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war establishment

The level of equipment and manning laid down for a military unit in wartime.

Pan-Turkism

Pan-Turkism   Reference library

The Oxford Encyclopedia of the Islamic World

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2009

...of the Balkan Wars ( 1912–1913 ) and the First World War ( 1914–1918 ). At certain times, it became official ideology and gained the patronage of the CUP (Committee of Union and Progress). The sudden rise (following the Bolshevik Revolution) and collapse (after the Armistice of Mudros and the establishment of the Sovyet Sosyalist Cumhuriyetler Birliği [SSCB]) of Turanism deeply disappointed the Turanists. Although both factions of Pan-Turkists had supported and played major roles during the War of Independence ( 1919–1922 ) and the establishment of the Republic...

Volga Tatars

Volga Tatars   Reference library

The Oxford Encyclopedia of the Islamic World

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2009

...communal religious rights in 1788 with the establishment of a centralized müftī administration in the city of Ufa. This resulted in substantial Islamic intellectual development, particularly in the areas of Sufism, Islamic law, and historiography. This period also saw intensive scholarly, Ṣūfī, and commercial interaction with Central Asia, especially Bukhara. At that time Islamic institutions such as mosques, madrasahs , and Ṣūfī lodges ( khānqāh ) flourished in Russia. Following the establishment of the Soviet Union in 1917 , the Soviet...

Namangani, Juma

Namangani, Juma   Reference library

The Oxford Encyclopedia of the Islamic World

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2009

...the waning years of the Soviet era, independent Islamic associations emerged to challenge the official Islam and its pro-Soviet leadership. Namangan became a major center of the newfound Islamic militancy in Uzbekistan. Saudi Arabia was particularly influential in funding the establishment of new mosques and Islamic schools, or madrasah s, all of which had strong Wahhābī/Salafī ties. The Uzbek Islamists were particularly bold in confronting officials of the decaying communist system and demanding that land be granted to them for the construction of new mosques...

Baghdad

Baghdad   Reference library

The Oxford Encyclopedia of the Islamic World

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2009
Subject:
Religion, Social sciences, Regional and Area Studies
Length:
1,520 words
Illustration(s):
2

...With the establishment of the independent state of Iraq ( 1932 ), Baghdad was once again made capital, first as seat to a new monarchy and then, following the military coup in 1958 , a republic. Iraqi authorities experimented with various forms of government, including military and dictatorial. Oil wealth brought prosperity and growth to Baghdad starting in the 1970s, and the city revived its role as a literary, artistic, educational, and intellectual capital of the Middle East. The Iran-Iraq ( 1980–1988 ) and Persian Gulf ( 1990–1991 ) wars, however,...

Muḥammad V of Morocco

Muḥammad V of Morocco   Reference library

The Oxford Encyclopedia of the Islamic World

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Subject Reference
Current Version:
2009

...Franco's Spanish zone to condemn the French, thank the Americans, and promote Morocco's role in the Arab world. After the war, Resident-General Alphonse Juin ( 1947–1951 ) rallied the Berber reactionary T’hami El Glaoui and the intellectual Abdalhay al-Kattani to depose the sultan. Juin threatened Muḥammad with exile, but in a speech given on November 18, 1951, Muḥammad V asked for full public and private liberties and the establishment of a Moroccan government. French President Vincent Auriol and Foreign Minister Robert Schumann received these ideas...

Association of Baptists, Bangladesh

Association of Baptists, Bangladesh   Reference library

Lynn Sylvernale

The Oxford Encyclopaedia of South Asian Christianity

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2012

...to provide leadership for the churches, and it now has two branches in Malumghat and Chittagong. The Association of Baptists provides relief to the people of Bangladesh during times of disaster. After the war for independence in 1971 , relief work by the AOB included food distribution in both Chittagong and at Malumghat Hospital, and the establishment of Heart House, a handicrafts project to train women in a skill in order to be able to support themselves, whose products are sold throughout Bangladesh and around the world. The Association of Baptists also...

Rightly Guided Caliphs

Rightly Guided Caliphs   Reference library

The Oxford Encyclopedia of the Islamic World

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2009

...caliphate, was a golden age when the caliphs were consciously guided by the practice of the Prophet. This period saw the establishment of Arab Muslim rule over the heartlands of the Middle East. By about 650 Syria, Iraq, Egypt, and western Iran were under Arab control, and the way was prepared for the expansion of the next century or so. The conquests outside Arabia followed the unification of Arabia under Islam by the Riddah (Apostasy) wars during the caliphate of Abū Bakr . For the internal history of the nascent Muslim state during the period of the Rightly...

