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war establishment

The level of equipment and manning laid down for a military unit in wartime.

cruelty

cruelty   Reference library

The Oxford Companion to the Mind (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2006
Subject:
Science and technology, Psychology, Philosophy
Length:
2,233 words

...killing. Violently inflicted cruelty is the coinage of smash-hit novels, films, and TV series. The torture of animals for entertainment, a popular public spectacle until the establishment of humane societies in Europe and the United States in the late 19th century, continues clandestinely. The willingness of military establishments to develop technologies of cruelty as instruments of war flourishes globally, while the coercive forces of the state (and its opponents) use confessional and disciplinary cruelty for political ends. 4. The problem of prevention For...

spiritualism

spiritualism   Reference library

The Oxford Companion to the Mind (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2006
Subject:
Science and technology, Psychology, Philosophy
Length:
1,185 words

..., Sir William Crookes , Andrew Lang , Henri Bergson , Gilbert Murray , and William McDougall . Although both science and religion are concerned with the ultimate nature of reality, only in the case of spiritualism were scientific criteria thought to be relevant for the establishment of religious truth and falsehood. This overlap of interests and techniques is perhaps to be accounted for by, on the one hand, the concreteness of spiritualist claims and, on the other hand, the direction of much scientific research during the 1880s, which was concerned with...

asylums: a historical survey

asylums: a historical survey   Reference library

The Oxford Companion to the Mind (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2006
Subject:
Science and technology, Psychology, Philosophy
Length:
2,039 words
Illustration(s):
1

...be insane and that the nation was much moved by his sufferings. During the latter part of his reign the lunacy reform movement got under way. From the beginning of the 19th century parliamentary reports on the condition of lunacy followed one another in steady succession. The establishment of county lunatic asylums was prompted partly by moral outrage felt upon the discovery of the revolting and inhuman conditions of the insane and partly by the newly found faith in the possibility of cure. The committees submitting these reports consisted of well-meaning people...

asylums: are they really necessary?

asylums: are they really necessary?   Reference library

The Oxford Companion to the Mind (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2006
Subject:
Science and technology, Psychology, Philosophy
Length:
2,335 words

...ill people are entering prisons and borstals in increasing numbers and people of previous good personality, whose offences frequently stem solely from their illnesses, are now being refused admission to psychiatric hospitals and are, instead, being received and detained in establishments.’ Furthermore, the same report refers to an assessment made by prison medical officers of the number of prisoners in custody who were suffering from mental disorder within the meaning of the 1959 Act. It emerged that ‘the prison system was then holding some hundreds of...

education: theory and practice

education: theory and practice   Reference library

The Oxford Companion to the Mind (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2006
Subject:
Science and technology, Psychology, Philosophy
Length:
3,123 words

...the very same education, so that neither their social nor their intellectual differences would distinguish one from another. During the 1960s, educational theory was predominantly concerned with such issues as these. The comparative affluence of the country, which allowed the establishment of new universities, also made it seem feasible to take the competitiveness out of education. Especially in the primary schools, the voice of Rousseau spoke again. Children must not be taught; they must discover things for themselves at their own pace. So an innate love of...

History of Sport, Exercise, and Performance Psychology in Australia

History of Sport, Exercise, and Performance Psychology in Australia   Reference library

Jeffrey Bond and Tony Morris

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Sport, Exercise, and Performance Psychology

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2019
Subject:
Science and technology, Psychology, Medicine and health, Clinical Medicine
Length:
11,488 words
Illustration(s):
1

...the APS (see the section “ Sport Psychology Professional Bodies”). In many ways, this group of events created a significant platform for the ongoing development of Australian sport psychology. Establishment of the Australian Institute of Sport Australian sport psychology was effectively launched as a bona fide profession in conjunction with the establishment of the Australian Institute of Sport (AIS) in 1981 ( Daly, 1991 ). The commencement of the “legitimacy” of the profession in the early 1980s was correlated with the co-location of the AIS Sport...

History of Sport, Exercise, and Performance Psychology in Europe

History of Sport, Exercise, and Performance Psychology in Europe   Reference library

Stiliani “Ani” Chroni and Frank Abrahamsen

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Sport, Exercise, and Performance Psychology

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2019

...via his early research on exercise psychology (see, e.g., Zervas et al., 1993 ; Zervas, Danis, & Klissouras, 1991 ; Zervas, 1990 ), the students he trained (among the many are Panteleimon Ekkekakis, Vassilios Kakkos, Maria Psychountaki, and Nektarios Stavrou), and the establishment of the Hellenic sport psychology society. It appears that sport psychology has strong traditions as well as strong research lines and programs, dating back to the early contributions of people like Cattell, Coubertin, Scripture, and Wundt. Notably, Reel ( 2015 ) argued that...

History of Sport, Exercise, and Performance Psychology in Southern Africa

History of Sport, Exercise, and Performance Psychology in Southern Africa   Reference library

Clinton Gahwiler, Lee Hill, and Valérie Grand’Maison

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Sport, Exercise, and Performance Psychology

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2019
Subject:
Science and technology, Psychology, Medicine and health, Clinical Medicine
Length:
11,560 words
Illustration(s):
1

...to pioneering work in the field by Leapetswe Malete and Tshepang Tshube, who obtained their PhDs in sport psychology at Michigan State University. Leapetswe Malete is at Michigan State University and Tshepang Tshube at the University of Botswana. They have contributed to the establishment of both undergraduate and graduate programs in sport psychology ( Tshube & Hanrahan, 2016 ). As of 2018 , universities in Mauritius and Zimbabwe offer elective coursework modules at the undergraduate and postgraduate levels for psychology students, but not yet as professional...

History of Sport, Exercise, and Performance Psychology in North America

History of Sport, Exercise, and Performance Psychology in North America   Reference library

Vincent J. Granito

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Sport, Exercise, and Performance Psychology

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2019

...approaches, which have utilized a chronological methodology to document the field. Instead, it focuses on the key individuals, including their educational, research, and practice accomplishments, landmark publications, including the advancement of scholarly journals, and the establishment of professional organizations. The first section looks at professionals who did not necessarily organize the field but influenced those who would come later. Influential Individuals and Their Work: The Classics The earliest contributions to the field were made by individuals with...

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