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war establishment

The level of equipment and manning laid down for a military unit in wartime.

Saharanpur Botanic Garden

Saharanpur Botanic Garden   Reference library

The Oxford Companion to the Garden

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Subject Reference
Current Version:
2006

...flora and enlarging the herbarium, which dated back to Royle's time, and was later ( 1908 ) donated to the Forest School at Dehra Dun. Despite the destruction of most of its trees by troops during the Second World War the garden still exists, reasonably well maintained, but unlabelled and little visited, run as a horticultural research establishment. Henry...

Germany

Germany   Reference library

The Oxford Companion to the Garden

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Current Version:
2006

...Socialist ideas. Post-Second World War garden architecture In the Second World War Germany's major cities, including their parks and other open spaces, were badly damaged. The establishment of two German states in 1949 , the Federal Republic of Germany (BRD), and the German Democratic Republic (DDR), led to different developments in the two states. While the BRD became integrated politically and economically within Western Europe and North America, the DDR became dependent on the Soviet Union. With the establishment of the first ‘antifascist state on...

Middleton Place

Middleton Place   Reference library

The Oxford Companion to the Garden

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Current Version:
2006

...of the main garden axis. The pale to deep pink blossoms swim together in waves, their reflection broken in the pond below by the wake of a pair of black swans. Each generation of the Middleton family has made its contribution to this remarkable property; the current being the establishment of a non-profit foundation that has opened the gardens, house, and stableyards to the public as a National Historic Landmark. Hugo...

Denmark

Denmark   Reference library

Annemarie Lund

The Oxford Companion to the Garden

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Current Version:
2006

...establishment of green areas close to Copenhagen, and park directors in the 1930s and 1940s established an outer green belt around Copenhagen. Several landscape architects, such as C. Th. Sørensen , Sven Hansen , and Georg Boye , continued to experiment with geometrical shapes, most notably at Nærum allotment gardens and at Herning Art Museum . Other projects, laid out quite simply but especially expressive because of their subtle planting, were designed by Aksel Andersen , Troels Erstad ( 1911–49 ), and Arne Jacobsen . After the Second World War,...

nursery

nursery   Reference library

Patrick Taylor

The Oxford Companion to the Garden

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Current Version:
2006

...which, through their connections and garden design business, supplied many of the royal gardens and aristocratic estates—a position of power unique in the history of English gardens. The 18th century saw an extraordinary increase in the nursery trade in Britain and the establishment of the first commercial nursery in North America, the Prince Nursery . Robert Prince founded the business, at Flushing on Long Island, as early as 1737 . The nursery became very important both for the dissemination of North American plants to Europe as well as for the...

landscape architecture

landscape architecture   Reference library

Dr Brent Elliott

The Oxford Companion to the Garden

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2006

...Architects (IFLA) was founded, with Geoffrey Jellicoe as its first president. Professional organization required the establishment of qualifications and training programmes. Liverpool, which had organized the first degree course in architecture in 1894 , followed with the first course in landscape architecture in 1909 , with Mawson as the lecturer. Reading University followed during the 1930s, but it was not until the post-war years that such courses multiplied, with Durham, Edinburgh, Sheffield, and London setting up courses, generally within...

Royal Horticultural Society

Royal Horticultural Society   Reference library

Dr Brent Elliott

The Oxford Companion to the Garden

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2006

...that year; a reading room and library for students were set up at Chiswick in 1846 . Since that time the society has continually promoted professional standards and education in gardening, from the setting of practical examinations in horticulture in 1865 , through the establishment in 1893 of the RHS General Examination and in 1913 of the National Diploma in Horticulture, now succeeded by the Master of Horticulture (RHS). It has also set up the Institute of Horticulture as an organization for professional gardeners. The amateur gardener has benefited...

Bulgaria

Bulgaria   Reference library

Assen Gasharov

The Oxford Companion to the Garden

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Current Version:
2006

...achieved in all elements. Their organization also mirrored the cultural symbolism—a single large tree (chestnut, walnut, or pear) would dominate the skyline, giving protection to the courtyard. Later on, around 1850 , the increasing importance of social standing led to the establishment of two distinctive court spaces: the front garden, for more public activities, and the back garden for domestic activities. Significant regional differences based on the local topography can be observed. The low-lying towns of Karlovo and Koprivshtitza feature larger,...

