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war establishment

The level of equipment and manning laid down for a military unit in wartime.

Goodrich, Benjamin Franklin

Goodrich, Benjamin Franklin (1841–88)   Reference library

The Encyclopedia of the History of American Management

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2010
Subject:
Social sciences, Business and Management
Length:
589 words

... the firm became the B.F. Goodrich Company.) Akron proved to be a good location, with canal and rail connections to raw material supplies and, in particular, the markets of growing Midwestern industries. Eventually other entrepreneurs invested in Akron rubber manufacturing establishments, and the city became known as the world's rubber capital. As an entrepreneur, Goodrich established a diversified strategy, one that continued to characterize his firm long after his death. The firm's principal products were fire hoses and machinery belts, but it also...

Bennett, James Gordon

Bennett, James Gordon (1795–1872)   Reference library

The Encyclopedia of the History of American Management

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2010
Subject:
Social sciences, Business and Management
Length:
756 words

...see the news, and more particularly newspapers, as a commodity that could be sold like any other. The Herald formula had two ingredients. First, Bennett aimed to print news of events, rather than opinions of political elites, and his paper was therefore independent of the establishment of the day. Second, he printed the news that he thought ordinary people wanted to read: ‘sin, science, and sensation’ (Huntzicker 1999 : 15). In 1836 , the paper closely followed the police investigation into the murder of a prostitute, reporting the entire affair in graphic...

Gay, Edwin Francis

Gay, Edwin Francis (1867–1946)   Reference library

The Encyclopedia of the History of American Management

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2010
Subject:
Social sciences, Business and Management
Length:
1,548 words

...talents marked him out as a rising star, and he was made professor and chairman of the department of economics in 1906 . When Harvard's president, Charles Eliot, began developing his plan for a business school, Gay was one of his key advisers in the run-up to the school's establishment in 1908 . Eliot's first choice for dean of the new school was William Lyon Mackenzie King, formerly an instructor in economics at Harvard and now deputy minister of labour in the Canadian government. King turned the post down (he went on to become Canada's longest serving...

Churchman, C. West

Churchman, C. West (1913)   Reference library

The Encyclopedia of the History of American Management

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2010
Subject:
Social sciences, Business and Management
Length:
969 words

...systems thinking, developed at the University of Hull in the 1980s. Churchman is a philosopher who strove to apply philosophy, and science generally, to the betterment of humankind, in the field of management. He is renowned for his contribution to systems thinking, the establishment of OR and his contribution to the debate on the ethics of science. He also made contributions to research methodology, logic, modelling complex problems, and the world problematique of futures studies. He was an all-round thinker and an excellent writer with a knack for...

Vanderbilt, William Henry

Vanderbilt, William Henry (1821–85)   Reference library

The Encyclopedia of the History of American Management

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2010
Subject:
Social sciences, Business and Management
Length:
1,283 words

...virtues and fewer of his vices. He made his farm the most successful on Staten Island, and raised four children from his wife, Maria Louisa Kissam . He was relatively honest and fair in his dealings with others, and more sociable than his father, whom the New York business establishment considered quite ill-mannered. Vanderbilt became involved in railways slowly, from about 1864 on. He acquired the bankrupt Staten Island railroad, and turned it into a profit-making operation. He managed the line so meticulously and carefully that even his father was...

Gulick, Luther Halsey, III

Gulick, Luther Halsey, III (1892–1993)   Reference library

The Encyclopedia of the History of American Management

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2010
Subject:
Social sciences, Business and Management
Length:
3,086 words

...was named Eaton Professor of Municipal Science and Administration at Columbia University, a post which he held until 1942 . He was a prime mover in the establishment of the Public Administration Clearinghouse. He was invited to serve on the Brownlow Committee, chaired by Louis F. Brownlow and charged by President Franklin D. Roosevelt with reorganizing the office of the president. After the Second World War he was active in further national and international work, including consultations with the city of Calcutta on developing a new water supply, and with...

