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war establishment

The level of equipment and manning laid down for a military unit in wartime.

London Proces-Verbal on the Rules of Submarine Warfare

London Proces-Verbal on the Rules of Submarine Warfare   Reference library

Encyclopaedic Dictionary of International Law (3 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2009
Subject:
Law, International Law
Length:
76 words

...was adopted on 6 November 1936 ( 173 L.N.T.S. 353 ) to protect merchant ships from unrestricted submarine attack. Germany, one of the 39 parties, justified its unrestricted submarine attacks during World War II on the basis that they were legitimate reprisals and that the British merchant fleet was integrated into its military establishment...

Axis powers

Axis powers   Reference library

Encyclopaedic Dictionary of International Law (3 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2009
Subject:
Law, International Law
Length:
142 words

...powers The term applied to the States that opposed the Allies during World War II. The three primary Axis powers, Germany, Italy, and Japan entered into a military alliance by virtue of the Tripartite Pact on 27 September 1940 . The Pact provided for the recognition by Japan of German and Italian leadership ‘in the establishment of a new order in Europe’ (art. 1) and the recognition by Germany of Japanese leadership ‘in the establishment of a new order in Greater East Asia’ (art. 2). The three Powers agreed to cooperate and assist one another in case of...

Carnegie Endowment for International Peace

Carnegie Endowment for International Peace   Reference library

Encyclopaedic Dictionary of International Law (3 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2009
Subject:
Law, International Law
Length:
154 words

...the cause of peace among nations’, did much before World War II through its Division of International Law to encourage teaching and publication in international law, being responsible in particular for the establishment of the Académie de Droit International de la Haye , the sponsorship of the Harvard Research , and such notable publications as the periodical International Conciliation , Moore's International Adjudications , and the 22-volume series, Classics of International Law . After World War II, the foundation largely turned its attention elsewhere,...

medical personnel

medical personnel   Reference library

Encyclopaedic Dictionary of International Law (3 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2009
Subject:
Law, International Law
Length:
162 words

...sick, or in the prevention of disease, staff exclusively engaged in the administration of medical units and establishment’) are to ‘be respected and protected in all circumstances’. This extends to members of armed forces specially trained for medical duties and engaged in medical functions (art. 25), and to staff of national Red Cross Societies and other Voluntary Aid Societies (art. 26). Medical personnel, if captured, are not to be prisoners of war (art. 28), and are to be returned to their own party to the conflict (art. 30). See Pictet , Commentary on...

Elements of Crime

Elements of Crime   Reference library

Encyclopaedic Dictionary of International Law (3 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2009
Subject:
Law, International Law
Length:
278 words

...of Crime Res. F of the Final Act of the U.N. Diplomatic Conference of Plenipotentiaries on the Establishment of an International Criminal Court of 17 July 1998 ( U.N. Doc. A/CONF.183/10 ) established the Preparatory Commission for the International Criminal Court (PCNICC) to prepare proposals for practical arrangements for the establishment and coming into operation of the Court, including draft texts of, inter alia , Elements of Crimes. The final text of the Elements of Crime was adopted by the Assembly of States Parties (and entered into force) on ...

Versailles, Treaty of, 1919

Versailles, Treaty of, 1919   Reference library

Encyclopaedic Dictionary of International Law (3 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2009
Subject:
Law, International Law
Length:
532 words

...of her overseas possessions, the Mandates System being established under the League Covenant. Parts V and VI (arts. 159–226) regulated military affairs and prisoners of war and graves. Parts VII and VIII (arts. 227–247) imposed penalties (arraignment of the Kaiser, provision for trial of war criminals; express acceptance of responsibility (the war guilt clause: art. 231); establishment of the Reparation Commission and provision for the payment of an initial amount equivalent to 20 billion gold marks; and detailed provision for reparations in kind), backed...

demilitarization

demilitarization   Reference library

Encyclopaedic Dictionary of International Law (3 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2009
Subject:
Law, International Law
Length:
176 words

...1125 U.N.T.S. 3 ), weight is put on the terms of the agreement establishing the demilitarized zone, which agreement would normally include provisions for the evacuation of all combatants, weapons, and equipment; the non-use of military establishments; the non-involvement of the authorities or the population in the hostilities; and the cessation of all military efforts: art. 60(3). Material breach of these conditions releases the innocent party from the agreement: art. 60(7). Making a demilitarized zone the object of attack is a grave breach of the Protocol: art....

European integration

European integration   Reference library

Encyclopaedic Dictionary of International Law (3 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2009
Subject:
Law, International Law
Length:
363 words

...under the authority of a European organization so that ‘the solidarity in production thus established will make it plain that any war between France and Germany becomes not merely unthinkable but materially impossible’. On the basis of the Schuman Plan, the European Coal and Steel Community was established by the Treaty of Paris of 18 April 1951 . The common market in coal and steel was to be followed by the establishment of the common market in all other sectors of activity and in atomic energy by the Treaties of Rome of 25 Rome 1957 setting up the ...

voeu(x)

voeu(x)   Reference library

Encyclopaedic Dictionary of International Law (3 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2009
Subject:
Law, International Law
Length:
284 words

... voeux expressed by the conference: (1) recommendation for the establishment of the Permanent Court of Arbitration and annexed draft convention, (2) voeu that special efforts shall be made to ensure continued peaceful relations and in particular commercial and industrial relations between the populations of belligerent States and neutral countries, (3) voeu that the right of requisition be regulated by bilateral agreement, and (4) voeu that the Conventions on the Laws and Customs of War be applied as far as possible to maritime warfare pending...

mines (in naval warfare)

mines (in naval warfare)   Reference library

Encyclopaedic Dictionary of International Law (3 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2009
Subject:
Law, International Law
Length:
448 words

...navigation’ (art. 2). The major weakness of the Convention is contained in art. 3 which permitted belligerents’ discretion in safeguarding peaceful shipping and in rendering mines harmless. The Convention's provisions were disregarded by Germany in both World Wars, countered by the establishment of war zones and permanent mine-fields. However, in relation to the duty to take ‘every possible precaution…for the security of peaceful shipping’ and ‘to notify danger zones as soon as military exigencies permit’ (art. 3), Judge Schwebel in his dissenting opinion in...

