You are looking at 1-20 of 2,896 entries  for:

  • All: war establishment x
  • Social sciences x
clear all

View:

Overview

war establishment

The level of equipment and manning laid down for a military unit in wartime.

war establishment

war establishment   Reference library

The Oxford Essential Dictionary of the U.S. Military

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2002

... establishment the level of equipment and manning laid down for a military unit in...

war establishment

war establishment  

The level of equipment and manning laid down for a military unit in wartime.
26 The History of the Book in the Nordic Countries

26 The History of the Book in the Nordic Countries   Reference library

The Oxford Companion to the Book

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2010
Subject:
History, Social sciences
Length:
5,145 words
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
Illustration(s):
1

...invaluable Icelandic *codices . Furthermore, numerous fragments have survived as binding material (e.g. c .10,000 leaves or sheets representing c .1,500 books from Finland), adding considerably to what is known about Nordic medieval book culture. With the missions and the establishment of churches in the 10 th –12 th centuries, Scandinavia became part of Christian European culture, being introduced to *parchment books and to the Latin language and alphabet. Reading and writing were not entirely new phenomena. Runes ( see 3 ) had been used for...

6 The European Printing Revolution

6 The European Printing Revolution   Reference library

The Oxford Companion to the Book

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2010
Subject:
History, Social sciences
Length:
6,082 words
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
Illustration(s):
1

...larger variety of titles, to more people, in different locations, generally at a cheaper price. The establishment of printing in about 250 towns, most of which hosted more than one *printing office , is characterized by an enormous amount of entrepreneurial experimentation. A more detailed analysis of the presses’ output and period of activity would show that a number of cases involved the work of an itinerant printer or of temporary or short-lived establishments. Printers moved in and out of a profession not yet perceived as such, nor yet clearly defined by...

20c The History of the Book in Britain from 1914

20c The History of the Book in Britain from 1914   Reference library

The Oxford Companion to the Book

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2010
Subject:
History, Social sciences
Length:
3,991 words
Publisher:
Oxford University Press

...subjects such as homosexuality and conscientious objection. Wartime publishing also presented publishers with opportunities, however. In World War I, companies responded to the changed environment by publishing works relating to the new social and political conditions: *pamphlets assessing current affairs; novels with wartime themes; periodicals with articles on the war effort. In the years before and during World War II, publishers’ output similarly reflected the changing times. Penguin’s ‘Specials’—midway between books and pamphlets—were produced rapidly to...

31 The History of the Book in Hungary

31 The History of the Book in Hungary   Reference library

The Oxford Companion to the Book

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2010
Subject:
History, Social sciences
Length:
2,942 words
Publisher:
Oxford University Press

...suffered in the war, Imre Kner ( 1890–1945 ) and Lajos Kozma ( 1884–1948 ) revived the typographic traditions of the baroque period, combining them with modern-day typesetting technology. They produced remarkable works such as the ‘Monumenta Literarum’ and the ‘Kner Classics’ series. The Kner Press was the first to announce the liberation of Hungary following World War II. It continued to function under the directorship of the designer, printer, and researcher György Haiman ( 1914–96 ), until it was nationalized in 1949 . Between the wars, the traditions of...

34 The History of the Book in the Baltic States

34 The History of the Book in the Baltic States   Reference library

The Oxford Companion to the Book

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2010
Subject:
History, Social sciences
Length:
1,992 words
Publisher:
Oxford University Press

...and annexation by the Soviet Union. After the outbreak of the war between the Soviet Union and Nazi Germany, the Baltic States were briefly occupied by German troops until the Soviet Union reconquered and annexed the republics within the USSR. Under Soviet occupation, the Baltic States suffered severe population loss through deportation and emigration, the latter resulting in a sizeable output of émigré publications (e.g. in Sweden, Germany, the UK, US, and Australia). Following the establishment of strong pro-independence movements during the second half of...

37 The History of the Book in Sub-Saharan Africa

37 The History of the Book in Sub-Saharan Africa   Reference library

The Oxford Companion to the Book

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2010
Subject:
History, Social sciences
Length:
5,157 words
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
Illustration(s):
1

...was convened at Nigeria’s University of Ife in 1973 ; 1975 saw the establishment of the now-defunct UNESCO co-sponsored Regional Book Promotion Centre for Africa in Yaoundé, as well as the first issue of the influential * African Book Publishing Record . The *Noma Award for Publishing in Africa was established in 1979 , the first award going to the Senegalese author Mariama Bâ, for Une si longue lettre . Landmarks in Francophone book production in the region include the establishment of the journal and publishing house Présence africaine by Alioune...

