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war establishment

The level of equipment and manning laid down for a military unit in wartime.

Androuët

Androuët   Reference library

Paul Freedman

The Oxford Companion to Cheese

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2017

...localities. Parisians then generally limited their tastes to Brie, Camembert, and other cheeses with wide circulation. After World War I and with the gradual construction of automobile routes, Henri Androuët explored France and bought directly from cheese producers. By 1925 the store was renowned for offering at least one hundred varieties of cheeses, all from France. In 1934 a restaurant was opened above the retail establishment and it attracted an enthusiastic clientele with a menu completely focused on cheese. Orson Welles, Ernest Hemingway, and Maria...

European Brewery Convention (EBC)

European Brewery Convention (EBC)   Reference library

Karl-Ullrich Heyse and Garrett Oliver

The Oxford Companion to Beer

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2013

...EBC was founded in 1947 in an effort to bring the brewing industry in post-war Europe closer together by giving them a forum through which to share brewing science and technology. As victors and vanquished re-built their brewing industries after World War II, cooperation between them was crucial and the EBC became a critical conduit for information. The EBC has provided critical scientific research to breweries, governments, and policy makers throughout the course of the establishment of European agricultural standards, environmental policies, and food safety...

Victory Gardens

Victory Gardens   Reference library

Daniel Bowman Simon and Amy Bentley

Savoring Gotham: A Food Lover’s Companion to New York City

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2016
Subject:
Society and culture, Cookery, Food, and Drink
Length:
551 words
Illustration(s):
1

...of Music, and the Staten Island Museum. The Brooklyn Botanic Garden held lectures on such topics as “Testing the Soil,” “Planning Gardens,” “Ordering Seeds,” and “Maintenance Spraying” and created a 40-by-10-foot model victory garden on its grounds. New York City retail establishments facilitated and capitalized on the victory garden movement. Macy’s flagship Manhattan store on Thirty-Fourth Street offered free lectures and films and distributed a free twenty-two-page Victory Garden Guide to customers who signed its Victory Garden Pledge Book . Items...

fish and chips

fish and chips   Reference library

The Oxford Companion to Food (3 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2014

...in the fish and chip trade in Scotland) who brought the combination over to Ireland and who still have a secure hold on the business in Dublin. The number of fish and chip establishments grew steadily until the Second World War. Many said that it was the ready supply of fish and chips that kept the working population adequately nourished, contributing to victory in the First World War and survival during the Depression. Although variations on their standard fare, and various gimmicks, were often introduced, the basics never changed: fish (usually cod,...

Gay Bars

Gay Bars   Reference library

Christopher Mitchell

Savoring Gotham: A Food Lover’s Companion to New York City

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2016

...the Great Depression, the 1930s saw a general decline in the visibility and number of lesbian and gay bars. Despite the crackdown on such drinking establishments, Harlem’s Ubangi Club opened in 1934 featuring renowned lesbian performer Gladys Bentley. Although World War II saw a swell of lesbian and gay migrants to the city, military police labeled many lesbian and gay clubs off limits, especially in Harlem, where fears of interracial sex and sociability brought even more intense forms of scrutiny. In the 1950s and 1960s, lesbian and gay bars were essentially...

Soda Fountains

Soda Fountains   Reference library

Adee Braun

Savoring Gotham: A Food Lover’s Companion to New York City

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2016
Subject:
Society and culture, Cookery, Food, and Drink
Length:
851 words
Illustration(s):
1

...the number of soda fountains in New York City swelled during Prohibition. Establishments responded by expanding their menus to include light meals and, increasingly, ice cream—an addition that would later play a role in the downfall of soda fountain culture. Ice cream sodas had become popular after the Civil War, and by the end of the nineteenth century they were soda fountain staples, along with sundaes. More ice cream was sold at soda fountains than at ice cream parlors. After World War II, soda fountains were still found in most drugstores, but as people...

École Nationale d’Industrie Laitière

École Nationale d’Industrie Laitière   Reference library

Lynn L. Sharp

The Oxford Companion to Cheese

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2017

...could bring to the co-op, leading to a more standard product. Similar schools soon developed elsewhere in France. The impact of the programs offered by these schools expanded as agricultural education and modernization gained ground in France, especially after World War II. Today six establishments offer technical dairy education under the aegis of the Ministry of Agriculture. ENIL Besançon Mamirolle and ENILBIO Poligny are the linked national flagship schools, with four agricultural high schools ( lycées agricoles ) also offering post-secondary degrees such as...