Means, Gardiner Coit

Means, Gardiner Coit (1896–1988)   Reference library

The Encyclopedia of the History of American Management

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2010
Subject:
Social sciences, Business and Management
Length:
2,285 words

...to the size of the business enterprise contributed to the growing disenchantment with big business by Congress and the public, which eventually lead in 1938 to the establishment of the Temporary National Economic Committee and to a renewed antitrust campaign headed by Thuman Arnold . Finally, his work on administered prices and administrative inflation contributed to the establishment of the Hearings on Administered Prices and Economic Concentration before the Senate Subcommittee on Anti-trust and Monopoly ( 1957–69 ) for the purpose of developing...

Emerson, Harrington

Emerson, Harrington (1853–1931)   Reference library

The Encyclopedia of the History of American Management

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2010
Subject:
Social sciences, Business and Management
Length:
3,899 words

...effectively and were defeated. Moltke's great achievement, Emerson concludes ( 1913 : 14–18), was to make rapid, decisive and relatively bloodless wars possible; long, bloody and inefficient conflicts such as the American Civil War were now a thing of the past. There is irony here, in that Emerson was writing on the eve of one of the most bloody and inefficient conflicts of all time, the First World War – a conflict, moreover, in which most of the combatants had adopted the line and staff principle. With hindsight, the weakness in Emerson's proposition...

Barnard, Chester Irving

Barnard, Chester Irving (1886–1961)   Reference library

The Encyclopedia of the History of American Management

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2010
Subject:
Social sciences, Business and Management
Length:
1,725 words

...involved in cooperative activity so as to maintain dual equilibrium, and thus the organizational system as a whole, is the function of the executive. The work of the executive relates to the elements of the organization in its content, and is comprised of the following: (1) establishment and maintenance of a communication system; (2) promotion of incentives to all organizational members so that they work to achieve cooperation; and (3) the development and articulation of the organziation's common purpose. Within the organization, a variety of desires,...

Coase, Ronald

Coase, Ronald (1910)   Reference library

The Encyclopedia of the History of American Management

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2010
Subject:
Social sciences, Business and Management
Length:
2,162 words

...long neglected issues of economic organization came once more to the fore. The collapse of the planned economies of Eastern Europe; the growth of multinational enterprise and the rise of globalization; the privatization of industries in the mixed economies of the West; the establishment of new regulatory agencies at both national and international levels; the advance of new technologies especially in the field of electronic communications: all this upsurge of organizational experiment and change reflected the urgency of the basic question at the heart of...

Chandler, Alfred Dupont, Jr

Chandler, Alfred Dupont, Jr (1918)   Reference library

The Encyclopedia of the History of American Management

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2010
Subject:
Social sciences, Business and Management
Length:
2,824 words

...and between national business cultures. In Strategy and Structure , Chandler observes the growth of the large diversified corporation in the United States. He particularly notes the appearance of the multidivisional form (M-form), in which diversification proceeds by the establishment of a number of semi-independent operating divisions, focused either geographically or on a particular group of products, the whole being subject to the managerial oversight of corporate headquarters. The net effect is the partial devolution of power and control from...

McClelland, David C.

McClelland, David C. (1917–98)   Reference library

The Encyclopedia of the History of American Management

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2010
Subject:
Social sciences, Business and Management
Length:
2,200 words

...related to management. One was the creation of a theory of human motives and enlightening empirical base, most notably addressing the Needs for Achievement, Affiliation, Power and the Leadership Motive Profile. A second theme was the definition of motivational change, establishment of empirical support for this theory and the inspiring application projects at the individual, organizational, community and national levels in every continent except Antarctica. A third theme was the development of tests and operant methods, such as the Thematic Apperception...

Taylor, Frederick Winslow

Taylor, Frederick Winslow (1856–1915)   Reference library

The Encyclopedia of the History of American Management

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2010
Subject:
Social sciences, Business and Management
Length:
3,687 words

...is finished in the shortest time possible and in perfect condition, and a low price, if it takes a longer time to do the job, or if there are any imperfections in the work. (The high rate should be such that the workman can earn more per day than is usually paid in similar establishments.) This is directly the opposite of the ordinary plan of piece-work, in which the wages of the workmen are reduced when they increase their productivity. ( Taylor 1895: 35) The differential rate plan would, Taylor believed, improve productivity by giving workers an incentive...