29 The History of the Book in Modern Greece, c.1453–2000

29 The History of the Book in Modern Greece, c.1453–2000   Reference library

The Oxford Companion to the Book

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2010
Subject:
History, Social sciences
Length:
2,105 words
Publisher:
Oxford University Press

...a weekly books supplement or dedicated several pages to books. Oddly, the circulation of pocket books dwindled; popular bestsellers appeared in the same format as quality literature, often issued by the same publishing houses. The 21 st century has been marked by the establishment of multi-story book ‘megastores’ (e.g. Eleftheroudakis, Ianos, Fnac) in city centres and suburbs. The explosion in book publishing seems unlikely to abate: the 7,450 titles published in 2001 rose to 9,209 in 2006 . Bibliography L. Droulia , History of the Greek Book ...

36 The History of the Book in the Balkans

36 The History of the Book in the Balkans   Reference library

Aleksandra B. Vraneš

The Oxford Companion to the Book

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2010
Subject:
History, Social sciences
Length:
3,947 words
Publisher:
Oxford University Press

...Njegoš), was also published abroad in 1837 , although by then he had already established his own press ( 1834 ), the second on Montenegrin soil. During a Turkish siege in 1852 its *type had to be melted down for bullets, but in 1858 a new press was obtained. The establishment of a National Public Library in Cetinje was first proposed in 1879 , but implemented only in 1893 . From 1905 , the library started receiving *legal deposit copies. By 1912 , it had more than 10,000 titles, a large number of *incunabula and early printed books, and...

47 The History of the Book in Canada

47 The History of the Book in Canada   Reference library

The Oxford Companion to the Book

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2010
Subject:
History, Social sciences
Length:
5,120 words
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
Illustration(s):
1

..., department stores, and cheap imports—so much activity that a new book trade journal, * Quill & Quire (1935– ) , was launched. The establishment by the federal government in 1932 of a public broadcaster, the *Canadian Broadcasting Corporation since 1936 , was a turning point for book culture in Canada. On radio, and television from 1952 , authors found both a market and an audience. After Canada entered the war in 1939 , the Canadian Broadcasting Corporation, the new National Film Board, and print in every form from ration books to posters were...

22 The History of the Book in France

22 The History of the Book in France   Reference library

The Oxford Companion to the Book

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2010
Subject:
History, Social sciences
Length:
10,032 words
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
Illustration(s):
1

...as 1475 ); at Rouen in 1485 ; at Abbeville in 1486 ; at Orléans and Grenoble in 1490 ; at Angoulême and Narbonne in 1491 . Save for a few ephemeral undertakings, like the one Jehan de Rohan ran in his Breton château of Bréhant-Loudéac in 1484–5 , most were permanent establishments. Leaving aside the Alsatian region, which was politically and culturally part of the Germanic world, there were presses in about 30 French cities by 1500 . Lyons was not a university town but a major commercial centre with frequent contacts with northern Italy and Germany....

39 The History of the Book in the Indian Subcontinent

39 The History of the Book in the Indian Subcontinent   Reference library

The Oxford Companion to the Book

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2010
Subject:
History, Social sciences
Length:
10,044 words
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
Illustration(s):
1

...deploring the ‘eternal treacherous behaviour’ of his Bengali assistants (Shaw, Printing , 24–5 ). Two events in 1800 were to have a momentous effect on printing in south and southeast Asia. The first was the establishment in Calcutta of the Fort William College to train the British civilians of the East India Company. The second was the establishment of a Baptist mission at Serampore (25 km from Calcutta) by William *Carey , an ex-cobbler, who arrived at Calcutta in 1793 . His first few years in India were spent in Malda, working for an indigo planter, and...

28 The History of the Book in Italy

28 The History of the Book in Italy   Reference library

The Oxford Companion to the Book

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2010
Subject:
History, Social sciences
Length:
10,068 words
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
Illustration(s):
1

...were already doing. What made the difference was his authority as a nobleman, as an editor, and as an author, who in 1539 received a cardinal’s hat, in modern parlance ‘for services to literature’. Bembo and his fellow theorists were not, however, concerned with whether the establishment of a single written norm would lead to a unified spoken language. That process would not occur for another four centuries, when other media were introduced. The application of a Tuscan norm based on the literature of the Trecento (i.e. writers of whom the youngest was 30 years...