Hamburg Steak

Hamburg Steak   Reference library

Andrew F. Smith

Savoring Gotham: A Food Lover’s Companion to New York City

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2016

...“Salisbury steak” appeared in medical texts as well as in cookbooks. As the preparation originated with medical professionals, it was considered a health food. Salisbury steak became very popular during World War I. A similar dish, Hamburg (or Hamburger) steak, came to America via German immigrants. The first located record of it is from an establishment owned by Auguste Ermisch, an immigrant from Mecklenburg-Schwerin. His restaurant, at Nassau and John Streets, featured among other dishes “Hamburg steak,” which was described by the New York Times as “a...

Hungarian

Hungarian   Reference library

Cindy R. Lobel

Savoring Gotham: A Food Lover’s Companion to New York City

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2016

...that included stews (goulash the most famous), casseroles, cabbage rolls, dumplings, and stuffed peppers and featured such spices as paprika and caraway. Hungarians had a significant impact on New York’s restaurant culture in post–Civil War New York. Many of the city’s table d’hôte restaurants—prix fixe establishments that served mid-priced meals—served Hungarian food. The best known of these was Hotel Hungaria, on Union Square, which served seventy-five-cent dinners to middle-class families as well as to artists and journalists. A second wave of...

Japanese

Japanese   Reference library

Nicholas Allanach

Savoring Gotham: A Food Lover’s Companion to New York City

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2016
Subject:
Society and culture, Cookery, Food, and Drink
Length:
1,124 words
Illustration(s):
1

...exclusive to businessmen, celebrities, and cosmopolitans but not the “average” American diner. Today, Fuji Sushi has opened locations in other cities throughout the Northeast and, like other successful sushi establishments, has expanded its business model to include catering large-scale sushi orders for events and parties. Japanese food establishments now are quite common inside and outside the city. In fact, Fuji Sushi is likely low on the list of places you should dine to experience high-quality, authentic Japanese cuisine. Despite its current popularity,...

Saloons

Saloons   Reference library

Peter LaFrance

Savoring Gotham: A Food Lover’s Companion to New York City

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2016

...spirits. These establishments were often nothing more than a wood plank placed on top of two empty beer barrels under a tent or in a crude structure. Beer and spirits were served to an all-male clientele. Female companionship was provided for a price. These basic drinking establishments were known as “saloons,” a word derived in the early eighteenth century from French salon , and from Italian salone , meaning “large hall.” By the late 1850s, the term “saloon” had begun to appear in directories and common usage as a term for an establishment that specialized...

Slang

Slang   Reference library

Andrew F. Smith

Savoring Gotham: A Food Lover’s Companion to New York City

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2016
Subject:
Society and culture, Cookery, Food, and Drink
Length:
1,627 words

...and twentieth centuries. Even amid great abundance, soup kitchens still operate in New York City in the twenty-first century. See breadlines . Drinking Places and Beverages A number of slang terms emerged for drinking establishments. “Rum shop,” “grog shop,” “grog mill,” and “groggery” were early names for low-down establishments that sold a variety of alcoholic beverages. Later, those that catered to the lower classes were also called “gin mills.” Bars that sold whiskey were referred to as “skee joints.” Bowery saloons were called “distilleries,” and...

Restaurants

Restaurants   Reference library

Andrew F. Smith

Savoring Gotham: A Food Lover’s Companion to New York City

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2016
Subject:
Society and culture, Cookery, Food, and Drink
Length:
1,505 words

...restaurant at the French Pavillon, remained in New York when the Fair ended and opened a restaurant on New York’s fashionable Upper East Side in 1941 . See soulé, henri . Hoping to trade on the restaurant’s popularity at the Fair, he named the establishment Le Pavillon. See le pavillon . It survived World War II and remained hugely popular during the 1950s. With Soulé at its helm, Le Pavillon served as an incubator for many of New York’s top chefs. French haute cuisine remained the standard for fine dining in New York during the 1960s and 1970s. See ...