Catholic Church in Northeast India

Catholic Church in Northeast India   Reference library

George Maliekal

The Oxford Encyclopaedia of South Asian Christianity

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2012
Subject:
Religion, Social sciences, Regional and Area Studies
Length:
1,011 words

...Diocese of Shillong and nominated Mgr Louis Mathias as its first bishop. Missionary work in the region suffered greatly during the period of World War II. After the war, the evangelization work spread among other tribes including the Garos, adivasis, Karbis, Tiwas, Bodos, Assamese, and various groups of people in Nagaland, Manipur * , Tripura * , Arunachal Pradesh * , and Mizoram * . During the post-war period, the number of new mission centres, schools, hostels, and health centres grew rapidly. Like elsewhere, in the northeast too, the Church has made...

Church of Scotland Mission (Punjab)

Church of Scotland Mission (Punjab)   Reference library

Paul Christopher James Burgess

The Oxford Encyclopaedia of South Asian Christianity

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Subject Reference
Current Version:
2012

...individual converts from the educated upper-classes, growth was slow. It was only after the Mission had reluctantly abandoned the ‘mission compound’ approach and realized the strategic value of a ministry to the responsive ‘outcastes’ that rapid progress took place in the establishment of ministry. In this, they lagged behind their United Presbyterian Mission (UP) colleagues, who by 1885 , had baptized 2,000 people, most of whom were outcastes, while the Scots Mission could claim only 170 baptized Christians and ten Indian catechists. However, by 1905 ,...

Sipāh-i Pasdarān-i Inqilāb-i Islāmī

Sipāh-i Pasdarān-i Inqilāb-i Islāmī   Reference library

The Oxford Encyclopedia of the Islamic World

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2009
Subject:
Religion, Social sciences, Regional and Area Studies
Length:
1,720 words

...inception, the IRGC witnessed phenomenal growth, reportedly numbering as high as 350,000 uniformed personnel by 1986 . Most observers agree that much of this growth can be attributed to the war with Iraq. In addition, the war afforded the opportunity for appropriating such additional functions as mobilization of sufficient numbers for the war and coordinating the war activities of its affiliate militia organization, Basīj-i Mustaẓʿafīn (Mobilization of the Oppressed), which was the linchpin of the so-called human-wave attacks against the Iraqi positions....

Ḥarakāt al-Tawḥīd al-Islāmī

Ḥarakāt al-Tawḥīd al-Islāmī   Reference library

The Oxford Encyclopedia of the Islamic World

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2009
Subject:
Religion, Social sciences, Regional and Area Studies
Length:
1,156 words

...of the civil war. Its most influential political links were not with other Lebanese Sunnī communities but with the Shīʿah, especially the radical Shaykh Muḥammad Ḥusayn Faḍlāllah and Ḥizbullāh , as was borne out in the final siege of Tripoli when pro-Iranian radicals in West Beirut kidnapped Soviet diplomats in an effort to halt the Syrian bombardment by political pressure. The involvement of Sunnī clerics in Tawḥīd represented a radical departure from the traditionally conservative politics of the Lebanese Sunnī religious establishment. Michael...

Tamil Evangelical Lutheran Church

Tamil Evangelical Lutheran Church   Reference library

J. Gannabaranam Johnson

The Oxford Encyclopaedia of South Asian Christianity

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2012

...mission field. In 1863 , the Swede, A. Blomstrand , started the monthly church magazine, Arunodayam (Dawn), which still exists. World War I, during which period the German missionaries were forced to leave their work, accelerated the need for the establishment of an independent Lutheran Tamil church. The Church of Sweden Mission (CSM) came forward to help financially in this crisis; the same happened during World War II also. In the synod at Thanjavur on 14 January 1919 , the TELC came into existence. In 1921 , episcopacy was introduced. Tiruchirapalli...

West Bank and Gaza

West Bank and Gaza   Reference library

The Oxford Encyclopedia of the Islamic World

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2009
Subject:
Religion, Social sciences, Regional and Area Studies
Length:
1,430 words
Illustration(s):
1

..., president of the Palestine National Council, and Shaykh ʿIzz al-Dīn al-ʿAlamī , the muftī of Jerusalem, who supported the secular Palestine Liberation Organization which, since 1988 , has accepted the “two-state solution,” implying recognition of the state of Israel and establishment of an independent Palestinian state within the pre- 1967 boundaries of the West Bank and Gaza. Thus, rivalry within the Muslim leadership of the West Bank and Gaza Strip grew between those who supported the PLO and those who reject the state of Israel and resist the...

