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war establishment

The level of equipment and manning laid down for a military unit in wartime.

Greece, Ancient

Greece, Ancient   Quick reference

World Encyclopedia

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Subject Reference
Current Version:
2004
Subject:
Encyclopedias
Length:
92 words

...Ancient Period beginning with the defeat of the second Persian invasion in 479 bc and ending with the establishment of Macedonian power in 338 bc . Warring city-states flourished as centres of trade. Athens , the most wealthy and powerful, developed a democratic system under the guidance of Pericles . Its main rival was the military state of Sparta . Classical Greece was the birthplace of many ideas in art, literature, philosophy and science – among them those of Plato and Aristotle . It is traditionally regarded as the birthplace of Western...

Hare, Sir David

Hare, Sir David (1947)   Quick reference

World Encyclopedia

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Current Version:
2004
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Encyclopedias
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76 words

...Sir David 1947 –  English playwright and director . He collaborated with Howard Brenton on Pravda ( 1985 ), a study of media corruption. Hare wrote a ‘State of the Nation’ trilogy on the British establishment: Racing Demon ( 1990 ) on the Church of England; Murmuring Judges ( 1991 ) on the legal system; and The Absence of War ( 1993 ) on politics. His screenplays include Plenty and Wetherby (both 1985 ). Other works include Via Dolorosa ( 1998 ) and The Blue Room ( 1999...

Jackson, Andrew

Jackson, Andrew (1767–1845)   Quick reference

World Encyclopedia

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Current Version:
2004
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Encyclopedias
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125 words

... ( 1767–1845 ) Seventh US president ( 1829–37 ). Jackson became a national hero in the War of 1812 when he defeated the British at New Orleans ( 1815 ). Jackson's popular appeal narrowly failed to defeat John Quincy Adams in the 1824 presidential election. His supporters built the basis of the new Democratic Party and Jackson was elected with John C. Calhoun as his vice president in 1828 . Jackson faced staunch opposition from the establishment and set up a spoils system of political appointments. Calhoun resigned over the nullification...

Beijing

Beijing   Quick reference

World Encyclopedia

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Current Version:
2004
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166 words

... ( Peking ) Capital of the People's Republic of China , on a vast plain between the Pei and Hun rivers, NE China. A settlement since c. 1000 bc Beijing served as China's capital from 1421 to 1911 . After the establishment of the Chinese Republic ( 1911-12 ), Beijing remained the political centre of China. The seat of government was transferred to Nanjing in 1928 . Beijing (‘northern capital’) became known as Pei-p'ing (‘northern peace’). Occupied by the Japanese in 1937 , it was restored to China in 1945 and came under Communist control in ...

Puritans

Puritans   Quick reference

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2004
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181 words

...of its preoccupation with what they considered to be ‘Popish’ practice. However, they later demanded the establishment of Presbyterianism . In the 17th century, many of the parliamentary opponents of James I and Charles I were Puritans. Among them were the Pilgrims who emigrated to America. The English Civil War ( 1642–51 ) resulted in part from attempts by Puritan parliamentarians to block Charles I's policies on religious grounds. After the war, the Puritans reached their zenith in 1653 , when Oliver Cromwell established the Protectorate. In ...

Switzerland

Switzerland   Quick reference

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...followed today. The Reformation caused religious divisions, but the Confederation survived to achieve independence in 1648 . The French Revolutionary Wars led to the overthrow of the oligarchy and the establishment of the Helvetic Republic ( 1798-1803 ). In 1815 , the Federation was fully re-established. The Congress of Vienna expanded it to 22 cantons and guaranteed its neutrality. A brief civil war led to the constitution of 1848 , turning Switzerland into a federal state. In 1979 Jura became the 23rd canton. A referendum in 1986 rejected Swiss...

Wales

Wales   Quick reference

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Current Version:
2004
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412 words

...A 1979 referendum voted against devolution. The maintenance of a distinct Welsh culture has been strengthened by the teaching of Welsh in schools and a separate Welsh-language television channel ( 1982 ). A 1997 referendum approved, by the narrowest of margins, the establishment of a separate Welsh Assembly in Cardiff. Economy North Wales is predominantly agricultural, with the world's greatest density of sheep. Dairy farming is also important. Tourism is important in the coastal region of Gwynedd . The s valleys and coastal plain are Wales'...

Albania

Albania   Quick reference

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Current Version:
2004
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657 words
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...of the Communist Party , led by Ramiz Alia, won the struggle for power. The new government instituted a wide programme of reforms including the legalization of religion, the encouragement of foreign investment, the introduction of a free market for peasants' produce and the establishment of pluralist democracy. The Communists comfortably retained their majority in 1991 elections, but the government was brought down two months later by a general strike. An interim coalition ‘national salvation’ committee took over, but collapsed within six months. Elections...

Iran

Iran   Quick reference

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Current Version:
2004
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1,061 words
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...1979 the government was overthrown, the Shah fled, and Khomeini established an Islamic republic. Politics The Iran-Iraq war , fought over disputed borders from 1980-8, drastically reduced oil production. Output returned to its mid-1970s levels by 1994 . Khomeini died in 1989 but anti-Western attitudes continued to dominate. In 1997 and 2001 the liberal Mohammad Khatami was elected president, but the clerical establishment and institutions such as the judiciary and the Expediency Council blocked most of his reformist plans. From 2003 onwards the...

Urban VIII

Urban VIII (1568–1644)   Quick reference

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2004
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56 words

...VIII ( 1568–1644 ) Pope ( 1623–44 ), b. Maffeo Barberini . His reign coincided with much of the Thirty Years' War . Fearing possible domination of the papacy by the Habsburgs , he supported France and gave little help to German Roman Catholics. An active and knowledgeable patron of the arts, he also approved the establishment of new...