27 The History of the Book in the Iberian Peninsula

27 The History of the Book in the Iberian Peninsula   Reference library

The Oxford Companion to the Book

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2010
Subject:
History, Social sciences
Length:
6,196 words
Publisher:
Oxford University Press

...export business. Castile’s commercial prosperity and the growth of its governmental administration and universities ensured that printing became a permanent industry. The Catholic Monarchs’ legal measures to stimulate printing and the book trade were potent weapons in their establishment. Printers’ exemption from military service and the reduction of taxes on book imports served to encourage the book trade and turn it into an attractive mercantile sector. These measures also included incentives for citizens to enter the trade, and for foreign printers to...

12 The Economics of Print

12 The Economics of Print   Reference library

The Oxford Companion to the Book

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2010
Subject:
History, Social sciences
Length:
7,040 words
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
Illustration(s):
1

...very large indeed: *Tonson and Watts, for example, employed over 50 men. In the 1750s , Samuel *Richardson had three such establishments with more than 40 men in each. These were printing and bookselling enterprises, fuelled in part by the growing popularity of the *novel and the 18 th -century *circulating library market. The *Printing Act ( 1662 ) confirmed the main elements of the trade after the chaos of the Civil War: it was almost exclusively confined to London, limited the number of presses, and ratified that entry in the Stationers’ Register...

21 The History of the Book in Ireland

21 The History of the Book in Ireland   Reference library

The Oxford Companion to the Book

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2010
Subject:
History, Social sciences
Length:
3,994 words
Publisher:
Oxford University Press

...in *literacy , created a network of distributors and customers for the book trade. This trend was reinforced by a long period of political stability, in contrast to the wars of the 17 th century. The Dublin book trade expanded continually throughout the 18 th century; and while the capital retained its overwhelming dominance in book production, the century also saw the establishment of printers and booksellers in provincial towns. Whereas in the 1690s printers were active outside Dublin only in Cork and Belfast, in the 1760s there were presses in...

35 The Slavonic Book in Russia, Ukraine, and Belarus

35 The Slavonic Book in Russia, Ukraine, and Belarus   Reference library

The Oxford Companion to the Book

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2010
Subject:
History, Social sciences
Length:
7,008 words
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
Illustration(s):
2

...four of them edited by *Novikov . 6 Private printers in Russia In the 1770s , leasing agreements were granted to some non-native printers, and in 1771 J. F. Hartung became the first private printer in Russia—for foreign books only. A 1783 decree permitted the free establishment of presses anywhere within the empire, subject to the *censorship of local police. Half a dozen independent presses sprang up in Moscow, including Lopukhin’s Masonic press, with which Novikov was closely associated. It published some 50 works before being closed down in ...

42 The History of the Book in Japan

42 The History of the Book in Japan   Reference library

The Oxford Companion to the Book

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2010
Subject:
History, Social sciences
Length:
8,089 words
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
Illustration(s):
4

...; the only provincial guild was that of Nagoya, which was recognized in 1798 . The shogunal government was not enthusiastic about the establishment of trade guilds, but perceived them to be a necessary evil in order to limit the scope for *copyright disputes. Until the late 19 th century, copyright lay with publishers, not with authors, and the most common cause of legal disputes was copyright infringement. The establishment of guilds reduced the number of cases within any one publishing centre, but did not stop disputes between publishers in different...

46 The History of the Book in Latin America (including Incas, Aztecs, and the Caribbean)

46 The History of the Book in Latin America (including Incas, Aztecs, and the Caribbean)   Reference library

The Oxford Companion to the Book

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2010
Subject:
History, Social sciences
Length:
6,807 words
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
Illustration(s):
2

...a huge reading public for the first time in the history of those countries. Although the 1930s were affected badly by the world economic depression, the outbreak of World War II in Europe coincided with the start of industrialization in most Latin American countries, with positive repercussions for the publishing industry. Indeed, the Spanish Civil War ( 1936–9 ) and World War II gave the emerging publishing industries of many Latin American countries an unexpected boost. A decrease in European book exports allowed domestic book production to increase,...

View: