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Overview

war establishment

The level of equipment and manning laid down for a military unit in wartime.

Young v. American Mini Theatres, Inc.

Young v. American Mini Theatres, Inc.  

Reference type:
Overview Page
Subject:
Law
427 U.S. 50 (1976), argued 24 Mar. 1976, decided 24 June 1976 by vote of 5 to 4; Stevens for a plurality of the Court, Powell concurring, Stewart, Brennan, Marshall, and Blackmun in dissent. Although ...
Griffith Court

Griffith Court  

Reference type:
Overview Page
Subject:
Law
(5 October 1903 to 17 October 1919).The challenges that faced the High Court upon its establishment in 1903 were many and varied and, in all probability, more troublesome than ...
Rosenberger v. University of Virginia

Rosenberger v. University of Virginia  

Reference type:
Overview Page
Subject:
Law
515 U.S. 819 (1995), argued 1 Mar. 1995, decided 29 June 1995 by vote of 5 to 4; Kennedy for the Court, O’Connor and Thomas concurring, Souter, Stevens, Ginsburg, and Breyer in dissent. The bitter ...
International Criminal Court

International Criminal Court  

Reference type:
Overview Page
Subject:
Law
(ICC)A permanent court to try individuals for the most serious offences of global concern. In July 1998, 160 nations signed the Statute of Rome in order to establish this court. Crimes within the ...
Flast v. Cohen

Flast v. Cohen  

Reference type:
Overview Page
Subject:
Law
392 U.S. 83 (1968), argued 12 Mar. 1968, decided 10 June 1968 by vote of 8 to 1; Warren for the Court, Douglas, Stewart, and Fortas concurring separately, Harlan in dissent. A group of taxpayers sued ...
self-help

self-help  

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Overview Page
Subject:
Law
N.1 Action taken by a person to whom a wrong has been done to protect his rights without recourse to the courts. Self-help is permitted in certain torts, such as trespass and nuisance. A trespasser ...
Elements of Crime

Elements of Crime  

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Overview Page
Res. F of the Final Act of the U.N. Diplomatic Conference of Plenipotentiaries on the Establishment of an International Criminal Court of 17 July 1998 (U.N. Doc. A/CONF.183/10) established the ...
self‐help

self‐help   Quick reference

A Dictionary of Law Enforcement (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2015
Subject:
Law
Length:
224 words

...agency, an injured state undertook on its own account the defence of the claim it was making. Forcible measures falling short of war might prove sufficient; failing these, war might be resorted to as the ultimate means of self-help. Since self-help was regarded at international law as a legal remedy, the results secured by it were recognized by the international community as a final settlement of the case. Since the establishment of the United Nations, self-help with regard to use of force can only be legal in so far as it forms part of a legitimate claim...

self-help

self-help   Quick reference

A Dictionary of Law (9 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2018
Subject:
Law
Length:
225 words

...agency, an injured state undertook on its own account the defence of the claim it was making. Forcible measures falling short of war might prove sufficient; failing these, war might be resorted to as the ultimate means of self-help. Since self-help was regarded at international law as a legal remedy, the results secured by it were recognized by the international community as a final settlement of the case. Since the establishment of the United Nations, self-help with regard to use of force can only be legal in so far as it forms part of a legitimate claim...

war crimes tribunals

war crimes tribunals   Reference library

The New Oxford Companion to Law

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2009
Subject:
Law
Length:
774 words

...was not exercised until war in the Balkans, and genocide in Rwanda led to the establishment of the International Criminal Tribunal for the former Yugoslavia (‘ ICTY ’) in the Hague in 1993 , and the International Criminal Tribunal Rwanda (‘ ICTR’) in Arusha, Tanzania in 1994 . Although plagued by delays and cost overruns, the ICTY must be credited with establishing important precedents, such as holding that offences committed in ‘internal armed conflicts’ (as distinguished from international armed conflicts) can be considered war crimes in international...

School Prayer and Bible Reading

School Prayer and Bible Reading   Reference library

Stanley Ingber and Noah Feldman

The Oxford Companion to the Supreme Court of the United States (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2005
Subject:
Law
Length:
947 words

...Prayer and Bible Reading Early American organized education was religious in character and content. From the time public education began to spread in the 1820 and 1830s until after World War II, most public elementary and secondary schools in America included daily Bible reading and prayer. The Establishment Clause of the First Amendment , initially drafted to apply, like the rest of the Constitution, to the federal government alone, was not relevant to religious activities in state‐run schools. Beginning in the 1840s, Catholic immigrants protested the...

Young v. American Mini Theatres, Inc.

Young v. American Mini Theatres, Inc.   Reference library

Frederick Schauer

The Oxford Companion to the Supreme Court of the United States (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2005
Subject:
Law
Length:
409 words

...the issue of zoning of “adult” establishments (i.e., businesses specializing in the sale of sexually oriented films, magazines, and other items sold only to adults). The case arose when the city of Detroit attempted, through zoning , to prevent concentrations of such businesses, although other constitutionally indistinguishable zoning approaches focus on concentration rather than dispersal of adult establishments. The case's importance lies in the fact that the Detroit ordinance did not require a finding that the establishment dealt in legally obscene...

