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war establishment

The level of equipment and manning laid down for a military unit in wartime.

Archibald Leman Cochrane

Archibald Leman Cochrane  

(1908-1988) He was born in Galashiels, Scotland and obtained his medical degree in 1938. During World War II he worked as a medical officer and became a prisoner of war in 1941. In 1948 he joined the ...
Sir Wilfred Fish

Sir Wilfred Fish  

(1894–1974) Fish qualified in dentistry at the University of Manchester in 1914 and after the First World War joined the staff of the Royal Dental Hospital, London, where he was awarded a DSc for his ...
Pappworth, Maurice Henry

Pappworth, Maurice Henry (1910–94)   Reference library

The Oxford Companion to Medicine (3 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2006
Subject:
Medicine and health
Length:
206 words

...and hospitals; named the experimenters responsible; and criticized ethical standards. The book caused outrage amongst the medical establishment of the time, but Pappworth had nothing to lose over his brave stance, and he was supported by similar work published from Harvard by the professor of anesthesiology there, Henry K. Beecher . The resultant public furore led to professional reports and the belated establishment of a code of medical ethics and the setting up all over the world of research ethics committees to vet applications for therapeutic...

war

war   Reference library

The Oxford Companion to Medicine (3 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2006
Subject:
Medicine and health
Length:
3,863 words

...campaigns made rationing necessary and led to the establishment of a national food policy based on scientific understanding of human nutrition. This had visible consequences in the improved growth of children, particularly after the Second World War. In general, the outlook of Winter and Titmuss accords with the familiar story of how recruitment for the Boer War encouraged programs in maternal and child health and welfare, school medical services, health visitors, and so on in the ‘quest for national efficiency’. Arguments for these causes (as well as for the ...

Nightingale, Florence

Nightingale, Florence (1820–1910)   Reference library

The Oxford Companion to Medicine (3 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2006
Subject:
Medicine and health
Length:
332 words

...continued her attempts to reform the army medical services, producing a document, Notes on matters affecting the health and efficiency and hospital administration of the British army . A royal commission was established in 1859 and many of her recommendations, such as the establishment of an army medical school, the reform of sanitary facilities in barracks, and hospital regulations, were implemented in the following years. Thereafter she took no part in public life, seldom leaving her sickroom, from which, nevertheless, there issued a stream of reports and...

blood transfusion

blood transfusion   Reference library

The Oxford Companion to Medicine (3 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2006
Subject:
Medicine and health
Length:
3,946 words

...later surgeon at St Bartholomew's Hospital. As an army surgeon in the First World War, he became convinced of the importance of blood transfusion for resuscitating wounded soldiers. In the 1920s he wrote a book about this and helped to inaugurate a transfusion service, at first in London and then throughout the country. In the 1930s he pioneered simple removal of the tumor in certain cases of breast cancer (‘lumpectomy’), which incurred the wrath of the medical establishment but was shown to give results as good as the more mutilating radical operation...

journals

journals   Reference library

The Oxford Companion to Medicine (3 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2006
Subject:
Medicine and health
Length:
1,870 words

...published, particularly in Germany, as well as two important trends and an evanescent one: respectively, the establishment of the general medical journal, the beginnings of the specialist journal, and the publication of the ‘one-man’ journal. The general journal is aimed at all doctors, the specialist journal deals only with a single specialty (such as cardiology), and the one-man journal is written and edited by an individual. Establishment of the general journal In the 19th century two prominent editors of general journals, Thomas Wakley of the ...

healthcare systems

healthcare systems   Reference library

The Oxford Companion to Medicine (3 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2006
Subject:
Medicine and health
Length:
2,888 words

...compulsory insurance for medical care was France, in 1928 . Beyond Europe After World War I, the first non-European country to enact compulsory sickness insurance was Japan, in 1922 . It emulated European healthcare patterns, with a free choice of private doctors and fee-for-service payment. When social insurance financing of medical care was first undertaken by a developing country, Chile in 1924 , the delivery pattern was finally modified, with the establishment of polyclinics engaging physicians on salary for ambulatory care. Subsequent initiatives in...

allied health professions

allied health professions   Reference library

The Oxford Companion to Medicine (3 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2006
Subject:
Medicine and health
Length:
1,915 words

...assess, correct, or alleviate acute or prolonged movement dysfunction. Physical therapy developed during World War I in direct response to the need to rehabilitate large numbers of wounded soldiers. After the war, physical therapists continued to work with hospitalized veterans as well as civilians. 1920 brought the formation of the American Women's Physical Therapeutic Association and subsequently, the American Physical Therapy Association. World War II brought again a sudden increase in demand for physical therapists, which was met by the formation of...

smoking and health

smoking and health   Reference library

The Oxford Companion to Medicine (3 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2006
Subject:
Medicine and health
Length:
1,792 words

...risk of heart disease and lung cancer — hardly surprising given that cigarette smoke is known to contain 4000 chemicals, around 50 of them carcinogens (substances that cause cancer). The USA has taken the widest steps against passive smoking, with many states requiring the establishment of smoke-free environments — while Norway, followed by Sweden and Finland, has enacted some of the most stringent legislation against tobacco advertising in the world. In other countries, conversely, restrictions have been much less draconian and in many countries they are...

academic medicine

academic medicine   Reference library

The Oxford Companion to Medicine (3 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2006
Subject:
Medicine and health
Length:
2,812 words

