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war establishment

The level of equipment and manning laid down for a military unit in wartime.

Nuremberg and Tokyo Trials

Nuremberg and Tokyo Trials   Reference library

Encyclopedia of Human Rights

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2009
Subject:
Law, Human Rights and Immigration, Social sciences
Length:
6,043 words

...officers in Leipzig , most of whom were either released prior to trial or freed by their captors after conviction). Such war crimes as occurred in World War I paled next to the carnage and barbarism of its successor. An early initiative responding to Nazi killings in World War II was the meeting in London of some of the Allies, which resulted in the Declaration of St. James in 1941 and the establishment of a United Nations War Crimes Commission ( UNWCC ) in 1943 (the use of the phrase “United Nations” preceded the creation of the organization). The...

Japanese Sexual Slavery

Japanese Sexual Slavery   Reference library

Encyclopedia of Human Rights

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Subject Reference
Current Version:
2009
Subject:
Law, Human Rights and Immigration, Social sciences
Length:
9,025 words

...of the Japanese imperial forces. In army inventories the women were listed as military supplies, cargo, or amenities, and the women arrived together with other essential war supplies, such as ammunition. The establishment of comfort stations thus was regarded as necessary to the Japanese war effort. But why did the Japanese government and military resort to the establishment of comfort stations to solve the problems they encountered? When the first comfort stations were established in 1932 in Shanghai, many of the basic elements of the comfort women...

Sierra Leone

Sierra Leone   Reference library

Encyclopedia of Human Rights

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2009
Subject:
Law, Human Rights and Immigration, Social sciences
Length:
8,044 words

...Leone war bore fruit on 30 November 1996 with the signing of a cease-fire and a peace agreement, the Abidjan Peace Accord, between the government and the RUF. The accord called for the withdrawal of mercenaries and all foreign troops from Sierra Leone and the establishment of a Neutral Monitoring Group ( NMG ) to disarm the factions. Under the agreement, the RUF was to receive general amnesty for its war crimes and become a political party. The accord was brokered by Côte d’Ivoire outside of the ECOWAS framework. If Côte d’Ivoire had ended the war through...

International Federation of Red Cross and Red Crescent Societies

International Federation of Red Cross and Red Crescent Societies   Reference library

Encyclopedia of Human Rights

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Current Version:
2009
Subject:
Law, Human Rights and Immigration, Social sciences
Length:
3,532 words

...continued unchanged as a private Swiss association focusing primarily on war and political violence. The RC network wound up with two separated headquarters, the ICRC in Geneva and the RC Federation in Paris (the latter moved to neutral Geneva at the start of World War II and stayed there). The dynamism of Davison and his close association with Wilson were reflected in Article 25 of the League of Nations Covenant: “The Members of the League agree to encourage and promote the establishment and co-operation of the duly authorized voluntary national Red Cross...

International Committee of the Red Cross (ICRC)

International Committee of the Red Cross (ICRC)   Reference library

Encyclopedia of Human Rights

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Current Version:
2009
Subject:
Law, Human Rights and Immigration, Social sciences
Length:
5,656 words

...include non-international armed conflict. During World War II the ICRC experienced an unprecedented expansion in its activities. The Central Agency for Prisoners of War collected some 36 million items of information on prisoners of war or civilian internees. It received 59 million letters and sent out 61 million replies, providing news on prisoners of war and other war victims. During the war and in its immediate aftermath, ICRC delegates made more than eleven thousand visits to camps for prisoners of war. Lastly, the ICRC took the initiative of organizing a...

Liberia

Liberia   Reference library

Encyclopedia of Human Rights

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Current Version:
2009
Subject:
Law, Human Rights and Immigration, Social sciences
Length:
7,713 words

...government was inaugurated following the 2005 elections. The transition reform agenda finally got underway when Johnson-Sirleaf took over as president in January 2006 . The Comprehensive Peace Agreement ending the civil war provided for establishment of the TRC; reform of the justice sector, the police, and the military; and establishment of the Independent National Commission for Human Rights. As per the Comprehensive Peace Agreement, the mandate of the TRC was “to provide a forum that will address issues of impunity, as well as an opportunity for both the...

Slobodan Milošević

Slobodan Milošević   Reference library

Encyclopedia of Human Rights

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Current Version:
2009
Subject:
Law, Human Rights and Immigration, Social sciences
Length:
3,375 words

...source of truth about Milošević's crimes and the wars in the Balkans thus far. The proceedings of the court, with the help of some three hundred witnesses with a vast archive of photos, videos, and documents, greatly contributed to the establishment of truth for the sake of history. In court Milošević himself several times confirmed a clear chain of “command responsibility” within the forces of the Yugoslav army. This was proved by continuous direct contacts with General Ratko Mladić, yet another indicted war criminal, who remained at large in 2008 . In all...