Military–Industrial Complex

Military–Industrial Complex   Reference library

Michael Perelman

The Oxford Encyclopedia of American Business, Labor, and Economic History

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2013

...and defense establishment. This early manifestation of a military–industrial complex created considerable public unease when in the 1920s the Special Committee on Investigation of the Munitions Industry, led by the North Dakota Republican senator Gerald P. Nye, revealed how weapons manufacturers and their military allies had influenced the United States’ decision to enter World War I. Nevertheless, the power and influence of the complex only grew as industry and the military won plaudits for their part in winning victory for the Allies in World War II. Eisenhower's...

World Federation of Trade Unions

World Federation of Trade Unions   Reference library

Victor G. Devinatz

The Oxford Encyclopedia of American Business, Labor, and Economic History

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2013

...Federation of Trade Unions The establishment of the World Federation of Trade Unions (WFTU) in 1945 , according to Victor Silverman ( 2000 , p. 13), “marked a high point of the world working class movement.” With Socialists and Communists united in struggle and having defeated fascism in World War II, the world labor movement was unified for the first time in more than twenty years. Amid the rebuilding of the industrial economies destroyed during the war, hope remained high that international labor unity could be maintained and that the world could be...

Forests and Forestry

Forests and Forestry   Reference library

Michael Williams

The Oxford Encyclopedia of American Business, Labor, and Economic History

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2013

...legislatures to recognize the importance of timber cultivation and forest preservation. The resulting Report on Forestry ( 1884 ), funded by Congress and compiled by Franklin B. Hough and Nathaniel H. Egleston, became the foundational document of American forestry. The establishment of the American Forestry Association in 1878 and of the Division of Forestry in the Department of Agriculture further signaled forestry's growing role. Hough, Egleston, and then Bernhard Fernow, a German-born forester, became the first chiefs of the division. Fernow was...

Salt of the Earth

Salt of the Earth   Reference library

Scott Henkel

The Oxford Encyclopedia of American Business, Labor, and Economic History

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2013

...of the Earth Salt of the Earth is a 1954 film directed by Herbert Biberman, one of the so-called Hollywood Ten, workers in the entertainment business who were blacklisted by the Hollywood establishment because of their alleged connections to Communists. The film depicts what was an actual New Mexico miners’ strike in 1950–1952 in which the spouses and sisters of the mostly Mexican American union miners replaced the men on the picket line after a Taft–Hartley Act injunction barred union members from picketing. The women's persistence and willingness to...

Meatpacking and Meat-Processing Industry

Meatpacking and Meat-Processing Industry   Reference library

Paul Street

The Oxford Encyclopedia of American Business, Labor, and Economic History

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2013

...outlets, deployed armies of salespeople, developed and marketed broad ranges of animal by-products, and subdivided a mostly unskilled labor force in massive, multispecies packing establishments. Collectively keeping labor costs low and pricing their goods on the basis of average costs rather than supply and demand, they dominated the industry through the 1940s. After World War II, the advantage shifted to three upstart firms—ConAgra, Excel, and especially Iowa Beef Processors—that challenged the older rail- and river-connected packing centers and by 1989 ...

United Auto Workers

United Auto Workers   Reference library

Charles Williams

The Oxford Encyclopedia of American Business, Labor, and Economic History

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2013
Subject:
Social sciences, Business and Management, Economics
Length:
1,296 words

...the outbreak of World War II, the UAW suffered from internal splits and company resistance, losing members and power. As the nation prepared for war in 1940 and 1941 , the economy expanded and unemployment fell, offering the UAW new opportunities for growth. In 1941 , with the assistance of the National Labor Relations Board, the union secured a contract with Ford, the last of the Big Three automobile companies to resist unionization; not only did Ford recognize the UAW, but it was the first company to grant a union shop. World War II brought further union...

Bank of the United States, First and Second

Bank of the United States, First and Second   Reference library

Diane Lindstrom

The Oxford Encyclopedia of American Business, Labor, and Economic History

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2013

...transcended politics; they were wary of the bank's inordinate power over state and local economic development. The Second Bank of the United States was created by Congress in 1816 on much the same terms that had governed the first, although the law authorizing its establishment raised its capitalization to $35 million and required the BUS to pay a bonus of $1.5 million to the federal government. After a rocky start, the Second BUS met the needs of the government and its stockholders while promoting the nation's economic development. Nicholas Biddle...

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