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war establishment

The level of equipment and manning laid down for a military unit in wartime.

anaesthesia, general

anaesthesia, general   Reference library

The Oxford Companion to the Body

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2003
Subject:
Science and technology, Life Sciences
Length:
1,944 words
Illustration(s):
1

...development, which stemmed from the generosity of Lord Nuffield, was the establishment in the University of Oxford of an academic research and teaching department with its own professor, the first in the UK. Anaesthesia developed rapidly during the second half of the 1940s, both in techniques and standards. During World War II many doctors were trained as anaesthetists in the Forces, and found hospital appointments on demobilization, during the run-up to the establishment of the National Health Service in 1948 , so expertise became much more widely...

humans in research

humans in research   Reference library

The Oxford Companion to the Body

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2003
Subject:
Science and technology, Life Sciences
Length:
1,919 words

... could be obtained. Thereafter, until the 1950s, the concern followed a sine wave course, tending to be neutralized by other events, and sometimes by action — which in the event was to prove ineffectual. Thus for yellow fever the research came to a quick close with the establishment of the postulated mechanism and the tragic death of one of the principal investigators. After this we can see five major episodes that provoked public scrutiny. In the first decade of the twentieth century there was a debate on the rights of inpatients in public hospitals...

Emu

Emu   Reference library

The New Encyclopedia of Birds

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Subject:
Science and technology, Life Sciences
Length:
1,411 words
Illustration(s):
2

...in inland Australia, because the establishment of watering points for cattle and sheep has provided permanent water where there was none before. So much of Australia is unoccupied or used as open rangeland that the emu is in no danger of extinction. One curious episode in emu–human relations occurred in 1932 . Prompted by fears of mass incursions onto wheatfields in Western Australia, the government tried to cull emus there by deploying troops with machine guns. The birds were too elusive and resilient, however, and the “Emu War” ended in ignominious failure....

eugenics

eugenics   Reference library

The Oxford Companion to the Body

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2003
Subject:
Science and technology, Life Sciences
Length:
2,072 words

...creed of human racial improvement into a reality by supporting both Mendelian and biometric research into heredity and helping others to develop a method which synthesized both theories, ‘pedigree analysis’ — and it was renamed the Galton Society after World War II. Following the establishment of the Eugenics Education Society, enthusiasm for eugenics crossed national boundaries and it promoted an international discourse on the relationship between the quality and quantity of population. Eugenists believed that modern economies encouraged undesirable —...

hip replacement

hip replacement   Reference library

The Oxford Companion to the Body

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2003
Subject:
Science and technology, Life Sciences
Length:
821 words

...annually world wide: about 200 000 in the US, 50 000 in the UK, and 150 000 elsewhere). Between 5% and 10% require replacement of the opposite hip within 5 years — and that gives equally good results. Prospective clinical trials on hip replacements have been few, although the establishment of the Swedish Hip Registry of all prostheses implanted has yielded extremely valuable information, from long-term follow-up studies, regarding the performance of the different types and the factors that contribute to success and failure. For example, out of 415 patients...

leprosy

leprosy   Reference library

The Oxford Companion to the Body

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2003
Subject:
Science and technology, Life Sciences
Length:
997 words

...America, Africa and the Far East. These remarkable changes have come about largely as a result of the widespread implementation of regimens of multiple drug therapy for all cases of leprosy as recommended by (WHO) in 1982 . The enormous success of these regimens led to the establishment by WHO in 1994 of an Action Programme for the Elimination of Leprosy , aimed at reducing the prevalence of leprosy worldwide to less then one case per 10 000 of the population, and thus eliminating the disease as a public health problem. A glance at the world map of...

cancer

cancer   Reference library

The Oxford Companion to the Body

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2003
Subject:
Science and technology, Life Sciences
Length:
1,160 words

...leading to a variety of pathological consequences and frequently death. It is typically a disease of the elderly — the incidence of all forms of cancer increases markedly with age. However, it also occurs occasionally in children. Often the abnormal cell growth results in the establishment of a macroscopic lump or tumour ‘oncos’ in Greek, hence the term ‘oncology’ for the study of cancer), which may grow to a large size and kill the patient by a local effect, e.g. occlusion of vital ducts — even the alimentary tract — or by compromising the functioning of some...

