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war establishment

The level of equipment and manning laid down for a military unit in wartime.

Bolshevik

Bolshevik   Reference library

Brewer's Dictionary of Phrase & Fable (19 ed.)

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Subject Reference
Current Version:
2013

...Properly a member of the Russian revolutionary party under lenin , which seized power in 1917 , aiming at the establishment of the supreme power of the proletariat and declaring war on capitalism. The Bolsheviks were so called from the fact that at the party conferences of 1902–3 the Leninists were the majority group (Russian bol’she , ‘more’). The defeated minority were called mensheviks . See also bollinger bolshevism . Bolshie or Bolshy A contraction of bolshevik , used to denote a person with left-wing tendencies, or a rebellious or...

Altmark, The

Altmark, The   Reference library

Brewer's Dictionary of Phrase & Fable (19 ed.)

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Subject Reference
Current Version:
2013

...The Formerly in the Royal Navy, an opprobrious synonym for a ship or an establishment with a reputation for very strict discipline. It derives from a naval exploit of February 1940 , when Captain (later Admiral of the Fleet) Philip Vian , commanding the destroyer HMS Cossack , entered Norwegian territorial waters to effect the release of 299 British prisoners of war from the German supply ship Altmark , which had taken refuge in...

Shape

Shape   Reference library

Brewer's Dictionary of Phrase & Fable (19 ed.)

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Subject Reference
Current Version:
2013

...Shape of things to come, The The way the future will develop. The phrase derives from the title of a 1933 novel by H.G. Wells which chillingly predicted war in 1939 followed by plague, rebellion, the first rocketship to the moon and the establishment of a world government in 2059 . The book formed the basis of Alexander Korda ’s acclaimed film Things to Come ( 1935 ). Shape up or ship out, To Used in injunctions to improve performance or remove oneself/another from the scene. The expression originated in the US military in the mid-20th century. It...

Cambridge English

Cambridge English   Quick reference

The Oxford Companion to the English Language (2 ed.)

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Subject Reference
Current Version:
2018

...Cambridge English . A name for English literature as taught at the U. of Cambridge since the establishment in 1912 of the Edward VII Chair of English Literature, whose first incumbent was Arthur Quiller-Couch : ‘Eventually an English Tripos [final honours degree examination] was proposed and agreed to in 1917 , when, it was remarked, many of the dons who might have opposed it were away at the war. The ensuing Golden Age of Cambridge English has been widely commemorated in myth and memoir’ ( Bernard Bergonzi , Exploding English , 1990 ). Major figures...

Almack’s

Almack’s   Reference library

Brewer's Dictionary of Phrase & Fable (19 ed.)

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Subject Reference
Current Version:
2013

...held there during the london season for more than 75 years. To be admitted was regarded as being almost as great a distinction as being presented at Court. On Almack ’s death in 1781 the establishment passed to his niece, Mrs Willis . In 1893 part of the premises was taken over by auctioneers and the rest let as shops. The building was bombed in the Second World War, and in 1949–50 a block of offices known as Almack House was built on the same...

Orwell, George

Orwell, George (1903–50)   Quick reference

The Oxford Companion to the English Language (2 ed.)

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Subject Reference
Current Version:
2018

...Orwell, George ( 1903–50 ) . Pen name of Eric Arthur Blair , English novelist, journalist, and political thinker. The adoption in 1933 of the pen name, taken from the River Orwell in East Anglia, marked his transformation from a member of the establishment of the British Empire into a social, political, and literary radical. He was born in Montihari, Bengal, India, the son of a British civil servant, and educated at Eton (where Aldous Huxley was one of his masters). From there he went in 1922 to serve in the Indian Imperial Police in Burma, but...

Chinese

Chinese   Reference library

Brewer's Dictionary of Phrase & Fable (19 ed.)

