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war establishment

The level of equipment and manning laid down for a military unit in wartime.

history of geochemistry

history of geochemistry   Reference library

The Oxford Companion to the Earth

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2003

...Survey appointed a Chief Chemist, F. W. Clarke , and set up a laboratory to investigate the chemistry of the planet. It was to be concerned with analyses of all kinds of materials sent in by the Survey's field officers, and it amassed a wealth of sample data. With the establishment of the Geophysical Laboratory by the Carnegie Institution in Washington in 1904 , the principles of physical chemistry were to be applied to the study of geological processes, especially the evolution of the rock-forming minerals. A few years later V. M. Goldschmidt at the...

Shoemaker, E. M. (Gene)

Shoemaker, E. M. (Gene) (1928–97)   Reference library

The Oxford Companion to the Earth

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2003

...and as the father of modern planetary geology. The recognition of impact as a significant geological process allowed the establishment of the widely held hypothesis that a major meteorite impact caused the extinction of the dinosaurs and many other life forms, and that major impacts threaten the Earth in the future: a matter of concern today to civil defence authorities. Gene Shoemaker was heeded by both sides during the Cold War, when he warned that a large impact could be mistaken for a nuclear explosion. His message that impact is a continuing process...

Warfare and Weather

Warfare and Weather   Reference library

Encyclopedia of Climate and Weather (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2011
Subject:
Science and technology, Earth Sciences and Geography, Social sciences, Environment
Length:
2,453 words
Illustration(s):
1

...at its height, and Spain exercised influence and control over much of the known world. Philip II of Spain ( 1527–1598 ) came to view England and its Queen, Elizabeth I ( 1533–1603 ), as Protestant heretics. One of Elizabeth's first acts as monarch had been to support the establishment of an English Protestant church. In a political context, Spain ruled the Low Countries, the regions which now constitute Belgium and the Netherlands. The populations of these areas strove to throw off the foreign Spanish occupation. England, concerned that a rival great power...

United States Federal Policy

United States Federal Policy   Reference library

Encyclopedia of Climate and Weather (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2011

...for example). Nevertheless, overarching federal regulations could promote adaptive capacity by altering floodplain development, management of coastal zones, and insurance practices to account for climate change impacts. Similarly, federal disaster relief efforts, the establishment and design of U.S. wildlife reserves, and management of water and agricultural resources could all account for vulnerabilities anticipated by climate change. In addition, U.S. federal policies may promote decentralized adaptation by providing a centralized source of: 1)...

Weather Forecasting

Weather Forecasting   Reference library

Encyclopedia of Climate and Weather (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2011
Subject:
Science and technology, Earth Sciences and Geography, Social sciences, Environment
Length:
4,527 words
Illustration(s):
2

...availability of the electronic computer by the mid-twentieth century, made possible a scientific and more successful approach to weather forecasting. Early Efforts: Data Collection and Exchange. By the middle of the nineteenth century, the invention of the telegraph and the establishment of national telegraph networks linking cities made possible the exchange of weather data quickly and over considerable distances. It was already known that storms were mobile and that the same large storm could appear in several different cities on successive days. Benjamin...

Agricultural Extension and Climate Change Communication

Agricultural Extension and Climate Change Communication   Reference library

Linda S. Prokopy, Wendy-Lin Bartels, Gary Burniske, and Rebecca Power

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Climate Change Communication

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2018

...the first entirely state-funded agricultural extension program in 1879 ( Jones & Garforth, 1997 ). European colonies in South Asia, the Caribbean, and West Africa also saw the early establishment of extension programs, especially in the form of demonstration gardens ( Jones & Garforth, 1997 ). With the initiation of international development after World War II, the delivery of agricultural technology utilized the models from the United States, where the outside experts possessed knowledge and the farmers were the recipients. Practices that worked...

Communicating About Climate Change with Journalists and Media Producers

Communicating About Climate Change with Journalists and Media Producers   Reference library

John Wihbey and Bud Ward

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Climate Change Communication

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2018

...the scientific community and journalists around climate change issues might also be characterized as a healthy, and natural, dynamic. In the United Kingdom, there has been substantial discussion of whether or not journalists have perhaps deferred too much to the scientific establishment generally and produced insufficiently challenging stories based on press releases and other promotional materials ( Murcott et al., 2013 ). Much of the public work to build bridges between these two communities over the past decade has focused on the issue of mutual understanding...

