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war establishment

The level of equipment and manning laid down for a military unit in wartime.

Israel

Israel  

After half a century of war and hostility, peace with the Palestinians seems as remote as everIsrael can be considered to have four main geographical regions. To the north is a hilly region that ...
Sicily

Sicily  

A large triangular island in the Mediterranean Sea, separated from the ‘toe’ of Italy by the narrow Strait of Messina. It forms, with the neighbouring islands of Lipari, Egadi, Ustica, and ...
Rome

Rome  

According to tradition the ancient city was founded by Romulus (after whom it is named) in 753 bc on the Palatine Hill; as it grew it spread to the other six hills of Rome (Aventine, Caelian, ...
Androuët

Androuët   Reference library

Paul Freedman

The Oxford Companion to Cheese

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2017

...localities. Parisians then generally limited their tastes to Brie, Camembert, and other cheeses with wide circulation. After World War I and with the gradual construction of automobile routes, Henri Androuët explored France and bought directly from cheese producers. By 1925 the store was renowned for offering at least one hundred varieties of cheeses, all from France. In 1934 a restaurant was opened above the retail establishment and it attracted an enthusiastic clientele with a menu completely focused on cheese. Orson Welles, Ernest Hemingway, and Maria...

Wells, Herbert George

Wells, Herbert George (1866–1946)   Reference library

The Oxford Guide to Literary Britain & Ireland (3 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2009
Subject:
Literature, Society and culture
Length:
142 words

...and Midhurst; lives in Uppark ; apprenticed at drapery establishment in Portsmouth 1881–3 ; student assistant teacher in Midhurst 1883–4 ; stays in Stoke‐on‐Trent 1888 ; lives in Folkestone 1900 , Little Easton ; visits J. K. Jerome in Ewelme , E. Nesbit at Well Hall, London ( Eltham ); lives in London ( Marylebone : Marylebone Rd) 1930–7 ; last years and d. in London ( Regent's Park : Hanover Ter.) 1937–46 . The Chronic Argonauts (later The Time Machine ) 1895 , The War of the Worlds 1898 , The Sleeper Awakes 1899 , Mankind in...

Perry, Fred

Perry, Fred   Quick reference

A Dictionary of Sports Studies

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2010
Subject:
Social sciences, Society and culture
Length:
421 words

...professional, touring successfully, gaining sponsorship from Slazenger, buying a share of the Beverly Hills Tennis Club, founding Fred Perry Sportswear in 1950 , and also serving in the US airforce in World War II and adopting US citizenship. He commentated for the BBC—proving itself a less rigid British institution than the tennis establishment—at Wimbledon from 1948 . In 1984 , though, commemorating the half-century that had passed since Perry's first Wimbledon victory, the All England Club commissioned a statue of him by David Wynne ( 1926–2014 ) ...

European Brewery Convention (EBC)

European Brewery Convention (EBC)   Reference library

Karl-Ullrich Heyse and Garrett Oliver

The Oxford Companion to Beer

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2013

...EBC was founded in 1947 in an effort to bring the brewing industry in post-war Europe closer together by giving them a forum through which to share brewing science and technology. As victors and vanquished re-built their brewing industries after World War II, cooperation between them was crucial and the EBC became a critical conduit for information. The EBC has provided critical scientific research to breweries, governments, and policy makers throughout the course of the establishment of European agricultural standards, environmental policies, and food safety...

Victory Gardens

Victory Gardens   Reference library

Daniel Bowman Simon and Amy Bentley

Savoring Gotham: A Food Lover’s Companion to New York City

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2016
Subject:
Society and culture, Cookery, Food, and Drink
Length:
551 words
Illustration(s):
1

...of Music, and the Staten Island Museum. The Brooklyn Botanic Garden held lectures on such topics as “Testing the Soil,” “Planning Gardens,” “Ordering Seeds,” and “Maintenance Spraying” and created a 40-by-10-foot model victory garden on its grounds. New York City retail establishments facilitated and capitalized on the victory garden movement. Macy’s flagship Manhattan store on Thirty-Fourth Street offered free lectures and films and distributed a free twenty-two-page Victory Garden Guide to customers who signed its Victory Garden Pledge Book . Items...