pandemics

pandemics   Reference library

The Oxford Companion to the Body

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2003
Subject:
Science and technology, Life Sciences
Length:
1,369 words

...they require special circumstances of human activity to achieve pandemic status. Human mobility — notably migration and warfare, but also exploration, travel, and trade — has played a key role in past pandemics. It is likely that pandemics have occurred periodically since the establishment of the earliest civilized, urban societies between 3000 and 500 bc , but the surviving historical records do not permit conclusive distinctions between pandemics and epidemics until late in human history. It is clear, however, that epidemic disaster struck the Roman...

tuberculosis

tuberculosis   Reference library

The Oxford Companion to the Body

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2003
Subject:
Science and technology, Life Sciences
Length:
1,453 words

...many sanatoria in Europe catered for a select, affluent, cosmopolitan clientele (an image which persists in the popular imagination conjured up by establishments such as those at Davos in Switzerland), sanatorium treatment also, by the 1920s, became available for those unable to pay, and the average duration of stay shortened. However a decline in the sanatorium movement started with the onset of World War I and was hastened by the Depression which followed. Although there were still thousands of tuberculosis sufferers receiving care in sanatoria by the...

pregnancy

pregnancy   Reference library

The Oxford Companion to the Body

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2003
Subject:
Science and technology, Life Sciences
Length:
2,105 words
Illustration(s):
1

...with the onset of labour, between 35 and 39 weeks after conception. The establishment of antenatal care to detect problems during pregnancy, and to attempt to ensure that women were in good health at the time of delivery, is generally credited to J. W. Ballantyne , an Edinburgh obstetrician, who took the first step towards this at the beginning of the twentieth century. Clinics became established in major centres in the UK, the US, and Australia by the time of the first World War. Jim Neilson Pregnancy: the cultural context Pregnancy occupies potent...

medicine

medicine   Reference library

The Oxford Companion to the Body

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2003
Subject:
Science and technology, Life Sciences
Length:
2,898 words

...— single drugs which cured specific diseases, hence their name — were highly valued and very rare. As doctors, and in many cases their patients, became increasingly sceptical about the value of long-used remedies, new schools of thought both within and outside the medical establishment began to preach that nature alone cured disease, and that doctors could at best hope to treat the patient by promoting and aiding nature's best efforts. Within orthodox medicine this sceptical attitude fostered experimental research into the actions of drugs: in the 1820s, for...

Reptiles

Reptiles   Reference library

The New Encyclopedia of Reptiles and Amphibians (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2008
Subject:
Science and technology, Life Sciences
Length:
10,553 words
Illustration(s):
26

...The brille – the spectaclelike eye-covering of a snake, formed from modified and fused eyelids – becomes blue and opaque some time before the animal is due to shed. Just before this happens, however, the brille becomes clear again, and this clearing seems to coincide with the establishment of the cleavage zone. Skin shedding in snakes may occur several times a year, being more frequent in young than in old animals. The process is influenced by the activity of the thyroid gland. The dermis consists mainly of connective tissue and contains many blood vessels and...

True Seals

True Seals   Reference library

The Encyclopedia of Mammals (3 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2007
Subject:
Science and technology, Life Sciences
Length:
13,702 words
Illustration(s):
9

...northwest from the main Hawaiian Islands ( MHI , where a small population also exists). Sealing expeditions in the 19th century reduced the number of seals, while expeditions for guano, feathers, and whales further disturbed their habitat. Later, during World War II, the establishment of manned US Naval and Coast Guard stations led to major declines in monk seal populations at Midway Island, French Frigate Shoals, and Kure Atoll, as humans and their dogs began to encroach on the beaches. Female seals, in particular, were frightened off and began to...