Groupe Islamique Armé (GIA)

Groupe Islamique Armé (GIA)   Reference library

The Oxford Encyclopedia of the Islamic World

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2009

...after 1980 Algerian generals launched a “third war,” and blamed it on Islamists to retain power with the complicity of rogue French officials. Fisk, Robert . “Anything to Wipe Out a Devil…” In The Great War for Civilisation: The Conquest of the Middle East . New York: Vintage, 2005. Rare insights on GIA killings in the 1990s. Labat, Séverine . Les islamistes algériens: entres les urnes et le maquis . Paris: Seuil, 1995. A first-rate scholarly assessment. Martinez, Luis and John Entelis . The Algerian Civil War . New York: Columbia University Press, 2000....

France

France   Reference library

The Oxford Encyclopedia of the Islamic World

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2009
Subject:
Religion, Social sciences, Regional and Area Studies
Length:
2,585 words

...d ’Azur area (capital city, Marseilles) and 101 in the Nord–Pas-de-Calais region (capital city, Lille). Although French legislation does not allow for the establishment of confessional cemeteries, there are designated enclosures for Muslims in more than sixty cemeteries, as well as one exclusively Muslim cemetery in metropolitan France that was created during the First World War. Since the early 1990s, half a dozen institutions of higher education in Islamic sciences have been set up, primarily in the Paris area. These institutes, which also...

Islamic Renaissance Party

Islamic Renaissance Party   Reference library

The Oxford Encyclopedia of the Islamic World

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2009
Subject:
Religion, Social sciences, Regional and Area Studies
Length:
1,223 words

...of welfare for the needy, private ownership of property, and support of ecological activity. The IRP agenda is specifically attuned to the concerns of youth and professionals. It takes a conciliatory stance vis-à-vis the religious establishment, although its political agenda keeps some clerics aloof from the party. The establishment of an Islamic society is the ultimate goal of the IRP; however, in Tajikistan, where it has achieved legitimacy and success, the IRP has participated in elections ( 1999 and 2005 ), and its leaders have served in the government...

Hārūn al-Rashīd

Hārūn al-Rashīd   Reference library

The Oxford Encyclopedia of the Islamic World

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2009
Subject:
Religion, Social sciences, Regional and Area Studies
Length:
781 words
Illustration(s):
1

...having been chosen as successor, he allowed his brother Mūsā , who became the caliph al-Hādī, to ascend. His brother died under mysterious circumstances in the following year, however, and Hārūn became caliph. The Barmakids, a noble Persian family, had been important in the establishment of the ʿAbbāsid dynasty, having supported the revolution that brought it to power, and were powerful civilian administrators with strong military support through the beginning of Hārūn's rule. They had been of particular importance during al-Mahdī's caliphate, and Yaḥyā, his...

Ummah-Anṣār

Ummah-Anṣār   Reference library

The Oxford Encyclopedia of the Islamic World

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2009
Subject:
Religion, Social sciences, Regional and Area Studies
Length:
1,628 words

...of the Nile Valley” headed by Ismāʿīl al-Azharī ( d. 1969 ). This development led ʿAbd al-Raḥmān to discard the Congress as an instrument for advancing Sudanese independence and to promote the Ummah Party as a substitute. Third, whereas Congress in 1944 boycotted the establishment of an Advisory Council for the Northern Sudan, ʿAbd al-Raḥmān realized its political significance and was determined to participate in its deliberations. Such participation, however, presupposed the formation of a political organization distinct from the Congress. ʿAbd...

Moro National Liberation Front

Moro National Liberation Front   Reference library

The Oxford Encyclopedia of the Islamic World

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2009

...be recognized by the mass base of the MNLF as head of the movement. The MNLF-led movement must be credited with some success in terms of the recognition achieved for Muslims. These include the official recognition of Islam as part of Philippine heritage and Moro culture, the establishment of sharīʿah courts, and the granting of limited autonomy. The Filipino Muslims have also received educational and economic assistance from Muslim countries, and the MNLF itself has been given observer status in the OIC. See also Philippines . Bibliography Angeles, Vivienne...

Nasserism

Nasserism   Reference library

The Oxford Encyclopedia of the Islamic World

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2009

...War, Nasserism inevitably declined, although it did not disappear, as evidenced by the Nasserist coup in Libya in 1969 and the survival even after Nasser's death in 1970 of self-proclaimed Nasserist groups in Lebanon, Yemen, and elsewhere. Nasserism was essentially a secular Pan-Arabist movement. Initially, Nasser's most formidable opponents were the Muslim Brothers, who had expected to lead and control the antimonarchist revolution in Egypt. But Nasserism never stood for the total separation of religion and state or the establishment of a...

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