Spry, Constance

Spry, Constance (1886–1960)   Reference library

Jean Holden

The Oxford Companion to Food (3 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2014

...the duration of the war. In 1945 , the friends proposed a joint venture, teaching housewifery, flower arranging, cookery, and interior deocration (while absorbing, of course, the social airs and graces dispensed by many such ‘finishing schools’), based at a new Cordon Bleu School in London and a country boarding establishment at Winkfield Place near Windsor. They enjoyed a certain eminence in the education of marriageable young women, challenged only by the racier places in Switzerland and abroad. The eminence was sufficiently establishment to be asked to do...

Haute Cuisine

Haute Cuisine   Reference library

Andrew F. Smith

Savoring Gotham: A Food Lover’s Companion to New York City

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2016
Subject:
Society and culture, Cookery, Food, and Drink
Length:
1,137 words

...New Yorkers as well as travelers and tourists, and they dominated fine dining in New York for the next ninety years. European visitors often commented that these restaurants were comparable to the finest establishments in Paris or London. Menus at some of these restaurants reached gargantuan proportions, weighing in at a thousand items. After the Civil War, the French chefs of some of New York City’s finest restaurants published their recipes in cookbooks. Felix Déliée, who cooked at the New York Club and the Union and Manhattan Club, published The...

Thomas, Jerry

Thomas, Jerry   Reference library

Kara Newman

Savoring Gotham: A Food Lover’s Companion to New York City

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2016
Subject:
Society and culture, Cookery, Food, and Drink
Length:
430 words
Illustration(s):
1

...becoming a bartender in a saloon in nearby Downiesville, California. By 1852 , Thomas decided he had had enough of El Dorado and headed back east, eventually landing in New York City. In 1858 , he became principal bartender at the Metropolitan Hotel, a large and fashionable establishment on the corner of Prince Street and Broadway, at the time the heart of the city’s shopping district. Over the next eighteen years, Thomas would become America’s most famous bartender, embodying the bravado and showmanship of the mixologist archetype of the day, “a sporting...

Camembert

Camembert   Reference library

The Oxford Companion to Food (3 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2014

...over considerable distances. The introduction of Penicillium candidum in 1910 ( P. glaucum , the local natural blue mould, was formerly used) finally set Camembert on the road to world renown. Its establishment as a truly national French cheese was sealed by the distribution of 1 million cheeses a month to the French army during the First World War. The true Camembert is made from untreated cow’s milk ( lait cru ), is not less than 10 cm (4") across, and contains at least 45 per cent fat. The cheese is cut by hand, drained and salted, then sprinkled...

Uerige Brewery

Uerige Brewery   Reference library

Horst Dornbusch

The Oxford Companion to Beer

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2013

...own decor—as is still the case today. The place got its name from the nickname Cürten’s patrons bestowed upon him. He was apparently a man of dour disposition, so they called him the “uerige,” which means “grouch” in the local vernacular. The establishment suffered serious damage during the bombing raids of World War II, but it was restored to its original condition. Today, the Uerige is one of the few breweries left in Germany where draught beer is still served in old-fashioned wooden casks and poured by gravity. See gravity dispense . In the summer, the...

Haná (barley)

Haná (barley)   Reference library

Horst Dornbusch

The Oxford Companion to Beer

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2013

...Josef Groll at the Měšťanský Pivovar (Burgher Brewery) of Plzeň (Pilsen) in Bohemia. See pilsner . The subsequent global success of the pilsner beer style not only spawned the planting of Haná barley in many countries around the world but also created the impetus for the establishment of a systematic barley breeding program in Austria-Hungary. The program’s aim was to propagate Haná’s superior agronomic, malting, and brewing properties into other barley varieties for diverse growing environments. One of the most significant results to come out of this...

public houses (pubs)

public houses (pubs)   Reference library

Ian Hornsey

The Oxford Companion to Beer

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2013
Subject:
Society and culture, Cookery, Food, and Drink
Length:
3,930 words
Illustration(s):
1

... pm and 6.30 pm to 9.30 pm . By the end of the War, some 94% of all British citizens had been subjected to limited drinking opportunities. The evening limit was increased to 11 pm , and these hours persisted until the 2003 Licensing Act, which, in theory allowed “all-day drinking.” Even with these measures, a shortage of munitions that jeopardized the war effort in early 1915 was attributed to drink. The then chancellor Lloyd George urged moderation, saying: “Drink is doing us more damage in the war than all the German submarines put together …We are...

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