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Overview

war establishment

The level of equipment and manning laid down for a military unit in wartime.

Blimp, Colonel

Blimp, Colonel ([Cart. & Com.])   Quick reference

A Dictionary of Reference and Allusion (3 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2010
Subject:
Language reference
Length:
63 words

...Colonel [Cart. & Com.] A pompous, irascible, elderly character invented by the cartoonist David Low during the Second World War. > Someone with reactionary Establishment opinions, who is opposed to anything new It is sad to find the editor of one of the few outlets in favour of radical change adopting the attitude, and language, of a Colonel Blimp. The Ecologist ...

Science

Science   Reference library

Encyclopedia of Rhetoric

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2006
Subject:
Language reference, Linguistics
Length:
7,139 words

...that received scientific wisdom should be taught dogmatically. Indeed, religiously inspired inquirers may be better placed than most to see the flaws in secular scientific accounts, simply because they are motivated by something other than the reward system of the scientific establishment. Of course, this does not ensure the validity of their observations, let alone the religious beliefs that underwrite them, but it does provide a kind of check that scientists who specialize in, say, evolutionary biology might not otherwise encounter. In the end, perhaps the...

Deliberative genre

Deliberative genre   Reference library

Encyclopedia of Rhetoric

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2006
Subject:
Language reference, Linguistics
Length:
5,376 words

...They find wars being stopped by college students, environmental laws passed by the children of corporation executives, and Nelson Mandela's cause assisted by a distant band of college professors. They point to an American president driven from office by a free press, a Russian president honored for dismantling a mighty Communist machine, and an Iraqi dictator stopped in his tracks by an unlikely coalition of United Nations forces. They could point, too, to gays suddenly being treated as full citizens, to a massive military establishment put on a short...

African-American rhetoric

African-American rhetoric   Reference library

Encyclopedia of Rhetoric

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2006
Subject:
Language reference, Linguistics
Length:
9,882 words

...significantly to the establishment of the academic discipline of sociology in the United States, and was a founding member of the National Association for the Advancement of Colored People ( NAACP ). Double-consciousness, Du Bois remarked, reflected “a sense of always looking at one's self through the eyes of others, of measuring one's soul by the tape of a world that looks on in amused contempt and pity. One ever feels his two-ness—an American, a Negro; two souls, two thoughts, two unreconciled strivings; two warring ideals in one dark body, whose...

Classical rhetoric

Classical rhetoric   Reference library

Encyclopedia of Rhetoric

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2006
Subject:
Language reference, Linguistics
Length:
16,967 words

...work by Aristotle, credit the “invention” of an art of rhetoric to two Sicilians called Corax and Tisias. The alleged occasion was the need to provide some skill in public speaking to persons involved in litigation of property rights after the expulsion of the tyrants and establishment of democracy in Syracuse about 466 bce Corax means “crow” in Greek, and it is probable that Corax and Tisias are the same person and that the nickname “Corax” was given to Tisias by those who resented his “cawing.” Although details in the story are unreliable, two...

Audience

Audience   Reference library

Encyclopedia of Rhetoric

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2006
Subject:
Language reference, Linguistics
Length:
11,691 words

...can spread across a time-zone, a nation, or occasionally the entire planet—are typical examples of noncontiguous attention collectives, print media led the way well before electronic media. Not least among the historical consequences of the printing press was the establishment of dispersed social collectives such as scientific “invisible colleges” and national “imagined communities” ( Anderson , 1991 ). Medieval manuscript culture did sustain farflung diasporas among Jewish, Christian, and Muslim scholars, but print, combined with mass literacy,...

Logos

Logos   Reference library

Encyclopedia of Rhetoric

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2006
Subject:
Language reference, Linguistics
Length:
8,568 words

...division of intellectual labor among academic disciplines began to emerge. With that differentiation, the history of logos also differentiates: logos means quite different things in philosophy, literature and aesthetics, and rhetoric. Modernity: Logos Divided . The establishment of modernity is marked by the development of the sciences, the specialization of knowledge in academic disciplines, the revolutionary transformation of customary political forms, and the construction of subjectivity as a particular mode of knowledge. Under these circumstances,...

Bolshevik

Bolshevik   Reference library

Brewer's Dictionary of Phrase & Fable (19 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2013

...Properly a member of the Russian revolutionary party under lenin , which seized power in 1917 , aiming at the establishment of the supreme power of the proletariat and declaring war on capitalism. The Bolsheviks were so called from the fact that at the party conferences of 1902–3 the Leninists were the majority group (Russian bol’she , ‘more’). The defeated minority were called mensheviks . See also bollinger bolshevism . Bolshie or Bolshy A contraction of bolshevik , used to denote a person with left-wing tendencies, or a rebellious or...

Altmark, The

Altmark, The   Reference library

Brewer's Dictionary of Phrase & Fable (19 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2013

...The Formerly in the Royal Navy, an opprobrious synonym for a ship or an establishment with a reputation for very strict discipline. It derives from a naval exploit of February 1940 , when Captain (later Admiral of the Fleet) Philip Vian , commanding the destroyer HMS Cossack , entered Norwegian territorial waters to effect the release of 299 British prisoners of war from the German supply ship Altmark , which had taken refuge in...

Shape

Shape   Reference library

Brewer's Dictionary of Phrase & Fable (19 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2013

...Shape of things to come, The The way the future will develop. The phrase derives from the title of a 1933 novel by H.G. Wells which chillingly predicted war in 1939 followed by plague, rebellion, the first rocketship to the moon and the establishment of a world government in 2059 . The book formed the basis of Alexander Korda ’s acclaimed film Things to Come ( 1935 ). Shape up or ship out, To Used in injunctions to improve performance or remove oneself/another from the scene. The expression originated in the US military in the mid-20th century. It...

