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war establishment

The level of equipment and manning laid down for a military unit in wartime.

Leonard Trelawny Hobhouse

Leonard Trelawny Hobhouse  

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Overview Page
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Philosophy
(b. 8 Sept. 1864, d. 21 June 1929).British Liberal theorist Born at St Ive, near Liskeard, Cornwall, he was educated at Marlborough and Oxford. He taught philosophy at Oxford (1890–7), publishing his ...
Israel

Israel  

After half a century of war and hostility, peace with the Palestinians seems as remote as everIsrael can be considered to have four main geographical regions. To the north is a hilly region that ...
Sicily

Sicily  

A large triangular island in the Mediterranean Sea, separated from the ‘toe’ of Italy by the narrow Strait of Messina. It forms, with the neighbouring islands of Lipari, Egadi, Ustica, and ...
Rome

Rome  

According to tradition the ancient city was founded by Romulus (after whom it is named) in 753 bc on the Palatine Hill; as it grew it spread to the other six hills of Rome (Aventine, Caelian, ...
War and Peace

War and Peace   Reference library

The Continuum Encyclopedia of British Philosophy

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2010
Subject:
Philosophy
Length:
2,715 words

...Perpetual Peace , 1786–9 , later published in the posthumous Principles of International Law , 1843 ), applied the principle of utility to political affairs and particularly to issues related to the establishment of universal peace while regarding the Quakers' strong opposition to war as misguided. Even though himself opposing war on the basis of utility (war impedes free trade and prosperity among nations), he believed that it might be justifiable in particular cases as the lesser between evils, especially as a defence and security against aggression. He...

Serbian philosophy

Serbian philosophy   Reference library

The Oxford Companion to Philosophy (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2005
Subject:
Philosophy
Length:
308 words

..., whose articles were later cited as authoritative in such works as Lee's Zeno of Elea (Cambridge, 1936 ) and Boyer's The Concepts of the Calculus (New York, 1939 ). 1940s–1960s. The philosophical tradition was dismantled in post-war Yugoslavia by the communist regime. The official establishment of ‘humanist Marxism’ followed the 1953 ideological cleansing of ‘dogmatists’. The critical attitude of members of the ‘Praxis Group’ such as Svetozar Stojanović to the governing regime led to their dismissal from Belgrade University in 1975 ....

Wells, Herbert George

Wells, Herbert George (1866–1946)   Reference library

The Continuum Encyclopedia of British Philosophy

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2010
Subject:
Philosophy
Length:
631 words

...too radical – and he left the Society in 1908 . In A Modern Utopia ( 1904 ) he expanded upon his vision of an ideal society first presented in Anticipations . Though he initially supported World War I as a means to unify countries, its desolation convinced Wells that war could only lead to the destruction of humanity. He campaigned for the establishment of the League of Nations and started to invoke his idea of the World State. In the 1920s he was qualifiedly sympathetic to both fascist and communist agendas, though his loathing of both militarism and...

Axinn, Sidney

Axinn, Sidney (1923–)   Reference library

The Dictionary of Modern American Philosophers

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2010
Subject:
Philosophy
Length:
659 words

...chair from 1952 to 1967 , and helped to guide the department towards the establishment of its doctoral program. By the 1970s, with the arrival of colleagues Monroe Beardsley , Hugues Leblanc , and Joseph Margolis , Temple's philosophy department consolidated its strengths in the history of philosophy, analytic philosophy, and aesthetics. Axinn's own philosophical interests are primarily in Kant, in areas of social, moral, and value theory, and in philosophy of war. He was a member of the board of directors of the Journal of the History of Ideas ...

Cobden, Richard

Cobden, Richard (1804–65)   Reference library

The Continuum Encyclopedia of British Philosophy

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2010
Subject:
Philosophy
Length:
2,432 words

...new heights in the Crimean War, Cobden was forced to reformulate his ideas. Above all, he was obliged not only to explain why the British Foreign Office should interfere in other states but also why against rational expectation they did so with the approval of the British people. Here Cobden deployed the thesis that the people were hoodwinked by the aristocratic war establishment, that wars were legitimized as a result of ‘panics’ created by the press, and that military expenditure was escalated by artificially manufactured ‘war scares’. This was most...

Thomson, George

Thomson, George (fl. 1649–79)   Reference library

The Continuum Encyclopedia of British Philosophy

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2010
Subject:
Philosophy
Length:
588 words

...deriving their medicine from books rather than from observation and experience, and as peddling worthless remedies such as bleeding and purging. With the support of fellow chemists such as George Starkey , Thomson was launching a full-frontal attack on the entire medical establishment – it is scarcely surprising that he provoked furious replies from physicians such as John Heydon , William Johnson , and Henry Stubbe . The resulting controversy raised fundamental issues about the authority of ‘The Ancients’, the roles of theory and observation in...

Garnett, Christopher Browne, Jr.

Garnett, Christopher Browne, Jr. (1906–75)   Reference library

The Dictionary of Modern American Philosophers

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2010
Subject:
Philosophy
Length:
563 words

...officer of the American Military Government in Berlin, Germany, and from 1949 to 1952 he was chief of the education and cultural relations branch of the Office of the US High Commissioner for Germany in Berlin. In this capacity Garnett helped to secure the establishment of the American Memorial Library and the Free University of Berlin. In 1952–3 Garnett was a cultural officer in the US Foreign Service in Saigon, Vietnam. Returning to academia, Garnett accepted the positions of professor of philosophy and chair of the newly established philosophy...