...for the supervision of medical education and licensure, with the Royal Colleges continuing their traditional role in specialty medicine. Growth of specialization The second major influence leading to the establishment of academic medicine was the growth of specialization , which began in the early 20th century and expanded exponentially after World War II. In addition to requiring increasing degrees of complex knowledge on the part of the specialist, this trend required continuous increases in the size of full-time faculty of any major medical institution....

natural childbirth

natural childbirth   Reference library

The Oxford Companion to Medicine (3 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2006
Subject:
Medicine and health
Length:
832 words

...and surgical gynecology are incompatible disciplines, and that obstetricians paid insufficient attention to normal pregnancy compared with the abnormal. Many of his ideas are now accepted, but some were overstated, and Dick-Read remained at odds with the British obstetric establishment. In 1947 he was invited to lecture in the USA, but his radical approach did not gain favor there and the growing American natural childbirth movement turned instead to ‘psychoprophylaxis’. Psychoprophylaxis, which had been developed in the Soviet Union, was based on...

sanitariums

sanitariums   Reference library

The Oxford Companion to Medicine (3 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2006
Subject:
Medicine and health
Length:
957 words

...for reasons upon which it is not necessary to dwell’. Working-class sanitariums introduced a system of ‘graduated labor’, by which the patients contributed to the upkeep of the institution through work, which was carefully controlled and monitored by medical attendants. These establishments were generally run on authoritarian lines, with the medical superintendent reigning supreme. A 1912 textbook on tuberculosis claimed that manual labor was now recognized as an essential part of sanitarium treatment. Attempts to introduce this new form of treatment to...

research institutes

research institutes   Reference library

The Oxford Companion to Medicine (3 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2006
Subject:
Medicine and health
Length:
3,279 words

...time went on: the balance between funding research work at a central research establishment (intramural) as against funding work at institutions across the country (extramural); and whether to fund the long-term work of individuals and groups (grants) or to support only mission-oriented projects with specific outcomes (contracts). In 1914 the Medical Research Committee decided to create a central institute independent of both medical schools and universities. The First World War delayed matters and not until 1920 did the National Institute for Medical...

Quakers and medicine

Quakers and medicine   Reference library

The Oxford Companion to Medicine (3 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2006
Subject:
Medicine and health
Length:
1,363 words

...treatment of the afflicted, which rejected traditional methods of management such as restraint. In the 1790s, several Friends who were members of York Meeting, dissatisfied with the care of the mentally ill at the York Asylum, were moved to consider founding a new establishment. This led to the opening on 11 May 1796 of the Retreat at York. Founded by William Tuke , a tea merchant who was a descendant of William Tuke — one of the original followers of George Fox, who had sufferred imprisonment for his beliefs — the Retreat has never been closed since. Not...

hospitals

hospitals   Reference library

The Oxford Companion to Medicine (3 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2006
Subject:
Medicine and health
Length:
2,998 words

...times support — from local governments and universities were instrumental in raising the necessary funds. A vast system Most establishments started as small houses sponsored by networks of prominent and influential citizens. Sectarian Jewish, Catholic, Methodist, Lutheran, and Presbyterian institutions flourished side by side with German and French-speaking ones. By the 1920s, together with private railroad and university establishments and public municipal or state institutions, US hospitals had formed a vast and decentralized system of autonomous corporations...

asylums

asylums   Reference library

The Oxford Companion to Medicine (3 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2006
Subject:
Medicine and health
Length:
2,646 words

...was then Minister of Health. In his contentious speech of 1976 , based on flawed statistics, he opined, with more eloquence than accuracy, that mental hospitals rather than being ‘good objects’ were in fact ‘bad objects’. Mr Powell's hospital plan split the psychiatric establishment in two, but in the end he won the day. Mental hospitals were to be destroyed and their patients were to be shared between general hospitals and ‘community care’ — a most seductive and charismatic slogan. Once begun, the rate of destruction and translocation acquired its own...

gastroenterology

gastroenterology   Reference library

The Oxford Companion to Medicine (3 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2006
Subject:
Medicine and health
Length:
1,677 words

...caused by infectious agents, and the potential of semiflexible endoscopy. Nutritional factors and the diseases caused by their deficiency were identified and became treatable, these studies being accelerated by the privations of World War II and the terrible conditions endured by many prisoners of war. After the Second World War, the National Institutes of Health were established, with gastroenterology coming under the umbrella of the Institute for Arthritis and Metabolic Diseases in 1956 . The expansion of gastroenterology has continued with increasing...

Africa — history

Africa — history   Reference library

The Oxford Companion to Medicine (3 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2006
Subject:
Medicine and health
Length:
2,558 words

...fierce battles among contending internal factions with a sequence of coups and counter-coups, military regimes, or ensuing undemocratic, authoritarian one-party states. Many of these countries have been dominated by ruinous civil wars, fed by the Cold War, regional rivalries, and internal problems resulting in the establishment of a range of socialist/collectivist political power structures. These have shaped and reformed national health systems towards centralized systems, jeopardizing the already inadequate private healthcare sectors in these countries....

Spanish-speaking countries

Spanish-speaking countries   Reference library

The Oxford Companion to Medicine (3 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2006
Subject:
Medicine and health
Length:
4,049 words

...a long trial lasting two months, and burned alive in October 1553 in Geneva. Until the 18th century, the Protomedicato served as the supreme political-administrative institution, exercising all medical and public health responsibilities. During this period the political establishment completely controlled the training of professionals ( protomedicos examined all university graduates before authorizing their professional activity) as well as various aspects of sanitary activity (inspections carried out by the protomedicos and their delegates). Dating...

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