Jacobo Timerman

Jacobo Timerman   Reference library

Encyclopedia of Human Rights

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Subject Reference
Current Version:
2009
Subject:
Law, Human Rights and Immigration, Social sciences
Length:
2,263 words

...and Politics Despite his lack of formal education, Timerman developed an outstanding career as a political journalist. After resigning from Nueva Sión in 1953 , he worked for several news agencies through which he started developing close links with the political establishment. In 1957 , he joined La Razón , a prestigious, leading Buenos Aires newspaper. Between 1958 and 1962 , he worked with great success for six newspapers and for radio and TV. His golden times started in 1962 , when he founded Primera Plana , which was similar to the...

Henry Dunant

Henry Dunant   Reference library

Encyclopedia of Human Rights

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Current Version:
2009
Subject:
Law, Human Rights and Immigration, Social sciences
Length:
1,796 words

...protection under the law. Dunant was also a pioneer of international protection for prisoners of war. To this end he drafted a treaty, several provisions of which were incorporated in the Brussels Declaration of 1874 , concerning the laws and customs of war; later in the Hague Conventions of 1899 and 1907 ; and finally in the Third Geneva Convention of 1949 , still in force in the early twenty-first century. At the beginning of the Franco-Prussian War, in 1870 , he suggested, but was unable to win acceptance for, the idea of hospital zones that would...

Japanese Atrocities in the 1930s and 1940s

Japanese Atrocities in the 1930s and 1940s   Reference library

Encyclopedia of Human Rights

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Current Version:
2009
Subject:
Law, Human Rights and Immigration, Social sciences
Length:
8,369 words

...to commence a full-scale war against China, with the intention of annexing all of China. However, the Japanese government, setting a precedent that the United States and others subsequently followed in Asian wars, insisted that this was not a war, hence there was no need for a formal declaration of war. Thus the beginning of the Second Sino-Japanese War (the First Sino-Japanese War, between Qing Dynasty China and Meiji Japan, was from 1894 to 1895 ) was called “the China Incident.” The “incident” lasted until the end of World War II in the Pacific in August...

Balkan Wars

Balkan Wars   Reference library

Encyclopedia of Human Rights

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Subject Reference
Current Version:
2009
Subject:
Law, Human Rights and Immigration, Social sciences
Length:
7,513 words

...). The so-called homeland war claimed 13,233 lives on the Croatian side; 1,149 were declared missing and 33,043 wounded. As of 2008 , there were no confirmed data on the number of Serb casualties. War produced brutal ethnic cleansing and numerous war crimes on both sides. Several hundred thousand people were forced to flee their homes. The flow of Croatian refugees reached its peak at the end of 1991 , the Serbian one after final operations in 1995 . Croatia found it hard to face up to the traumas of war. Both handing war criminals over to the Hague...

Angola

Angola   Reference library

Encyclopedia of Human Rights

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Subject Reference
Current Version:
2009
Subject:
Law, Human Rights and Immigration, Social sciences
Length:
4,740 words

...(South West Africa People's Organization or SWAPO) and the African National Congress ( ANC ), and the establishment of a Soviet-backed government in a neighboring country. U.S. intervention was limited to the provision of war equipment; its operations would switch from covert to open, depending on the domestic situation. In In Search of Enemies: A CIA Story ( 1978 ), John Stockwell suggests that the goal of U.S. support was neither to end the civil war nor bring about a change in the regime; the goal was to not allow a Soviet-backed government rule no...

International Red Cross and Red Crescent Movement

International Red Cross and Red Crescent Movement   Reference library

Encyclopedia of Human Rights

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2009
Subject:
Law, Human Rights and Immigration, Social sciences
Length:
6,054 words

...( 1881 ), the United States ( 1881 ), and Japan ( 1887 ). World War I led to tremendous development in the activities of the national societies of the warring parties and of neutral countries as well as of the ICRC. In the aftermath of the war, the president of the American Red Cross, Henry P. Davison , proposed that national societies should turn their attention to peacetime activities, primarily to help curb epidemics. To this end, he proposed uniting their efforts through the establishment of a League of Red Cross Societies, following the model of ...

Adolf Hitler

Adolf Hitler   Reference library

Encyclopedia of Human Rights

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2009
Subject:
Law, Human Rights and Immigration, Social sciences
Length:
3,021 words

...(night of the broken glass), 9 November 1938 . War and Systematic Murder In 1933 Adolf Hitler's regime initiated a program of rearmament for war abroad even as it ended human rights at home. The first war planned, one against Czechoslovakia in 1938 , was called off at the last moment by Hitler, who quickly concluded that this decision had been a terrible mistake. He was determined not to be deprived of war in 1939 . The pogrom of November 1938 already mentioned was as much a preparation for the coming war as were plans for the systematic killing of the...

Humanitarian Law

Humanitarian Law   Reference library

Encyclopedia of Human Rights

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Subject Reference
Current Version:
2009
Subject:
Law, Human Rights and Immigration, Social sciences
Length:
7,895 words

...war : Humanitarian law is an unequivocal negation of total war. The Changing Historical Context Rules to limit violence and destruction in hostilities are probably as old as war itself. Their legitimacy has only exceptionally been put in doubt as such. Indeed, the goal of resorting to war usually is to gain an advantage (such as establishing one's superiority over the other or occupying foreign territory) and not just to kill and destroy. Moreover, the fear of reciprocity has always been an obstacle to violence without any limits, in other words to total war....

International Criminal Court

International Criminal Court   Reference library

Encyclopedia of Human Rights

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2009
Subject:
Law, Human Rights and Immigration, Social sciences
Length:
5,546 words

...it will become one of the most important international institutional innovations since the establishment of the United Nations ( UN ) and the Bretton Woods financial institutions after World War II. Whether the court will fulfill this potential depends on the nature of governments’ support for it and the creative professionalism with which it performs its weighty duties. More than 160 governments participated in the UN Conference of Plenipotentiaries on the Establishment of an International Criminal Court that drafted the Rome Statute, meeting in the last...

Richard J. Goldstone

Richard J. Goldstone   Reference library

Encyclopedia of Human Rights

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2009
Subject:
Law, Human Rights and Immigration, Social sciences
Length:
2,204 words

...law and hold accountable governments and their agents who commit serious war crimes. His experience in the two ad hoc tribunals, and the fact that they were often understaffed and underfunded, underpinned his strong support for a permanent International Criminal Court ( ICC ). He became a strong supporter of the ICC before the ratification of the Rome Treaty that created that court in 1998 , arguing that the establishment of the ICC would signal an end to impunity for war criminals. Other International Activities Although his tenure with the ad hoc...

United Kingdom

United Kingdom   Reference library

Encyclopedia of Human Rights

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2009
Subject:
Law, Human Rights and Immigration, Social sciences
Length:
3,998 words

..., pp. 187–223. Ann Arbor: University of Michigan Press, 2002. Tesón, Fernando R. “Liberal Security.” In Human Rights in the War on Terror , edited by Richard Ashby Wilson , pp. 57–77. Cambridge, U.K.: Cambridge University Press, 2005. Whitehead, Laurence . Democratization: Theory and Experience . Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2002. Wilson, Richard Ashby . “Human Rights in the War on Terror.” In Human Rights in the War on Terror, edited by Richard Ashby Wilson , pp. 1–36. Cambridge, U.K.: Cambridge University Press, 2005. by Todd...

World Council of Churches

World Council of Churches   Reference library

Encyclopedia of Human Rights

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2009
Subject:
Law, Human Rights and Immigration, Social sciences
Length:
3,201 words

...two movements, Life and Work, and Faith and Order, had resolved in 1937 to establish a world council on a permanent basis. World War II delayed but did not halt their ecumenical effort. At its founding Assembly in Amsterdam, 351 delegates representing 147 churches in 44 countries formally approved full establishment of the World Council of Churches. The tone was set by liberal Protestant priorities. Stitching up the wounds of war constituted one of its immediate tasks, including aid to refugees. But its aspirations extended beyond shattered Europe, as it...

American Civil Liberties Union (ACLU)

American Civil Liberties Union (ACLU)   Reference library

Encyclopedia of Human Rights

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2009
Subject:
Law, Human Rights and Immigration, Social sciences
Length:
3,625 words

...read. Plainly, the law is contrary to the mandate of the First, and in violation of the Fourteenth Amendment to the Constitution.” Another prominent set of ACLU cases took place during World War II. Following the Japanese attack on Pearl Harbor, President Franklin Delano Roosevelt , on 19 February 1942 , signed Executive Order 9066, which authorized the establishment of military areas in the United States and the exclusion of any individuals from these areas. The order was then used as the basis for imposing restrictions on Japanese Americans in the United...

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