Conway, Moncure Daniel

Conway, Moncure Daniel (1832–1907)   Reference library

The Dictionary of Modern American Philosophers

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2010
Subject:
Philosophy
Length:
1,617 words

...sectional crisis turned to war in April of 1861 , he was thrust into the most difficult period of his tumultuous life. While his abolitionist allies abandoned their pacifism to support the Union cause, he nearly succumbed to the psychological pressures created by his commitment to abolitionism and his compassion for southerners. He argued that immediate emancipation of slaves and opposition to the war should be linked as one overriding goal, because emancipation would undermine the South’s ability to prosecute the war as inspired slaves rebelled against...

Ingersoll, Robert Green

Ingersoll, Robert Green (1833–99)   Reference library

The Dictionary of Modern American Philosophers

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2010
Subject:
Philosophy
Length:
1,903 words

...served Illinois as a US Congressman from 1864 to 1871 . Ingersoll attained national prominence in 1876 . At Indianapolis he gave a sentimental speech about the travails of Union soldiers in the Civil War; an evocative excerpt was widely reprinted as “A Vision of War.” Contemporaries regarded it as the noblest statement on the war save only Lincoln’s Gettysburg Address. Ingersoll reprised this speech to huge crowds each Memorial Day as long as he lived. Also in 1876 Ingersoll nominated James G. Blaine for President at the GOP convention in...

Berger, Peter Ludwig

Berger, Peter Ludwig (1929–)   Reference library

The Dictionary of Modern American Philosophers

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2010
Subject:
Philosophy
Length:
1,410 words

...personal responsibility for our lives. In 1966 Berger and Thomas Luckmann coauthored The Social Construction of Reality , one of the most widely read treatises in the sociology of knowledge. Their argument was that social processes play a pivotal role in a culture’s establishment of knowledge. The sociology of knowledge was thus a modern form of philosophical relativism and cast suspicion on human claims to absolute truth. In this book, Berger identified himself with a philosophical tradition that included Karl Marx, Friedrich Nietzsche, Max Weber, and...

Fackenheim, Emil Ludwig

Fackenheim, Emil Ludwig (1916–2003)   Reference library

The Dictionary of Modern American Philosophers

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2010
Subject:
Philosophy
Length:
1,524 words

...that God’s commanding presence has been felt by Jews through their conscious and unconscious recognition that Jewish survival is a sacred duty. Fackenheim’s collection of essays, The Jewish Return Into History ( 1978 ), extended his “vulnerability to history” to include the establishment of the State of Israel. He held that although there was no causal link between the Holocaust and Israel, it is only because of the latter that Jews can face the former, through a dual tale of destruction and fragmentary redemption. The parallel studies of Jewish philosophy and...

Henderson, George Patrick

Henderson, George Patrick (1925–2004)   Reference library

The Continuum Encyclopedia of British Philosophy

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2010
Subject:
Philosophy
Length:
707 words

...or important than on the then current topics of debate. A major interest latterly in modern Greece and its intellectual reawakening issued in two historical books, The Revival of Greek Thought, 1620–1830 ( 1970 ), and The Ionian Academy ( 1980 ) (a history of the establishment in Corfu in the mid nineteenth century, under British rule, of a college of higher education). Both were translated into Greek. Recognition in Greece itself came in election as a corresponding member of the Academy of Athens in 1973 , and of the Ionian Academy in 1975 . He...

Ziff, Robert Paul

Ziff, Robert Paul (1920–2003)   Reference library

The Dictionary of Modern American Philosophers

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2010
Subject:
Philosophy
Length:
777 words

...aggravating book, Antiaesthetics ( 1984 ). Aesthetic appreciation is what matters for Ziff, and here he provocatively asserts that “anything that can be viewed is a fit object for aesthetic attention.” He challenges the rigidity and pretentiousness of the aesthetic establishment by asking us to contemplate a beer can on the side of the road along with a Dubuffet painting in the Museum of Modern Art. He brings to the forefront questions about the aesthetic appreciation of nature, a topic largely ignored since Kant, and he anticipates the rise of...

Ladd, John

Ladd, John (1917–)   Reference library

The Dictionary of Modern American Philosophers

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2010
Subject:
Philosophy
Length:
789 words

...Committee on Computers of the APA. He was a member of the AAAS Committee for Scientific Freedom and Responsibility from 1989 to 1995 . He helped to found the Program in Biomedical Ethics at Brown, and served as its Director for several years. He was also involved in the establishment of the Center for the Study of Race and Ethnicity in America at Brown in 1987 , served for four years as its Acting Director, and continues to participate in its activities. Ladd’s writings have concentrated on moral theory, moral psychology, action theory, and topics in...

Murphy, Gardner

Murphy, Gardner (1895–1979)   Reference library

The Dictionary of Modern American Philosophers

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2010
Subject:
Philosophy
Length:
934 words

...on personality and conducted experiments on the relation between emotion and perception. He also had great interest in parapsychology (perhaps influenced by his readings of James) and along with that of J. B. Rhine of Duke University, Murphy’s work was responsible for the establishment of several universities beginning to teach and conduct research on parapsychology. Murphy studied the much neglected social problems between Hindus and Muslims, and spent six months in 1950 living in India to research the topic. From 1952 to 1967 he was Director of...

Morley, John

Morley, John (1838–1923)   Reference library

The Continuum Encyclopedia of British Philosophy

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2010
Subject:
Philosophy
Length:
764 words

...of truth to policy. Insincere churchmen and politicians inhibited the people's growth by seeking expedient resolutions of power conflicts at the expense of public integrity. Principled leadership would come only by example, but Morley charged the political and religious establishment with interest only in self-preservation and with a narrow provincialism. Morley supported Joseph Chamberlain 's radical programme, and in 1883 he stood successfully for Parliament as a Liberal MP representing Newcastle. In 1886 he joined Gladstone 's government, briefly...

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