Rous, Sir Stanley

Rous, Sir Stanley   Quick reference

A Dictionary of Sports Studies

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2010
Subject:
Social sciences, Society and culture
Length:
916 words

...classes, Rous's father had planned for him to go to Emmanuel College, Cambridge. But, after service in Africa during World War I, Rous studied at St. Luke's College, Exeter, and then taught at Watford Grammar School. He was not born into the establishment but through football he became an establishment figure. For him, teaching and football were acts of public service. He played football at college, then in the Army during the War. Though he may have been good enough to play the game professionally, his commitment to amateur ideals denied him the chance to...

fish and chips

fish and chips   Reference library

The Oxford Companion to Food (3 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2014

...in the fish and chip trade in Scotland) who brought the combination over to Ireland and who still have a secure hold on the business in Dublin. The number of fish and chip establishments grew steadily until the Second World War. Many said that it was the ready supply of fish and chips that kept the working population adequately nourished, contributing to victory in the First World War and survival during the Depression. Although variations on their standard fare, and various gimmicks, were often introduced, the basics never changed: fish (usually cod,...

Gay Bars

Gay Bars   Reference library

Christopher Mitchell

Savoring Gotham: A Food Lover’s Companion to New York City

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2016

...the Great Depression, the 1930s saw a general decline in the visibility and number of lesbian and gay bars. Despite the crackdown on such drinking establishments, Harlem’s Ubangi Club opened in 1934 featuring renowned lesbian performer Gladys Bentley. Although World War II saw a swell of lesbian and gay migrants to the city, military police labeled many lesbian and gay clubs off limits, especially in Harlem, where fears of interracial sex and sociability brought even more intense forms of scrutiny. In the 1950s and 1960s, lesbian and gay bars were essentially...

Soda Fountains

Soda Fountains   Reference library

Adee Braun

Savoring Gotham: A Food Lover’s Companion to New York City

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2016
Subject:
Society and culture, Cookery, Food, and Drink
Length:
851 words
Illustration(s):
1

...the number of soda fountains in New York City swelled during Prohibition. Establishments responded by expanding their menus to include light meals and, increasingly, ice cream—an addition that would later play a role in the downfall of soda fountain culture. Ice cream sodas had become popular after the Civil War, and by the end of the nineteenth century they were soda fountain staples, along with sundaes. More ice cream was sold at soda fountains than at ice cream parlors. After World War II, soda fountains were still found in most drugstores, but as people...

École Nationale d’Industrie Laitière

École Nationale d’Industrie Laitière   Reference library

Lynn L. Sharp

The Oxford Companion to Cheese

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2017

...could bring to the co-op, leading to a more standard product. Similar schools soon developed elsewhere in France. The impact of the programs offered by these schools expanded as agricultural education and modernization gained ground in France, especially after World War II. Today six establishments offer technical dairy education under the aegis of the Ministry of Agriculture. ENIL Besançon Mamirolle and ENILBIO Poligny are the linked national flagship schools, with four agricultural high schools ( lycées agricoles ) also offering post-secondary degrees such as...

Hamburg Steak

Hamburg Steak   Reference library

Andrew F. Smith

Savoring Gotham: A Food Lover’s Companion to New York City

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2016

...“Salisbury steak” appeared in medical texts as well as in cookbooks. As the preparation originated with medical professionals, it was considered a health food. Salisbury steak became very popular during World War I. A similar dish, Hamburg (or Hamburger) steak, came to America via German immigrants. The first located record of it is from an establishment owned by Auguste Ermisch, an immigrant from Mecklenburg-Schwerin. His restaurant, at Nassau and John Streets, featured among other dishes “Hamburg steak,” which was described by the New York Times as “a...