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Subject Reference
Current Version:
2013

...Chinese ship’s cook, left his vessel and, marrying an English girl, set up an eating establishment in Piccadilly Circus. The restaurant, the Cathay, catered mainly for old colonial types who had returned to England from the Far East. Its popularity increased in the Second World War, when US GIs began taking their girlfriends there. Other family-run restaurants started to open elsewhere in London and in cities such as Liverpool and Manchester, their chief clientele after the war being British soldiers who had returned from the Far East. Chinese restaurant...

Uncle

Uncle   Reference library

Brewer's Dictionary of Phrase & Fable (19 ed.)

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Subject Reference
Current Version:
2013

... ( 1789–1883 ), a slave who was subsequently ordained as a Methodist preacher, and who came to London in 1876 to be presented to Queen Victoria . The phrase ‘Uncle Tom’ is now used critically to denote a black person regarded as subservient or obsequious to the white establishment . Bob’s your uncle See under bob . Dutch uncle See under dutch . Old Uncle Tom Cobbleigh See under old...

Decisive battles

Decisive battles   Reference library

Brewer's Dictionary of Phrase & Fable (19 ed.)

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Subject Reference
Current Version:
2013

...; tudor ; yorkist . Tenochtitlán ( 1521 ). The capture of the aztec capital by the Spanish conquistador Hernán Cortés was followed by the establishment of the first overseas European empire. Pavia ( 1525 ). The defeat and capture of Francis I of France by Imperial forces ended French ambitions in Italy. Panipat ( 1526 ). Babur of Kabul’s great victory in India was followed by the establishment of the mogul Empire in the subcontinent. Mohács ( 1526 ). The Turkish defeated the Hungarians and went on to conquer their country. Lepanto ( 1571...

Prefix

Prefix   Quick reference

The Oxford Companion to the English Language (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2018

...do not. They usually occur singly ( un - in unhappy, re - in re-write ), but sometimes occur in pairs: un -, re -, in unremarried not married again; anti -, dis -, in antidisestablishment . In these examples, both prefixes are productive (that is, married and establishment are independent base words), but pairing is commonly the addition of a productive to a non-productive prefix: productive in - to non-productive re - in irredeemable (no * deemable ); in - added to con - in inconclusive (no * clusive ). Sometimes, the same prefix may...

American English

American English   Quick reference

The Oxford Companion to the English Language (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2018
Subject:
Language reference, History of English, Linguistics
Length:
3,936 words

...of journalism, the expansion of education at all levels, and the publication of textbooks and dictionaries. The establishment of a national identity and its domestic elaboration were the preoccupation of this period, but by the end of the century new directions in national policy began to affect the language. By the 1890s the domestic frontier was exhausted, and expansionism took Americans into territories overseas. The Spanish-American War ( 1898 ) lasted barely four months, but was a turning-point in foreign policy. During the 120 years since the...

Stone

Stone   Reference library

Brewer's Dictionary of Phrase & Fable (19 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2013

...considerably over the continents, with the use of bows and arrows, stone axes, bone tools and the like persisting in Papua New Guinea, for example, in the present century. See also neolithic age ; palaeolithic age . Stone frigate A sailor’s name for barracks or a shore establishment. Stone lilies St cuthbert’s beads . Stone of Destiny, The See stone of scone . Stone of Scone, The The great coronation stone, the Stone of Destiny, on which the Scottish kings were formerly crowned at Scone, near Perth. It was removed by Edward I in 1296 and brought to...

Received Pronunciation

Received Pronunciation   Quick reference

The Oxford Companion to the English Language (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2018
Subject:
Language reference, History of English, Linguistics
Length:
1,793 words

...favoured for recruits to the Foreign Office and other services representing the British nation (largely drawn from the public schools, with a slight enlargement of the catchment area in recent years). Newcomers to the British establishment have tended to ensure that their children acquire RP by sending them to the ‘right’ schools or, especially in the past in the case of girls, to elocution teachers. In these schools the accent has never been overtly taught, but appears to have been indirectly encouraged and often promoted through peer pressure that has...

