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war establishment

The level of equipment and manning laid down for a military unit in wartime.

Church and State, Separation of

Church and State, Separation of   Reference library

William M. Wiecek

The Oxford Encyclopedia of American Political and Legal History

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2013
Subject:
Social sciences, Politics, Law, History of Law
Length:
914 words

... ( 1997 )). Issues involving the “establishment” clause generally proved more controversial, however, evoking efforts for constitutional amendments to overturn Supreme Court rulings. Questions of state aid to parochial schools and released time for religious education ignited the controversy. In Everson v. Board of Education ( 1947 ), Justice Hugo Black adopted a strict interpretation of separation and imposed Jefferson ’s metaphor of “a wall of separation” as a canonical reading of the First Amendment. Establishment controversies nevertheless continued,...

Reconstruction Finance Corporation

Reconstruction Finance Corporation   Reference library

Ellis W. Hawley

The Oxford Encyclopedia of American Political and Legal History

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2013
Subject:
Social sciences, Politics, Law, History of Law
Length:
610 words

...efforts to turn it into a provider of venture capital, profit guaranties, or small business relief. The RFC’s greatest expansion came during World War II. In 1940 it was authorized to lend for defense purposes, and subsequently it proceeded through eight subsidiaries to fund programs for stockpiling strategic materials, developing key war industries, and providing war insurance and defense housing. By war’s end it had the reputation of having served the nation well. But after Jones ’s departure in 1945 , it quickly deteriorated into a scandal-ridden,...

DEFENSE DEPARTMENT

DEFENSE DEPARTMENT  

The Oxford Encyclopedia of American Political and Legal History

...in 1949 , evolved from the National Military Establishment (NME), a hybrid organization created by Congress in 1947 to unify the previously separate War and Navy departments, dating from 1781 and 1798 , respectively. Unification had its immediate origins in the experiences of World War II, which demonstrated the need for new organizational mechanisms to achieve more effective military coordination. As the war ended, attention turned to enacting permanent reforms. One plan, sponsored by the War Department and endorsed by President Harry S. Truman...

Buckley, William F., Jr.

Buckley, William F., Jr.   Reference library

J. David Hoeveler

The Oxford Encyclopedia of American Political and Legal History

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2013
Subject:
Social sciences, Politics, Law, History of Law
Length:
303 words

... Buckley himself did not develop a consistent intellectual conservatism; his opinions could reflect any of the varieties he welcomed in his magazine. Usually, however, he saw American conservatives as a beleaguered minority standing against a dominant and privileged liberal establishment. Against this ascendancy, Buckley defended a conservative counterculture and its tribal loyalists. Through his longevity, sustained productivity, and public visibility, Buckley served the conservative intellectual movement as a paterfamilias. [ See also Anti-Communism ;...

National Security Act of 1947

National Security Act of 1947   Reference library

Anna Kasten Nelson

The Oxford Encyclopedia of American Political and Legal History

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2013
Subject:
Social sciences, Politics, Law, History of Law
Length:
589 words

... Harry S. Truman on 26 July 1947 , created four new coordinating agencies: the National Military Establishment, directed by a secretary of defense; a National Security Resources Board to ensure preparedness for a future war; a National Security Council to advise the president on national security policy; and a director of central intelligence to coordinate the military and civilian intelligence services. The 1947 act reflected the experience of World War II and the subsequent recognition that the institutions shaping American strategic and foreign policy...

Northwest Ordinance

Northwest Ordinance   Reference library

Paul G. E. Clemens

The Oxford Encyclopedia of American Political and Legal History

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2013
Subject:
Social sciences, Politics, Law, History of Law
Length:
689 words

...In 1789 , after ratification of the Constitution, Congress reenacted the ordinance with minor modifications. When the Revolutionary War began, seven states claimed lands in the Trans-Appalachian West on the basis of their colonial charters or treaties with Native Americans. As the war grew more protracted and costly, these states faced growing pressure to cede the lands to Congress to provide funds (through land sales) to pay war debts and soldiers’ pensions. By 1786 , Con-gress controlled most of the Ohio territory. Congress faced three problems: governing...

Polk, James Knox

Polk, James Knox   Reference library

Wayne Cutler

The Oxford Encyclopedia of American Political and Legal History

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2013
Subject:
Social sciences, Politics, Law, History of Law
Length:
743 words

...a drawn-out defensive border war upholding Texas ’s sovereignty and its claims to the Rio Grande as its southern boundary. Convinced that Mexico intended to invade Texas and frus-trated when Mexico snubbed John Slidell , his diplomatic emissary, Polk ordered Zachary Taylor and his troops to the Rio Grande . On 24 April 1846 , a large Mexican force crossed the river and captured an American patrol. Reacting forcefully, Polk on 11 May informed Congress that “war exists by the act of Mexico itself.” The resulting war led to U.S . acquisition of...

Hamilton, Alexander

Hamilton, Alexander   Reference library

Paul G. E. Clemens

The Oxford Encyclopedia of American Political and Legal History

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2013
Subject:
Social sciences, Politics, Law, History of Law
Length:
826 words

...In Report for the Support of Public Credit ( 1790 ) he proposed that, to secure the credit of the new United States , the federal government should pay all foreign, domestic, and state debts remaining from the Revolutionary War. He also advocated an ex-cise tax to supplement tariff revenues and the establishment of a mint and a national bank. His Report on Manufactures ( 1791 ), written with Tench Coxe ( 1755 – 1824 ), his assistant secretary, called for the protection and en-couragement of nascent industries. Hamilton envisioned a powerful...

Administrative State

Administrative State   Reference library

Williamjames Hull Hoffer

The Oxford Encyclopedia of American Political and Legal History

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2013
Subject:
Social sciences, Politics, Law, History of Law
Length:
2,652 words

...on the edge of going to war against its own administrative state. The War on Regulation.  Influenced to an extent by the combination of rising prices and seeming economic stagnation, the political culture of the United States turned against regulation, and U.S. presidents from James “Jimmy” E. Carter ( 1977 – 1980 ) onward conducted what some called a “War on Regulation” regardless of whether they were Democrats or Republicans. Carter began the conflict with his deregulation of the airline industry and the establishment of boards of review within the...

Civil Liberties

Civil Liberties   Reference library

Patrick M. Garry and Paul S. Boyer

The Oxford Encyclopedia of American Political and Legal History

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2013
Subject:
Social sciences, Politics, Law, History of Law
Length:
2,079 words

...of civil liberty remained quiescent until 1861 . When the Civil War began, President Abraham Lincoln imposed a series of measures (e.g., suspending the writ of habeas corpus and barring all “treasonable correspondence” from the mails) aimed at silencing opponents of the war. Using a rationale that would often be employed in the next century, Lincoln insisted that restrictions on civil liberties were needed to address the perceived threat of disloyal activities. World War I through World War II.  As these instances illustrate, attacks on civil liberties have...

Daley Richard J.

Daley Richard J.   Reference library

Roger Biles

The Oxford Encyclopedia of American Political and Legal History

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2013
Subject:
Social sciences, Politics, Law, History of Law
Length:
592 words

...suppression of dissent at the 1968 Democratic National Convention and his infamous “shoot to kill” order during the rioting following the assassination of Martin Luther King Jr. , he became widely regarded as a symbol of law and order and an intractable defender of the establishment. As growing numbers of whites left for the suburbs and Chicago ’s black population increased rapidly, the mayor consistently aligned himself politically with the conservative white ethnics who remained in the city. He resist- ed residential desegregation, defended the public...

Eighteenth Amendment

Eighteenth Amendment   Reference library

Richard F. Hamm

The Oxford Encyclopedia of American Political and Legal History

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2013
Subject:
Social sciences, Politics, Law, History of Law
Length:
586 words

...predominantly “wet” Democrats into national office, assured the speedy demise of national Prohibition. The Eighteenth Amendment produced long-lasting consequences for American law and constitutionalism. National Prohibition stimulated growth in the federal law-enforcement establishment, a process that did not disappear after repeal. The Eighteenth Amendment directly shaped the constitutional system by specifying a seven-year time limit for ratification. Such limits subsequently became customary, allowing amendment opponents to translate delay into defeat. [...

Perot, Ross

Perot, Ross   Reference library

Laura Jane Gifford

The Oxford Encyclopedia of American Political and Legal History

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2013
Subject:
Social sciences, Politics, Law, History of Law
Length:
653 words

...on the federal government’s enormous data-processing needs following Medicare’s establishment in 1965 , securing contracts with state medical organizations that brought EDS rapid growth and profits. With revenues skyrocketing from $865,000 in 1965 to over $7.5 million in three years, Perot’s company staged one of the most successful public stock offerings of 1968 . In the late 1960 s, Perot became deeply in-terested in the plight of American prisoners of war in Vietnam . Since that time, Perot has worked with veterans’ groups, attempted to...

Prayer in School

Prayer in School   Reference library

Steven K. Green

The Oxford Encyclopedia of American Political and Legal History

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2013
Subject:
Social sciences, Politics, Law, History of Law
Length:
649 words

...in an 8-to-1 decision struck down the recitation of a prayer approved by the New York Board of School Regents. Although the prayer was nonsectarian in content and student participation was voluntary, the Court held that it was still a religious exercise and violated the Establishment Clause of the Constitution. Interpret-ing that clause, the Court held that the government “is without power to prescribe by law any particular form of prayer which is to be used as an official pray in carrying on any [government] program.” The following year the Court struck...

Rockefeller, Nelson

Rockefeller, Nelson   Reference library

Geoffrey Kabaservice

The Oxford Encyclopedia of American Political and Legal History

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2013
Subject:
Social sciences, Politics, Law, History of Law
Length:
567 words

...New York to mount candidates against the governor and his political allies. Despite Rockefeller ’s hard-line stance against Communism and in favor of American involvement in the Vietnam war, conservatives opposed his civil rights efforts and his drive to make New York the model of a high-tax, high-service state and demonized him as a symbol of the eastern establishment. Rockefeller represented a commingling of financial and political power that worried liberals as well, and he alienated many with his punitive laws against the sale and use of illegal...

Progressive Era

Progressive Era   Reference library

Robert M. Crunden

The Oxford Encyclopedia of American Political and Legal History

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2013
Subject:
Social sciences, Politics, Law, History of Law
Length:
2,051 words

...especially friendly to reform activity. The outbreak of World War I in 1914 began a slow but inexorable shift from domestic to international preoccupations. At first favoring neutrality, Wilson took America into the war in 1917 , an act that, in Wilson’s obsessively theological mind, seemed quintessentially Progressive: America could bring its reform mentality to the supreme task of assuring a permanent world peace. Through a series of “covenants” he would conduct a war to end all wars and instill democratic principles everywhere. Wilson’s failure to...

National Institutes of Health

National Institutes of Health   Reference library

Michael McGeary

The Oxford Encyclopedia of American Political and Legal History

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2013
Subject:
Social sciences, Politics, Law, History of Law
Length:
1,156 words

... Mary Lasker and her associates to push for a “war on cancer” by a new independent author-ity modeled after the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) and the Manhattan Project. An independent NCI was strongly opposed by NIH leaders. Although the National Cancer Act of 1971 left the NCI in the NIH, the NCI emerged with greater authorities and a much larger budget. In the 1980 s and 1990 s, the human genome became a major focus of health research policy, leading to the establishment of an institute for genome research in 1997 in hopes...

PUBLIC HOUSING

PUBLIC HOUSING  

The Oxford Encyclopedia of American Political and Legal History

...be a complex social welfare program that required competence by local officials in a range of political and administrative tasks: drafting legislation and securing short- and long-term government funding; eminent domain and demolition; architectural design and construction; establishment of tenancy and admission standards; and long-term daily tasks such as maintenance, rent collection, and public safety. The difficulty of balancing complex government activities—in a local urban context dominated by deindustrialization, white flight, shifting politics, and...

PUBLIC WELFARE

PUBLIC WELFARE  

The Oxford Encyclopedia of American Political and Legal History

...is filtered through this political system, it is no wonder that the comprehensive public welfare systems common in Europe have been so difficult to establish here. Civil War Pensions: The First Federal Public Welfare Program.  The role of public welfare has grown steadily since the early twentieth century. Conventional social welfare histories were used to trace the establishment of a federal role for public welfare to the New Deal and passage of the 1935 Social Security Act, which provided for aid to poor children (welfare), unemployment insurance,...

Budget, Federal

Budget, Federal   Reference library

Iwan Morgan

The Oxford Encyclopedia of American Political and Legal History

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2013
Subject:
Social sciences, Politics, Law, History of Law
Length:
1,715 words

...in restoring full employment and strong economic growth. World War II’s fiscal legacy shaped postwar budgeting. The personal income tax’s transformation into a mass tax in 1943 provided ample revenue for outlay expansion. In FY 1960 expenditure and receipts each constituted 17.8 percent GDP compared with 9.8 percent and 6.8 percent, respectively, in FY 1940 . Spending composition now prioritized defense over domestic programs. With the Cold War necessitating a huge military establishment, national security averaged 56 percent of outlays in FY 1955 –...

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