Hungary

Hungary   Reference library

The Oxford Companion to the Garden

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Current Version:
2006

...as well as of public gardens and city parks. New genres of gardens grew up as a result of urbanization—factory gardens, public gardens, domestic gardens, institutional gardens, front gardens, and so forth. The number of gardens grew by leaps and bounds, too, leading to the establishment of private and public gardening companies. A generation of entrepreneurial landscape gardeners and architects emerged, who, in addition to laying out plans, would bring the necessary plants and other materials from their own nurseries and workshops ( Ármin Pecz Sr. and Jr. , ...

Russia

Russia   Reference library

The Oxford Companion to the Garden

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Current Version:
2006

...made a significant personal contribution to the shaping of the city's new gardens. He was directly concerned in arranging for the supply of plants from abroad and from other parts of Russia, in the import of sculpture from Italy, in the development of nurseries, and in the establishment of schools for gardeners and architects. Some Russian features were retained in the new gardens, particularly the planting of fruit bushes in formal areas and the use of native trees, including clipped fir trees and junipers. Among the great gardens made during Peter's reign...

Switzerland

Switzerland   Reference library

The Oxford Companion to the Garden

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Current Version:
2006

... Horti Germaniae , describing all the species of plants occurring in German gardens. The Lucerne city chronicler and apothecary Renward Cysat ( 1545–1614 ) and the Basle physician and scholar Felix Platter ( 1536–1614 ) also devoted themselves to such studies and to the establishment of botanical gardens. The garden arts of the High Renaissance in Switzerland were furthered by officers returning from service in the French armies and taking French Renaissance gardens as models for their own country estates. The family seats of the Innerschweiz are a...

United States of America

United States of America   Reference library

Denise Otis

The Oxford Companion to the Garden

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Current Version:
2006

...Washington's heirs who could no longer maintain it. The ongoing restoration and maintenance of the house and landscape still depends solely on private funding, a model followed by many later such organizations. Gardens, preservation, horticulture from the Civil War to the Second World War If the Civil War ( 1861–5 ) caused a brief slowing of garden and park creation, momentum soon returned. The US government pioneered a new field in landscape design by reserving large areas of scenic or scientific interest for public enjoyment, which required expert design and...

Sweden

Sweden   Reference library

Dr Kjell Lundquist

The Oxford Companion to the Garden

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Current Version:
2006

...The meadows, multifunctional and aesthetically arranged, became the quintessence of early designed landscape, still existing, and with a rich meadow flora as a by-product. The Middle Ages and the Reformation Medieval garden history ( 1050–1550 ) is intimately linked to the establishment of the monastic system. About twenty Cistercian monasteries were founded during the second part of the 12th century. The gardens of the convent of Saint Birgitta in Vadstena ( 1346 ) were partly laid out by Johan Päterson, commissioned by Birgitta herself. Together with Sister...

Netherlands, the

Netherlands, the   Reference library

The Oxford Companion to the Garden

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Subject Reference
Current Version:
2006

...for a city park. This provided the rationale for an approach that made green space an integrated part of any new development, rather than a separate afterthought. It also provided the reasoning behind the establishment of such parks as Amsterdam Bos . As a result of the Amsterdam approach to green space, which was mirrored with that in Rotterdam, the post-war emphasis on park design was on how to integrate parks seamlessly as part of the living environment. Wim Boer 's competition entry for the Gijsbrecht van Aemstelpark (Amsterdam-Buitenveldert; 1959 ) is...

London parks and gardens

London parks and gardens   Reference library

Patrick Taylor

The Oxford Companion to the Garden

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Current Version:
2006

...available land on the periphery, particularly east of the city. In the late 17th century Leonard Gurle's Whitechapel Nursery was a major supplier of fruit trees and of ornamental shrubs. By the end of the century there were several firms of seedsmen trading in London. The establishment in 1681 of the Brompton Park Nursery in west London, in which George London was a partner, was important not merely for London gardens but for gardens all over England which the nursery supplied. As Todd Longstaffe-Gowan shows in his The London Town Garden ( 2001 ) the...

British Isles

British Isles   Reference library

Patrick Taylor

The Oxford Companion to the Garden

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Current Version:
2006

...1892 ) by Reginald Blomfield and F. Inigo Thomas . The 20th and 21st centuries The two world wars were the greatest influence on gardening in the British Isles in the 20th century. The intensive gardening practised by gardeners such as Gertrude Jekyll , requiring a highly trained and numerous garden staff, did not survive the Second World War. Nor did the great tradition of the municipal public parks which suffered bomb damage and neglect in the Second World War and suffered even more grievously in the 1980s when so many municipal parks departments (with...

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