Laws of War

Laws of War   Reference library

Encyclopaedic Dictionary of International Law (3 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2009
Subject:
Law, International Law
Length:
1,089 words

...Right of Capture in Maritime War ( 205 C.T.S. 367 ); (XII) Convention for the Establishment of an International Prize Court ( 205 C.T.S. 381 ); (XIII) Convention respecting the Rights and Duties of Neutral Powers in Maritime War ( 205 C.T.S. 395 ); and (XIV) Declaration Prohibiting Discharge of Projectiles and Explosives from Balloons ( 205 C.T.S. 403 ). The principal and enduring Hague Conventions on the Laws and Customs of War were generally declaratory of existing customary law (see II Oppenheim 229 ). Between the two World Wars, four international...

Dogger Bank Incident

Dogger Bank Incident   Reference library

Encyclopaedic Dictionary of International Law (3 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2009
Subject:
Law, International Law
Length:
324 words

...War in 1904 , the Russian Baltic fleet, which was on its way to the Far East, fired on the Hull fishing fleet off the Dogger Bank in the North Sea, whereby two fishermen were killed and considerable damage was done to several trawlers. Great Britain demanded from Russia an apology and ample damages, and also severe punishment of the officer responsible. Russia contended that, as the firing was caused by the approach of Japanese torpedo-boats, she could therefore not punish the officer in command. The parties agreed upon the establishment of an...

Fundamental Rules of International Humanitarian Law in Armed Conflicts

Fundamental Rules of International Humanitarian Law in Armed Conflicts   Reference library

Encyclopaedic Dictionary of International Law (3 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2009
Subject:
Law, International Law
Length:
389 words

...any adverse distinction. 2. It is forbidden to kill or injure an enemy who surrenders or who is hors de combat . 3. The wounded and sick shall be collected and cared for by the party to the conflict which has them in its power. Protection also covers medical personnel, establishments, transports and materiel . The emblem of the red cross (red crescent, red lion and sun) is the sign of such protection and must be respected. 4. Captured combatants and civilians under the authority of an adverse party are entitled to respect for their lives, dignity,...

Uniting for Peace Resolutions

Uniting for Peace Resolutions   Reference library

Encyclopaedic Dictionary of International Law (3 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2009
Subject:
Law, International Law
Length:
468 words

...of armed force when necessary, to maintain or restore international peace and security’. Although the General Assembly did not apparently act under the resolution in the case of the Korean War (in fact the occasion of its adoption, because of Soviet vetoes in the Security Council), the Uniting for Peace Resolution was used as the constitutional basis for the establishment by the General Assembly of the U.N. Emergency Force ( UNEF I ) on 5 November 1956 (Res. 1000 (ES-I), and both UNEF and the U.N. Force in the Congo ( ONUC ) were controlled by the General...

wounded, sick, and shipwrecked

wounded, sick, and shipwrecked   Reference library

Encyclopaedic Dictionary of International Law (3 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2009
Subject:
Law, International Law
Length:
553 words

...and collect the sick and wounded and information is to be supplied as to those wounded and sick who are captured: art. 16. The parties are to ensure honourable burial (not normally cremation): art. 17. Special provisions follow on the immunity from attack on medical units and establishments (arts. 17–23) and respect and protection for medical personnel (arts. 24–32), and on buildings and material and on medical transports (arts. 33–37). ‘As a compliment to Switzerland, the heraldic emblem of the red cross on a white ground, formed by reversing the Federal...

Dreyfus Case

Dreyfus Case   Reference library

Encyclopaedic Dictionary of International Law (3 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2009
Subject:
Law, International Law
Length:
554 words

...Dreyfus asserted rights over the guano sold by Chile which were prejudiced by the Chilean provisions in favour only of bondholders, and claimed payment of the sums agreed with the Pierola Government in 1880 . In 1892 , Chile and France concluded a protocol providing for the establishment of an arbitral tribunal to determine disputes arising out of the application of the Chilean Decree of 1882 . Held that the capacity of a government to represent the State in international relations did not depend on the legitimacy of its origin, and foreign States could not...

International Criminal Court

International Criminal Court   Reference library

Encyclopaedic Dictionary of International Law (3 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2009
Subject:
Law, International Law
Length:
1,015 words

...3), came into existence on 1 July 2002 . Presently with 105 States parties, the Court's establishment by art. 1 of the Statute represents the culmination of efforts since the end of World War II to create such a permanent body. ‘The jurisdiction of the Court shall be limited to the most serious of crimes of concern to the international community as a whole’ (art. 5(1). These include, specifically, the crime of genocide (art. 6), crimes against humanity (art. 7), war crimes (art. 8), and the crime of aggression . Further definition of these crimes is...

disarmament

disarmament   Reference library

Encyclopaedic Dictionary of International Law (3 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2009
Subject:
Law, International Law
Length:
1,481 words

...the Use in War of . The U.N. Charter states with respect to disarmament that the General Assembly may consider the principles governing this matter and the regulation of armaments and make recommendations in relation thereto: art. 11(1); and that the Security Council shall be responsible, with the assistance of the Military Staff Committee referred to in art. 47, for the formulation of plans of a system for the regulation of armaments: art. 26. The Moscow Conference of Foreign Ministers agreed in December 1945 to recommend the establishment by the General...

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