Examining in English

Examining in English   Quick reference

The Oxford Companion to the English Language (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2018
Subject:
Language reference, History of English, Linguistics
Length:
1,859 words

...Service Commission (set up to consider inefficiencies in the Crimean War and the problems of directly governing India) called for recruitment ‘by public competition and not by private patronage’ and for the provision of tests by the universities of Oxford and Cambridge of ‘the elements of a plain English education’. Two bodies were set up, the Oxford Delegacy and the Cambridge Syndicate , which remain central to the British tradition of examining by independent bodies. Their establishment lent weight to the existing external examinations of the University...

Red

Red   Reference library

Brewer's Dictionary of Phrase & Fable (19 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2013

...to be prepared for an emergency. The term dates from the 1950s and chiefly finds application in military establishments and hospitals. In the latter it is an instruction that emergency cases only are to be admitted. Red Army The combined Soviet army and air force were officially so named from 1918 to 1946 , when the forces were renamed the Soviet Army. The original name was long preferred by the Western media, however. Red Baron, The The World War I German fighter pilot Manfred Freiherr von Richthofen ( 1892–1918 ), so known from his red Fokker aircraft....

English in England

English in England   Quick reference

The Oxford Companion to the English Language (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2018
Subject:
Language reference, History of English, Linguistics
Length:
2,114 words

...was strong and successful resistance to suggestions for an Academy on the French model. There continues to be a feeling that a certain type of English is the best, phrases like the Queen’s English , bbc english ; oxford english suggesting that the ruling and cultural establishment has by right the correct usage. Standard and accent There is in England a degree of confusion between the terms standard english ( SE ) and received pronunciation ( RP ). Although SE is generally defined by linguists and teachers in terms only of grammar and vocabulary, and...

Old

Old   Reference library

Brewer's Dictionary of Phrase & Fable (19 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2013

...custom, as ‘Ye Olde Tea Shoppe’. London’s Olde Mitre Tavern in Ely Place is a genuine 16th-century building. Old Firm The collective name for Glasgow’s two most famous and successful football teams, Rangers and Celtic, when regarded together as the Scottish football ‘establishment’. The term, which dates back to the early 20th century, reflects the dominance these two clubs have always had over Scottish football. One theory is that it derives from a newspaper report of the first Celtic–Rangers match in 1888 , which said that the players ‘got on so well...

depot

depot   Quick reference

The Oxford Dictionary of Word Origins (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2010
Subject:
Language reference, History of English
Length:
58 words

...is the source of both depot and deposit [L16th] , although depot entered English from French dépôt . The earliest meaning of depot was ‘an act of depositing’ rather than ‘a place for storage’, as it is now. The earliest depots were military establishments for stores, assembled recruits, and even prisoners of war...

mocker

mocker   Quick reference

The Oxford Dictionary of Word Origins (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2010
Subject:
Language reference, History of English
Length:
118 words

...‘sore, plague’, or be the same word as mocker [LME] meaning ‘someone who mocks’. Another Antipodean mocker, meaning ‘clothes, dress’, was brought back from Egypt by New Zealand troops after the First World War. It is based on Egyptian Arabic makwagi ‘presser of clothes’-in Egypt and other Middle Eastern countries there are clothes-pressing establishments with changing rooms where people can shed the outfits they are wearing and have them pressed. Mock [LME] meaning ‘to make fun of’ is a quite different word, from Old French mocquer ‘to...

Pulitzer Prize

Pulitzer Prize   Quick reference

A New Dictionary of Eponyms

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2002
Subject:
Language reference, History of English
Length:
327 words

...the vulgarity of his special features intensified as he went into a circulation war with William Hearst 's Journal . Although guilty of “yellow journalism” to involve this country in what turned out to be the Spanish-American War, the paper made a remarkable about-face and pursued such a strong anti-imperialist policy that Teddy Roosevelt became irate, and the government sued Pulitzer for libel. Pulitzer's will provided for some notable distributions, including the establishment of the Columbia University School of Journalism, which confers the Pulitzer...

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