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war establishment

The level of equipment and manning laid down for a military unit in wartime.

Israel

Israel  

After half a century of war and hostility, peace with the Palestinians seems as remote as everIsrael can be considered to have four main geographical regions. To the north is a hilly region that ...
Sicily

Sicily  

A large triangular island in the Mediterranean Sea, separated from the ‘toe’ of Italy by the narrow Strait of Messina. It forms, with the neighbouring islands of Lipari, Egadi, Ustica, and ...
Rome

Rome  

According to tradition the ancient city was founded by Romulus (after whom it is named) in 753 bc on the Palatine Hill; as it grew it spread to the other six hills of Rome (Aventine, Caelian, ...
Shingonshū

Shingonshū   Reference library

The Princeton Dictionary of Buddhism

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2017

... Shōji jissōgi , Kūkai laid the foundations of a new esoteric discourse that allowed the Buddhist institutions of the Heian period to replace Confucian principles as the ruling ideology of Japan. Kūkai was able to effect this change by presenting the court and the Buddhist establishment with an alternative conception of Buddhist power, ritual efficacy, and the power of speech acts. Through Kūkai’s newly imported ritual systems, monks and other initiated individuals were said to be able to gain access to the power of the cosmic buddha Mahāvairocana, understood...

sōhei

sōhei   Reference library

The Princeton Dictionary of Buddhism

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2017

...their rivals, as in the intrasectarian rivalry between the Tendai monasteries of Enryakuji and Onjōji, and the intersectarian rivalries between Kōfukuji and its two Tendai counterparts. During this same period, monks’ militias also participated in the Genpei War of 1180–1185 , which led to the establishment of the Kamakura shogunate. There were more than two hundred major violent incidents involving monks’ militias between the late-tenth and early-sixteenth centuries. The monks’ militia of Enryakuji also battled the temples established by the new schools of ...

Tāranātha

Tāranātha (1575–1634)   Reference library

The Princeton Dictionary of Buddhism

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2017

...It was completed in 1628 . Renowned for its beautiful design and sumptuous artwork, the monastery would be his primary residence in the last years of his life. After his death, the fifth Dalai Lama suppressed the Jo nang sect, converting the monastery into a Dge lugs establishment. He also identified Tāranātha’s incarnation in Mongolia as the first Rje btsun dam pa , a line of incarnations who would serve as titular head of the Dge lugs sect in Mongolia until the twentieth century. The reasons for this identification are debated. The Dalai Lama claimed...

Ōbakushū

Ōbakushū   Reference library

The Princeton Dictionary of Buddhism

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2017

...). In Japanese, “Ōbaku school”; one of the three main Zen traditions in Japan, along with the Rinzaishū and Sōtōshū . The émigré Chinese Chan master Yinyuan Longqi ( 1594–1673 ) is credited with its foundation. In 1654 , Yinyuan fled the wars that accompanied the fall of the Ming dynasty and the establishment of the Manchu Qing dynasty, and arrived in Nagasaki, Japan, where he first served as abbot of the monastery of Kōfukuji. With the support of the shōgun Tokugawa Ietsuna ( 1639–1680 ) and Emperor Gomizunoo (r. 1611–1629 ), in 1661 , Yinyuan...

Han Yongun

Han Yongun (1879–1944)   Reference library

The Princeton Dictionary of Buddhism

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2017

...the Tonghak Rebellion and fought against the Chosŏn-dynasty government but was forced to flee to Oseam hermitage on Mt. Sŏrak. He was ordained at the monastery of Paektamsa in 1905 . Three years later, as one of the fifty-two monastic representatives, he participated in the establishment of the Wŏn chong (Consummate Order) and the foundation of its headquarters at Wŏnhŭngsa. After returning from a sojourn in Japan, where he witnessed Japanese Buddhism’s attempts to modernize in the face of the Meiji-era persecutions, Han Yongun wrote an influential tract in ...

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