Young v. American Mini Theatres, Inc.

Young v. American Mini Theatres, Inc.   Quick reference

The Oxford Guide to United States Supreme Court Decisions (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2009
Subject:
Law
Length:
405 words

...the issue of zoning of “adult” establishments, that is, businesses specializing in the sale of sexually oriented films, magazines, and other items sold only to adults. The case arose when the city of Detroit attempted, through zoning, to prevent concentrations of such businesses, although other constitutionally indistinguishable zoning approaches focus on concentration rather than dispersal of adult establishments. The case's importance lies in the fact that the Detroit ordinance did not require a finding that the establishment dealt in legally obscene...

Vietnam War

Vietnam War   Reference library

Michal R. Belknap

The Oxford Companion to the Supreme Court of the United States (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2005
Subject:
Law
Length:
1,571 words

...as a violation of the First Amendment's prohibition against the establishment of religion, the Court interpreted religious beliefs as including moral and philosophical tenets held with the strength of traditional religious convictions. While Seeger and Welsh blatantly distorted the intent of Congress, they did preserve the exemption for those to whom the legislature had wanted to give it. These rulings also increased the number of men who could avoid serving in an increasingly unpopular war. The Court refused, however, to allow those opposed only to...

Conscientious Objection

Conscientious Objection   Reference library

Michael E. Tigar

The Oxford Companion to the Supreme Court of the United States (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2005
Subject:
Law
Length:
711 words

...or when someone who has enlisted in the military undergoes a change of views and becomes opposed to participation in war. The 1917 Draft Act required all able‐bodied males to serve but provided that members of any “well‐recognized religious sect or organization” whose creed forbade “members to participate in war in any form” would be assigned to noncombatant service. Draft‐age objectors claimed that this provision violated the Establishment Clause because it excluded honest believers who were not members of historic “pacifist churches,” such as the Society...

Rosenberger v. University of Virginia

Rosenberger v. University of Virginia   Reference library

Kermit L. Hall

The Oxford Companion to the Supreme Court of the United States (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2005
Subject:
Law
Length:
911 words

...invocation of viewpoint discrimination in denying Rosenberger third‐party funds had violated the Speech Clause of the First Amendment. The circuit court held that in balancing the requirements of the Speech and Establishment Clauses, the university had to do so in favor of the latter. The Fourth Circuit concluded that the Establishment Clause prohibited the university, a state entity, from providing any direct assistance to religion. The unique set of facts in the case stirred to action all of the major constituencies involved in the debate over...

Rosenberger v. University of Virginia

Rosenberger v. University of Virginia   Quick reference

The Oxford Guide to United States Supreme Court Decisions (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2009
Subject:
Law
Length:
910 words

...the Establishment Clause of the First Amendment but the guarantee of freedom of speech in that same amendment. The lower federal courts found in favor of the University of Virginia. The Court of Appeals for the Fourth Circuit affirmed a summary judgment ruling from a federal district court. The Circuit Court found that the university's invocation of viewpoint discrimination in denying Rosenberger third-party funds had violated the Speech Clause of the First Amendment. The Circuit Court held that in balancing the requirements of the Speech and Establishment...

International Criminal Court

International Criminal Court   Quick reference

A Dictionary of Law Enforcement (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2015
Subject:
Law
Length:
457 words

...In July 1998 , 160 nations signed the Statute of Rome in order to establish this court. Crimes within the jurisdiction of the Court are genocide , war crimes , and crimes against humanity, such as widespread or systematic extermination of civilians, enslavement, torture, rape, forced pregnancy, persecution on political, racial, ethnic, or religious grounds, and enforced disappearances. Prior to the establishment of the Court offences had been tried by ad hoc tribunals such as the International Criminal Tribunal for Rwanda . The Court set up by the statute...

Nuremberg trials

Nuremberg trials   Reference library

The New Oxford Companion to Law

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2009
Subject:
Law
Length:
1,022 words

...conduct a second trial of major war criminals was abandoned amid escalating cold war tensions. The Allies did, however, independently conduct smaller trials of lesser Nazi criminals before military courts in their respective occupation zones. The Americans, who controlled southern Germany, conducted a series of follow‐up trials—twelve in total—in Nuremberg, the so‐called Nuremberg Military Tribunals (‘ NMT ’). These twelve proceedings included trials of former members of the Nazi justice, industrial, and medical establishment, as well as members of the...

Judiciary Act of 1869

Judiciary Act of 1869   Reference library

Kermit L. Hall

The Oxford Companion to the Supreme Court of the United States (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2005
Subject:
Law
Length:
260 words

...reformed the federal judicial system. Since the 1790s, the justices had regularly called for an end to circuit riding and the establishment of a separate circuit court judiciary. Congress in 1801 had complied, but that measure was repealed a year later ( see Judiciary Acts of 1801 and 1802 ). By the 1860s such reform was urgent, in part because the Supreme Court's business had grown significantly because of the Civil War and in part because the justices assigned to the more remote circuits could not fulfill their duties. Like the Judiciary Act of...

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