Zhu De

Zhu De (1886–1976)   Quick reference

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Current Version:
2004
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Length:
85 words

... dynasty. In 1922 , he met Zhou Enlai and joined the Chinese Communist Party. In 1928 , Zhu joined forces with Mao Zedong , and led his section of the Fourth Red Army on the Long March ( 1934–35 ). Commander in chief during the Second Sino-Japanese War, he retained the post after the establishment of a communist republic ( 1949 ). Zhu held several important party posts before being denounced during the Cultural Revolution...

Adenauer, Konrad

Adenauer, Konrad (1876–1967)   Quick reference

World Encyclopedia

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Current Version:
2004
Subject:
Encyclopedias
Length:
69 words

...of the Federal Republic of Germany ( 1949–63 ). He was Lord Mayor of Cologne ( 1917–33 ) and was twice imprisoned by the Nazis. He helped to create the Christian Democratic Union ( CDU ), West Germany's dominant post-war party, and was its leader ( 1946–66 ). Adenauer led West Germany into NATO ( 1955 ) and campaigned for the establishment of the European Economic...

Wilson, Woodrow

Wilson, Woodrow (1856–1924)   Quick reference

World Encyclopedia

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Current Version:
2004
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Encyclopedias
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218 words

...reforms included the establishment of the Federal Reserve System ( 1913 ). Several amendments to the US Constitution were introduced, including Prohibition (18th, 1919 ) and the extension of voting rights to women (19th, 1920 ). The Mexican Revolution brought instability to the s border and Wilson ordered John Pershing 's intervention. His efforts to maintain US neutrality at the start of World War 1 aided his re-election in 1916 . The failure of diplomacy and continuing attacks on US shipping forced Wilson to declare war on Germany ( April...

Asia Minor

Asia Minor   Quick reference

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2004
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170 words

...established colonies in the area; the Persians invaded in the 6th century bc and the Persian Wars followed. Alexander the Great 's empire included this region, although it split into several states after his death. The Romans unified the area in the 2nd century ad . By the 6th century it had become part of the Byzantine empire. In the 13th-15th centuries it was conquered by the Ottoman Turks and remained part of the Ottoman Empire until the establishment of the Republic of Turkey in 1923...

Québec

Québec   Quick reference

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Current Version:
2004
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240 words

...as headquarters for the fur-traders' exploration of the interior. Following the French and Indian Wars ( 1754–63 ), Britain gained French Canada in the Treaty of Paris ( 1763 ). The Constitution Act of 1791 separated off the area w of the Ottawa River as the colony of Upper Canada (now Ontario ). Québec became the British colony of Lower Canada. The revolt ( 1837 ) led by Louis Papineau saw the appointment of the Earl of Durham . With the establishment of the Dominion of Canada in 1867 , Québec became a province. In the late 20th century, the...

Italy

Italy   Quick reference

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Feb 2014
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...Community ( 1958 ). After the establishment of the EEC, Italy's economy began to expand. Much of the economic development took place in the industrialized north. Central Italy is less developed and represents a transition zone between the developed north and the poor agrarian south known as the Mezzogiorno. Italy has been riven by political instability (50 governments since 1947 ), endemic corruption (often linked to the Mafia ), social unrest and the wealth gap between N and S. Politics In 1992 , the old political establishment was driven from office with...

Tunisia

Tunisia   Quick reference

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Feb 2014
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906 words
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...Destour Party in 1964 , and is now known as the Constitutional Assembly. Politics In 1975 , Bourguiba was elected president for life. His government introduced many reforms, including votes for women, but problems arose from the government's successes. For example, the establishment of a national school system led to a very rapid increase in the number of educated people who were unable to find jobs that measured up to their qualifications. The growth of tourism, which provided a valuable source of foreign currency, also led to fears that Western...

Japan

Japan   Quick reference

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Current Version:
Feb 2014
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1,710 words
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...of the Sino-Japanese wars . Under the Treaty of Shimonoseki ( 1895 ), Japan took Taiwan. Korea was made an independent territory, leaving it open to Japanese influence. Rivalry with Russia led to the Russo-Japanese War ( 1904-5 ) and decisive Japanese victory. Under the Treaty of Portsmouth, Japan gained the Liaodong peninsula, which Russia had leased from China, while Russia recognized the supremacy of Japan's interests in Korea. Thus Japan was established as a world power. In World War 1 Japan supported the Allies. After the war, in 1920 , Japan became...

Spain

Spain   Quick reference

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Feb 2014
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...and centralization of power, gaining Portugal in 1580 . The defeat of the Spanish Armada in 1588 dented Spanish naval domination, and during the 17th century Spain's political and economic power went into decline. The War of the Spanish Succession ( 1701-14 ) resulted in the accession of Philip V and the establishment of the Bourbon dynasty. Charles III brought the Church under state control. Charles IV 's reign ended in French occupation and the appointment of Joseph Bonaparte as king. Spanish resistance led to the restoration of the...

Bosnia and Herzegovina

Bosnia and Herzegovina   Quick reference

A Guide to Countries of the World (4 ed.)

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Current Version:
2016
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Encyclopedias, Geographical reference, Social sciences, Regional and Area Studies
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1,342 words
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...that had accompanied all these events erupted into full-scale civil war as each group sought to seize territory while driving out the members of the other communities in a bitter and savage process of ‘ethnic cleansing’. The war was to kill a quarter of a million people, drive one million people out of the country as refugees, and displace another million or so internally. In 1994 , the USA brokered a ceasefire and in 1995 an agreement reached in Dayton, Ohio, brought the war to an end. This established a central government with a rotating...

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