J. (1902–91)   Reference library

The Biographical Dictionary of American Economists

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2010
Subject:
Social sciences, Economics
Length:
471 words

...of Arts and Sciences, the American Statistical Association and the American Philosophical Association; the latter awarded him the John F. Lewis Award. He was a founding fellow of the History of Economics Society and served as its president. He was also instrumental in the establishment of the journal History of Political Economy . The History of Economics Society granted him its Distinguished Fellow Award in 1981 . He was awarded honorary doctorates from Alam College and Tulane University. Spengler is best known for his works in historical demography and...

Hong Kong

Hong Kong   Reference library

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Economic History

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2005
Subject:
Social sciences, Economics
Length:
1,505 words
Illustration(s):
1

...Kong's economy suffered greatly from World War I. Although its postwar recovery was rapid, reaching a peak in the late 1920s, the entrepôt trade declined again with the Great Depression, starting in 1929 , and Japan's invasion of China in 1937 aggravated the decline. Owing to war and social instability in China, Hong Kong's population continued to rise, from 300,000 in 1898 to over 800,000 in 1931 . The Japanese invasion of China led to a doubling of the population to 1.6 million on the eve of the 1941 war in the Pacific. Hong Kong's industries...

Economies of Scale

Economies of Scale   Reference library

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Economic History

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2005
Subject:
Social sciences, Economics
Length:
1,294 words

...any ordinary establishment's U-shaped cost curve exhibits some range of increasing returns, changes in their extent and the forces underlying such changes have been of considerable historical import. Both these factors were at work in the transformation of nineteenth-century American manufacturing. Before the Civil War, efficiency gains from specialization in transitions from small artisanal shops to nonmechanized factories were significant but relatively modest. However, the last half of the century, in particular the years after the War, witnessed much...

Hungary

Hungary   Reference library

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Economic History

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2005
Subject:
Social sciences, Economics
Length:
1,842 words
Illustration(s):
1

...was a rearmament program, announced at Györ in 1938 , clearly helping heavy industry as part of a revision of borders and war preparations. The industrial and infrastructural capacities built up during World War II, in spite of serious losses. The burdens of the $300 million war compensation contributed to the concentration of investments into branches of heavy industry. In consequence of Soviet occupation, the establishment of a planned economy and nationalization of capital goods ( 1946–1950 ) emerged in parallel as a basis for “socialist...

Murray, Robert

Murray, Robert (1635–1725)   Reference library

The Biographical Dictionary of British Economists

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2010
Subject:
Social sciences, Economics
Length:
583 words

...England. In 1720 , aged eighty-five, he became paymaster of the lottery, a post he held until 1724 , possibly resigning on grounds of ill-health. Murray wrote a number of pamphlets and Short works on banking and credit, taxation and the woollen cloth industry. He urged the establishment of a national bank and a system of credit in order to stimulate trade and economic activity such as cloth manufacturing. He believed that money itself had no intrinsic value, ‘money being no more than a deposite for such commodities as men part withal’ ( 1676 : 1) and that...

Electronics Industry

Electronics Industry   Reference library

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Economic History

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2005
Subject:
Social sciences, Economics
Length:
1,893 words

...to and outbreak of World War II. If World War I was the first fully mechanized war, World War II was the first electronic war. Radar, mobile communications, command and control systems, the proximity fuze, and early electronic computers all aided the Allied victory. The radar project, run through MIT's Radiation Laboratory, in particular influenced the nature and structure of the post-war electronics industry. The efforts of a wide array of commercial firms, university laboratories, and government research establishments accelerated both practical and...

Eden, William

Eden, William (1744–1814)   Reference library

The Biographical Dictionary of British Economists

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2010
Subject:
Social sciences, Economics
Length:
559 words

...After France’s intervention in the war in 1778 , Eden went to America in an attempt to negotiate a peace settlement, returning without success in 1779 . He became chief secretary of Ireland in 1780 , and was elected as MP for Dungannon. He consulted Adam smith about free trade with Ireland; his major successes were the introduction of freer trade and the establishment of the National Bank of Ireland. In 1783 Eden and Smith discussed proposals for the regulation of trade with America following the end of the War of Independence. Eden moved in and out...

Temple, William

Temple, William (1881–1944)   Reference library

The Biographical Dictionary of British Economists

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2010
Subject:
Social sciences, Economics
Length:
709 words

...the same time he was a figure on the national and world stage, promotion church union and playing a central role in the establishment of the World Council of Churches in 1940 . His Short tenure as Archbishop of Canterbury during the Second World War saw him active not only in dealing with the immediate and urgent problems of the war itself, but looking forward to envision the post-war world. He favoured a negotiated end to the Second World War rather than unconditional surrender of the Axis powers. Temple wrote widely on matters of philosophy and theology. Of...

Balogh, Thomas

Balogh, Thomas (1905–85)   Reference library

The Biographical Dictionary of British Economists

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2010
Subject:
Social sciences, Economics
Length:
1,488 words

...the scourge of the establishment, would have regarded the latter as highly ironic. Yet, if we add to this the Power of his insights and the flamboyancy (his enemies would say the impossibility) of his character, the verdict is not unfair. BIBLIOGRAPHY ‘ The Import of Gold into France ’, Economic Journal (1930), September. Studies in Financial Organisation ( Cambridge , 1947 ) . The Dollar Crisis: Causes and Cure; a Report to the Fabian Society (Oxford, 1949). ‘The Apotheosis of the Dilettante’ in H. Thomas (ed.), The Establishment (1959). Unequal...

Curtis, Clifford Austin

Curtis, Clifford Austin (1899–1981)   Reference library

The Biographical Dictionary of American Economists

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2010
Subject:
Social sciences, Economics
Length:
799 words

...in 1968 . On his death, seventeen meters of his papers were deposited in the Queen's University archives. There were two phases in Curtis's contribution to economics and public policy in Canada. Until the founding of the Bank of Canada in 1935 , his main interest was the establishment of that institution. From the time of the Royal Commission on Dominion Provincial Relations ( 1937–9 ), his principal concern was the position of municipalities in the federal fiscal system. Curtis's position on Canadian monetary policy was conservative, and it was that...

Paris

Paris   Reference library

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Economic History

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2005
Subject:
Social sciences, Economics
Length:
1,465 words
Illustration(s):
1

...century, but the vast majority of Parisian workers worked from home or in small workshops. The typical industrial establishment of the nineteenth century employed between one hundred and five hundred workers. The gigantic factories such as those—now closed down—built by the automobile industry in west Paris date from the twentieth century. But the dominant model has remained that of a medium-sized business operating a human-scale establishment in a highly skilled sector. Bibliography Beaujeu-Garnier, Jacqueline . Nouvelle histoire de Paris: Paris, hasard ou...

Yarranton, Andrew

Yarranton, Andrew (1616–85)   Reference library

The Biographical Dictionary of British Economists

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2010
Subject:
Social sciences, Economics
Length:
1,157 words

...the disastrous – for England – war of 1664–7 . The best way to beat the Dutch, Yarranton reasoned, was not through military confrontation but by besting them commercially; indeed, the first chapter of the books is entitled, ‘The true way to beat the Dutch at sea without Fighting’. From his observations, he attributes the strength of Dutch commerce to several factors. These include government investment in canals and inland navigation, to facilitate commerce between the ports and the hinterland, the establishment of a public bank, and a well-regulated...

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