Climate Change Communication in Japan

Climate Change Communication in Japan   Reference library

Midori Aoyagi

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Climate Change Communication

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2018
Subject:
Science and technology, Earth Sciences and Geography, Social sciences, Environment
Length:
7,124 words
Illustration(s):
12

...in demonstrations in front of the polluting companies’ headquarters in Tokyo. This made those victims visible to the mass media, and the mass media covered these events and issues, causing the public to become more aware of the “disease” aspect of pollution. This led to the establishment of the Environmental Agency in the early 1970s. One reason why people were slow to take action or express support for the victims of pollution is unique to Japan’s culture. McKean ( 1981 , p. 15) wrote in her book, “Japan’s cultural heritage—a carry-over from the ‘subject’ culture...

Climate Change Communication in Denmark

Climate Change Communication in Denmark   Reference library

Mikkel Fugl Eskjær

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Climate Change Communication

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2018
Subject:
Science and technology, Earth Sciences and Geography, Social sciences, Environment
Length:
9,759 words
Illustration(s):
1

...the majority of climate change reporting ( O. Danielsen, 2015a , pp. 62, 78). This change coincided with another development. As climate change gradually became absorbed by the UN system, first in 1987 with the report “Our Common Future” and later in 1992 with the establishment of UN Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC), climate change coverage became more politicized. Scientific questions on whether and how the climate was changing increasingly gave way to questions of how to respond to climate change. Thus, from the late 1980s and early...

Climate Change Communication in the Netherlands

Climate Change Communication in the Netherlands   Reference library

Art Dewulf, Daan Boezeman, and Martinus Vink

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Climate Change Communication

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2018
Subject:
Science and technology, Earth Sciences and Geography, Social sciences, Environment
Length:
14,430 words
Illustration(s):
2

...and the will of the ordinary people, particularly with respect to immigration issues. Fortuyn invoked a clash between the views and issues of the establishment (left and right) and the views and issues of the people ( Van Holsteyn & Irwin, 2003 ; Mudde, 2004 ). Environmental issues were framed within this strong societal polarization, with climate change portrayed as an elitist concern of the establishment. The national shock provoked by the assassination of Fortuyn in 2002 amplified the polarization and his party LPF won the elections. Most established...

Climate Change Communication in Belgium

Climate Change Communication in Belgium   Reference library

Yves Pepermans and Pieter Maeseele

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Climate Change Communication

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2018
Subject:
Science and technology, Earth Sciences and Geography, Social sciences, Environment
Length:
7,483 words
Illustration(s):
1

...Climate), 4 which regularly posts articles on the small conservative news website De Bron (The Source). In addition, libertarian and authoritarian–rightwing political parties 5 occasionally use climate skepticism to further differentiate themselves from the (European) establishment. However, except for the occasional op-eds or interviews, mainstream news media hardly pay any attention to these voices for their reporting on climate change. As a result, they are confined to conservative and libertarian websites. In accordance with an international trend, the...

Climate Change Communication in Italy

Climate Change Communication in Italy   Reference library

Lorenzo Beltrame, Massimiano Bucchi, and Enzo Loner

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Climate Change Communication

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2018
Subject:
Science and technology, Earth Sciences and Geography, Social sciences, Environment
Length:
9,432 words
Illustration(s):
7

...policymaking compared to other contexts. Studies have highlighted, among other things, the early mobilization and significant international networking activity of Italian elites and social movements. Examples include the role played by the entrepreneur Aurelio Peccei in the establishment of the Club of Rome ( 1968 ), with its influential reports; the relevance of environmental issues in terms of social movements’ engagement ( Della Porta, 1995 ; Diani, 1995 ); the role of culture, identity, and meaning construction in environmental collective action (...

Climate Change Conspiracy Theories

Climate Change Conspiracy Theories   Reference library

Joseph E. Uscinski, Karen Douglas, and Stephan Lewandowsky

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Climate Change Communication

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2018

...pawns of the rich. None of this is surprising, of course, since hostility to capitalist elites and the establishment has long been a dominant feature of radical-left politics. But the radical right is also disenchanted with these institutions, though for different reasons. Its anger is detonated, not by the institutions’ alleged association with wealth or “business,” but by their supposed susceptibility to the influence of an entrenched liberal establishment. In their view, government offices, the press, the foundations and other powerful institutions are...

Climate Change Communication in Norway

Climate Change Communication in Norway   Reference library

Marianne Ryghaug and Tomas Moe Skjølsvold

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Climate Change Communication

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2018
Subject:
Science and technology, Earth Sciences and Geography, Social sciences, Environment
Length:
11,108 words
Illustration(s):
1

...Duarte’s studies concerns whose voices were present in the climate-related press coverage. She indicates that those voicing opinions about climate change in the Norwegian press are a relatively homogenous group. Typically, they tend to represent the scientific and political establishment: politicians, public spokespersons, and scientists. Thus, the share of visible “skeptics” has become relatively small, and voices from grassroots organizations and other realms of civil society are largely absent. Similarly, Duarte discovered a highly gendered dynamic to the...

