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war establishment

The level of equipment and manning laid down for a military unit in wartime.

Emerging and Re-emerging Diseases

Emerging and Re-emerging Diseases   Reference library

Encyclopedia of Evolution

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2005

...husbandry may therefore significantly influence, and even possibly accelerate, the evolution of influenza. Once introduced, the success of the pathogen in a new population depends on its establishment and dissemination within the population. Many zoonotic introductions are highly virulent and not readily transmissible from person to person, preventing their establishment. Both the evolutionary potential of the pathogen and chance will play a role in whether the infection will be able to establish itself. An analytic framework was developed by Anderson and...

Eugenics

Eugenics   Reference library

Encyclopedia of Evolution

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2005

...and left. Morgan, T. H. Evolution and Genetics . Princeton, 1925. Müller-Hill, B. Murderous Science: Elimination by Scientific Selection of Jews, Gypsies, and Others, Germany 1933–1945 . Translated by G. R. Fraser . Oxford, 1988. A study of how the German scientific establishment became an integral part of the racial and eugenic policies of the Nazi government. Paul, D. B. Controlling Human Heredity: 1865 to the Present . Amherst, N.Y., 1995. A brief history of eugenics, emphasizing its wide support among geneticists of the first half of the...

Cooperation

Cooperation   Reference library

Encyclopedia of Evolution

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2005

...corresponding evolutionary chronicles show that there is a distinct trend toward the emergence of a population that cooperates almost always. If 2 P < T + S (in particular, if the benefit, b , is more than twice the cost, c ), then the computer runs end often with the establishment of the Pavlov strategy. This strategy prescribes to cooperate in the first round, and from then on to cooperate if and only if the other player, in the previous round, has chosen the same move as oneself. Pavlov embodies a win-stay, lose-shift rule, and hence a rudimentary...

Genomic Imprinting

Genomic Imprinting   Reference library

Encyclopedia of Evolution

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2005
Subject:
Science and technology, Life Sciences, Social sciences, Anthropology
Length:
3,273 words
Illustration(s):
4

...This allows the pattern of methylation to be perpetuated through cell division. A = adenine. C = cytosine. G = guanine. T = thymine.Courtesy of Andrew Pomiankowski. Imprinting is reset in the germ line of both sexes. Genome-wide demethylation occurs soon after embryonic establishment of the germ line. This removes the preexisting maternal or paternal marks. As the germ cells start to differentiate into sperm and eggs, a process of de novo methylation begins. Unfortunately, little is known about the enzymes involved, how sites are identified for...

Disease

Disease   Reference library

Encyclopedia of Evolution

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2005
Subject:
Science and technology, Life Sciences, Social sciences, Anthropology
Length:
9,315 words
Illustration(s):
1

...differentiated regions were linked by efficient (and therefore cheap) seaborne transportation. Roman imperialism and the expansion of trade networks effectively unified the Mediterranean world, including much of the Middle East and portions of Europe north of the Alps. The establishment of regular caravan trade along the overland Silk Road and corresponding sea routes, which linked these three host pools, was facilitated by the growth of these stable large-scale political entities. Small, densely settled political entities quickly arose along the way. New...

Biogeography

Biogeography   Reference library

Encyclopedia of Evolution

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2005
Subject:
Science and technology, Life Sciences, Social sciences, Anthropology
Length:
7,655 words
Illustration(s):
2

...in the source population and it subsequently likely receives no further infusion. This creates a bias in the genetic base of the island population, on which other evolutionary processes then operate. Genetic variability can be increased by mutation and resorting after establishment. One form of change thought important under sustained conditions of low population size (and thus in the evolution of some island lineages) is genetic drift, the chance alteration of allele frequencies from one generation to the next. In addition to such nonselective drift,...

Antibiotic Resistance

Antibiotic Resistance   Reference library

Encyclopedia of Evolution

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2005
Subject:
Science and technology, Life Sciences, Social sciences, Anthropology
Length:
8,300 words
Illustration(s):
1

...observed following interventions to curtail antibiotic use, pathogen transmission, or both. Such declines, due to dilution effects, can occur even in the absence of a fitness cost of resistance. Dilution of resistance by susceptible bacteria is comparable to the deliberate establishment of pesticide-free “refugia” in an effort to control pesticide resistance. Similar effects for antibiotic resistance may be present in other semiclosed populations with high levels of transmission and antibiotic use, such as day care centers and nursing homes. Evaluation of...

Development

Development   Reference library

Encyclopedia of Evolution

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2005
Subject:
Science and technology, Life Sciences, Social sciences, Anthropology
Length:
11,771 words
Illustration(s):
2

...by which a signal from one tissue, called the inducer, brings about a change in the responding tissue that would not have occurred in the absence of the inductive signal. Inductive interactions are fundamental to the formation of most organs in the body.) Shortly after its establishment, the neural plate undergoes a longitudinal folding into a cylindrical structure, called the neural tube. This process is called neurulation, and the embryo at this stage is often referred to as a neurula. As the neural tube is forming, two other events occur that are critical...

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