Emerging and Re-emerging Diseases

Emerging and Re-emerging Diseases   Reference library

Encyclopedia of Evolution

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2005

...husbandry may therefore significantly influence, and even possibly accelerate, the evolution of influenza. Once introduced, the success of the pathogen in a new population depends on its establishment and dissemination within the population. Many zoonotic introductions are highly virulent and not readily transmissible from person to person, preventing their establishment. Both the evolutionary potential of the pathogen and chance will play a role in whether the infection will be able to establish itself. An analytic framework was developed by Anderson and...

Eugenics

Eugenics   Reference library

Encyclopedia of Evolution

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2005

...and left. Morgan, T. H. Evolution and Genetics . Princeton, 1925. Müller-Hill, B. Murderous Science: Elimination by Scientific Selection of Jews, Gypsies, and Others, Germany 1933–1945 . Translated by G. R. Fraser . Oxford, 1988. A study of how the German scientific establishment became an integral part of the racial and eugenic policies of the Nazi government. Paul, D. B. Controlling Human Heredity: 1865 to the Present . Amherst, N.Y., 1995. A brief history of eugenics, emphasizing its wide support among geneticists of the first half of the...

Cooperation

Cooperation   Reference library

Encyclopedia of Evolution

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2005

...corresponding evolutionary chronicles show that there is a distinct trend toward the emergence of a population that cooperates almost always. If 2 P < T + S (in particular, if the benefit, b , is more than twice the cost, c ), then the computer runs end often with the establishment of the Pavlov strategy. This strategy prescribes to cooperate in the first round, and from then on to cooperate if and only if the other player, in the previous round, has chosen the same move as oneself. Pavlov embodies a win-stay, lose-shift rule, and hence a rudimentary...

Genomic Imprinting

Genomic Imprinting   Reference library

Encyclopedia of Evolution

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2005
Subject:
Science and technology, Life Sciences, Social sciences, Anthropology
Length:
3,273 words
Illustration(s):
4

...This allows the pattern of methylation to be perpetuated through cell division. A = adenine. C = cytosine. G = guanine. T = thymine.Courtesy of Andrew Pomiankowski. Imprinting is reset in the germ line of both sexes. Genome-wide demethylation occurs soon after embryonic establishment of the germ line. This removes the preexisting maternal or paternal marks. As the germ cells start to differentiate into sperm and eggs, a process of de novo methylation begins. Unfortunately, little is known about the enzymes involved, how sites are identified for...

Disease

Disease   Reference library

Encyclopedia of Evolution

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2005
Subject:
Science and technology, Life Sciences, Social sciences, Anthropology
Length:
9,315 words
Illustration(s):
1

...differentiated regions were linked by efficient (and therefore cheap) seaborne transportation. Roman imperialism and the expansion of trade networks effectively unified the Mediterranean world, including much of the Middle East and portions of Europe north of the Alps. The establishment of regular caravan trade along the overland Silk Road and corresponding sea routes, which linked these three host pools, was facilitated by the growth of these stable large-scale political entities. Small, densely settled political entities quickly arose along the way. New...

Biogeography

Biogeography   Reference library

Encyclopedia of Evolution

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2005
Subject:
Science and technology, Life Sciences, Social sciences, Anthropology
Length:
7,655 words
Illustration(s):
2

...in the source population and it subsequently likely receives no further infusion. This creates a bias in the genetic base of the island population, on which other evolutionary processes then operate. Genetic variability can be increased by mutation and resorting after establishment. One form of change thought important under sustained conditions of low population size (and thus in the evolution of some island lineages) is genetic drift, the chance alteration of allele frequencies from one generation to the next. In addition to such nonselective drift,...

Antibiotic Resistance

Antibiotic Resistance   Reference library

Encyclopedia of Evolution

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2005
Subject:
Science and technology, Life Sciences, Social sciences, Anthropology
Length:
8,300 words
Illustration(s):
1

...observed following interventions to curtail antibiotic use, pathogen transmission, or both. Such declines, due to dilution effects, can occur even in the absence of a fitness cost of resistance. Dilution of resistance by susceptible bacteria is comparable to the deliberate establishment of pesticide-free “refugia” in an effort to control pesticide resistance. Similar effects for antibiotic resistance may be present in other semiclosed populations with high levels of transmission and antibiotic use, such as day care centers and nursing homes. Evaluation of...

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