Hungarian

Hungarian   Reference library

Cindy R. Lobel

Savoring Gotham: A Food Lover’s Companion to New York City

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2016

...that included stews (goulash the most famous), casseroles, cabbage rolls, dumplings, and stuffed peppers and featured such spices as paprika and caraway. Hungarians had a significant impact on New York’s restaurant culture in post–Civil War New York. Many of the city’s table d’hôte restaurants—prix fixe establishments that served mid-priced meals—served Hungarian food. The best known of these was Hotel Hungaria, on Union Square, which served seventy-five-cent dinners to middle-class families as well as to artists and journalists. A second wave of...

civil rights

civil rights   Quick reference

A Dictionary of Sports Studies

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2010
Subject:
Social sciences, Society and culture
Length:
516 words

...storm troopers’. By 1982 , though, the reactionary establishment had been superseded by a more enlightened administration in US sport, and Carlos worked for the Los Angeles Olympic organizers promoting the 1984 Games and liaising with black constituencies and communities. The Black Power salute was a pivotal moment in the cultural politics of sport, as well as the civil rights movement. Carlos pointed out the inherent politicization of the Olympics with its uniforms, anthems, and Cold War rivalries. In this context the 1968 gesture showed that...

Japanese

Japanese   Reference library

Nicholas Allanach

Savoring Gotham: A Food Lover’s Companion to New York City

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2016
Subject:
Society and culture, Cookery, Food, and Drink
Length:
1,124 words
Illustration(s):
1

...exclusive to businessmen, celebrities, and cosmopolitans but not the “average” American diner. Today, Fuji Sushi has opened locations in other cities throughout the Northeast and, like other successful sushi establishments, has expanded its business model to include catering large-scale sushi orders for events and parties. Japanese food establishments now are quite common inside and outside the city. In fact, Fuji Sushi is likely low on the list of places you should dine to experience high-quality, authentic Japanese cuisine. Despite its current popularity,...

Saloons

Saloons   Reference library

Peter LaFrance

Savoring Gotham: A Food Lover’s Companion to New York City

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2016

...spirits. These establishments were often nothing more than a wood plank placed on top of two empty beer barrels under a tent or in a crude structure. Beer and spirits were served to an all-male clientele. Female companionship was provided for a price. These basic drinking establishments were known as “saloons,” a word derived in the early eighteenth century from French salon , and from Italian salone , meaning “large hall.” By the late 1850s, the term “saloon” had begun to appear in directories and common usage as a term for an establishment that specialized...

Slang

Slang   Reference library

Andrew F. Smith

Savoring Gotham: A Food Lover’s Companion to New York City

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2016
Subject:
Society and culture, Cookery, Food, and Drink
Length:
1,627 words

...and twentieth centuries. Even amid great abundance, soup kitchens still operate in New York City in the twenty-first century. See breadlines . Drinking Places and Beverages A number of slang terms emerged for drinking establishments. “Rum shop,” “grog shop,” “grog mill,” and “groggery” were early names for low-down establishments that sold a variety of alcoholic beverages. Later, those that catered to the lower classes were also called “gin mills.” Bars that sold whiskey were referred to as “skee joints.” Bowery saloons were called “distilleries,” and...

Restaurants

Restaurants   Reference library

Andrew F. Smith

Savoring Gotham: A Food Lover’s Companion to New York City

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2016
Subject:
Society and culture, Cookery, Food, and Drink
Length:
1,505 words

...restaurant at the French Pavillon, remained in New York when the Fair ended and opened a restaurant on New York’s fashionable Upper East Side in 1941 . See soulé, henri . Hoping to trade on the restaurant’s popularity at the Fair, he named the establishment Le Pavillon. See le pavillon . It survived World War II and remained hugely popular during the 1950s. With Soulé at its helm, Le Pavillon served as an incubator for many of New York’s top chefs. French haute cuisine remained the standard for fine dining in New York during the 1960s and 1970s. See ...

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