Cambridge English

Cambridge English   Quick reference

The Oxford Companion to the English Language (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2018

...Cambridge English . A name for English literature as taught at the U. of Cambridge since the establishment in 1912 of the Edward VII Chair of English Literature, whose first incumbent was Arthur Quiller-Couch : ‘Eventually an English Tripos [final honours degree examination] was proposed and agreed to in 1917 , when, it was remarked, many of the dons who might have opposed it were away at the war. The ensuing Golden Age of Cambridge English has been widely commemorated in myth and memoir’ ( Bernard Bergonzi , Exploding English , 1990 ). Major figures...

Almack’s

Almack’s   Reference library

Brewer's Dictionary of Phrase & Fable (19 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2013

...held there during the london season for more than 75 years. To be admitted was regarded as being almost as great a distinction as being presented at Court. On Almack ’s death in 1781 the establishment passed to his niece, Mrs Willis . In 1893 part of the premises was taken over by auctioneers and the rest let as shops. The building was bombed in the Second World War, and in 1949–50 a block of offices known as Almack House was built on the same...

Orwell, George

Orwell, George (1903–50)   Quick reference

The Oxford Companion to the English Language (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2018

...Orwell, George ( 1903–50 ) . Pen name of Eric Arthur Blair , English novelist, journalist, and political thinker. The adoption in 1933 of the pen name, taken from the River Orwell in East Anglia, marked his transformation from a member of the establishment of the British Empire into a social, political, and literary radical. He was born in Montihari, Bengal, India, the son of a British civil servant, and educated at Eton (where Aldous Huxley was one of his masters). From there he went in 1922 to serve in the Indian Imperial Police in Burma, but...

Chinese

Chinese   Reference library

Brewer's Dictionary of Phrase & Fable (19 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2013

...Chinese ship’s cook, left his vessel and, marrying an English girl, set up an eating establishment in Piccadilly Circus. The restaurant, the Cathay, catered mainly for old colonial types who had returned to England from the Far East. Its popularity increased in the Second World War, when US GIs began taking their girlfriends there. Other family-run restaurants started to open elsewhere in London and in cities such as Liverpool and Manchester, their chief clientele after the war being British soldiers who had returned from the Far East. Chinese restaurant...

Uncle

Uncle   Reference library

Brewer's Dictionary of Phrase & Fable (19 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2013

... ( 1789–1883 ), a slave who was subsequently ordained as a Methodist preacher, and who came to London in 1876 to be presented to Queen Victoria . The phrase ‘Uncle Tom’ is now used critically to denote a black person regarded as subservient or obsequious to the white establishment . Bob’s your uncle See under bob . Dutch uncle See under dutch . Old Uncle Tom Cobbleigh See under old...

Decisive battles

Decisive battles   Reference library

Brewer's Dictionary of Phrase & Fable (19 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2013

...; tudor ; yorkist . Tenochtitlán ( 1521 ). The capture of the aztec capital by the Spanish conquistador Hernán Cortés was followed by the establishment of the first overseas European empire. Pavia ( 1525 ). The defeat and capture of Francis I of France by Imperial forces ended French ambitions in Italy. Panipat ( 1526 ). Babur of Kabul’s great victory in India was followed by the establishment of the mogul Empire in the subcontinent. Mohács ( 1526 ). The Turkish defeated the Hungarians and went on to conquer their country. Lepanto ( 1571...

Spengler, Oswald

Spengler, Oswald (1880–1936)   Reference library

Encyclopedia of Semiotics

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2007
Subject:
Language reference, Linguistics
Length:
697 words

...But Spengler's hold on the popular imagination was great and provides a telling index of the somber mood of the Germany between the two world wars. Most of Spengler's writings other than the Decline focus on contemporary German politics. In “Prussianism and Socialism” ( 1919 ), he argues that the two extreme poles of German politics, the conservatives and the socialists, have a similar aim: the establishment of a strong state designed to further the welfare of its people. Every nation within a larger historical culture (e.g., “Faustian,” “Magian,” etc.),...

Prefix

Prefix   Quick reference

The Oxford Companion to the English Language (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2018

...do not. They usually occur singly ( un - in unhappy, re - in re-write ), but sometimes occur in pairs: un -, re -, in unremarried not married again; anti -, dis -, in antidisestablishment . In these examples, both prefixes are productive (that is, married and establishment are independent base words), but pairing is commonly the addition of a productive to a non-productive prefix: productive in - to non-productive re - in irredeemable (no * deemable ); in - added to con - in inconclusive (no * clusive ). Sometimes, the same prefix may...

American English

American English   Quick reference

The Oxford Companion to the English Language (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2018
Subject:
Language reference, History of English, Linguistics
Length:
3,936 words

...of journalism, the expansion of education at all levels, and the publication of textbooks and dictionaries. The establishment of a national identity and its domestic elaboration were the preoccupation of this period, but by the end of the century new directions in national policy began to affect the language. By the 1890s the domestic frontier was exhausted, and expansionism took Americans into territories overseas. The Spanish-American War ( 1898 ) lasted barely four months, but was a turning-point in foreign policy. During the 120 years since the...

Stone

Stone   Reference library

Brewer's Dictionary of Phrase & Fable (19 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2013

...considerably over the continents, with the use of bows and arrows, stone axes, bone tools and the like persisting in Papua New Guinea, for example, in the present century. See also neolithic age ; palaeolithic age . Stone frigate A sailor’s name for barracks or a shore establishment. Stone lilies St cuthbert’s beads . Stone of Destiny, The See stone of scone . Stone of Scone, The The great coronation stone, the Stone of Destiny, on which the Scottish kings were formerly crowned at Scone, near Perth. It was removed by Edward I in 1296 and brought to...

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