Effects of TV and Cable News Viewing on Climate Change Opinion, Knowledge, and Behavior

Effects of TV and Cable News Viewing on Climate Change Opinion, Knowledge, and Behavior   Reference library

Lauren Feldman

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Climate Change Communication

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2018
Subject:
Science and technology, Earth Sciences and Geography, Social sciences, Environment
Length:
14,880 words
Illustration(s):
3

.... Chicago: University of Chicago Press. Iyengar, S. , & Kinder, D. R. (1987). News that matters: Television and American opinion . Chicago: University of Chicago Press. Jamieson, K. H. , & Cappella, J. N. (2008). Echo chamber: Rush Limbaugh and the conservative media establishment . New York: Oxford University Press. Kahlor, L. , & Rosenthal, S. (2009). If we seek, do we learn? Predicting knowledge of global warming. Science Communication , 30 (3), 380–414. Kaplan, R. L. (2002). Politics and the American press: The rise of objectivity, 1865–1920 ....

Internet-Enabled Activism and Climate Change

Internet-Enabled Activism and Climate Change   Reference library

Luis E. Hestres and Jill E. Hopke

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Climate Change Communication

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2018

...digital communication technologies—most prominently among them the Internet and mobile technologies—to the various processes and activities commonly associated with activism and advocacy campaigns. The second trend involves the growth of climate change advocacy, including the establishment and expansion of new organizations dedicated exclusively to activism and advocacy of aggressive solutions to the climate crisis, such as keeping the amount of carbon emissions in the atmosphere below 350 parts per million ( 350.org, n.d.-b , n.d.-c ). This article analyzes the...

Cognitive Biases, Non-Rational Judgments, and Public Perceptions of Climate Change

Cognitive Biases, Non-Rational Judgments, and Public Perceptions of Climate Change   Reference library

Lisa Zaval and James F. M. Cornwell

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Climate Change Communication

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2018

...one. The Energy Star conservation mode is not the factory. Thermostats are not pre-programmed to save on energy costs, double-sided printing is not the default option in most corporate offices, and providing re-usable shopping bags is not the default option for most retail establishments. In domains such as these, green defaults have the potential to save money, increase energy independence, and reduce waste. In addition, when compared with mandates, green defaults have the important advantage of maintaining freedom of choice. For a business or government...

Climate Change Communication in China

Climate Change Communication in China   Reference library

Ji Li and Luo Dan

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Climate Change Communication

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2018

...Assessment Report” comprehensively evaluated emission reduction measures and climate change actions since 2011 , showing that China’s climate policy had shifted from formulating macroeconomic goals or determining the priority areas of development to the progressive establishment of a climate policy framework containing concrete emission reduction measures. The Chinese media is strongly affected by Chinese political system. Policies made by the government profoundly influence the media in many aspects, and they directly determine the media development...

Communicating about Climate Change with Corporate Leaders and Stakeholders

Communicating about Climate Change with Corporate Leaders and Stakeholders   Reference library

Andrew J. Hoffman

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Climate Change Communication

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2018
Subject:
Science and technology, Earth Sciences and Geography, Social sciences, Environment
Length:
11,699 words
Illustration(s):
4

...the desired changes have been fully implemented, refreezing is the process of institutionalizing the new changes. Part of this process includes communicating to the employees how the new changes have helped the organization meet the business urgency that was laid out in the establishment of the vision. This should be every bit as prominent as the publicity efforts that kicked off the initiative. Employees must be shown in a tangible way that they have achieved the program’s objectives and what that achievement means for organizational success. The refreezing process...

Communicating about Nuclear Energy and Climate Change

Communicating about Nuclear Energy and Climate Change   Reference library

Shirley S. Ho

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Climate Change Communication

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2018

...countries, including the United States and Germany, nuclear power programs have been delayed or even terminated in reaction to a perceived public opposition ( Bhanthumnavin & Bhanthumnavin, 2014 ). Variations in Public Support for Nuclear Energy One crucial factor for the establishment of a nuclear energy program in most countries is public acceptance of nuclear power. Historically, public opposition has resulted in stalled plans for local siting of nuclear power plants in many parts of the world, partly due to the not-in-my-backyard (NIMBY) syndrome. For...

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