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war establishment

The level of equipment and manning laid down for a military unit in wartime.

Bolshevik

Bolshevik   Reference library

Brewer's Dictionary of Phrase & Fable (19 ed.)

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2013

...Properly a member of the Russian revolutionary party under lenin , which seized power in 1917 , aiming at the establishment of the supreme power of the proletariat and declaring war on capitalism. The Bolsheviks were so called from the fact that at the party conferences of 1902–3 the Leninists were the majority group (Russian bol’she , ‘more’). The defeated minority were called mensheviks . See also bollinger bolshevism . Bolshie or Bolshy A contraction of bolshevik , used to denote a person with left-wing tendencies, or a rebellious or...

Altmark, The

Altmark, The   Reference library

Brewer's Dictionary of Phrase & Fable (19 ed.)

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...The Formerly in the Royal Navy, an opprobrious synonym for a ship or an establishment with a reputation for very strict discipline. It derives from a naval exploit of February 1940 , when Captain (later Admiral of the Fleet) Philip Vian , commanding the destroyer HMS Cossack , entered Norwegian territorial waters to effect the release of 299 British prisoners of war from the German supply ship Altmark , which had taken refuge in...

Shape

Shape   Reference library

Brewer's Dictionary of Phrase & Fable (19 ed.)

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2013

...Shape of things to come, The The way the future will develop. The phrase derives from the title of a 1933 novel by H.G. Wells which chillingly predicted war in 1939 followed by plague, rebellion, the first rocketship to the moon and the establishment of a world government in 2059 . The book formed the basis of Alexander Korda ’s acclaimed film Things to Come ( 1935 ). Shape up or ship out, To Used in injunctions to improve performance or remove oneself/another from the scene. The expression originated in the US military in the mid-20th century. It...

Kautsky, Karl

Kautsky, Karl (1854–1938)   Quick reference

A Dictionary of Critical Theory

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2010

...means of living, even while living abroad, as he frequently did. Kautsky was an outspoken critic of the First World War. After the November Revolution in Germany (the chaotic period from the end of the First World War in November 1918 until the establishment of the Weimar Republic in August 1919 ), he was given a senior position in the Foreign Office of the briefly reigning revolutionary government, which he used to try to prove Germany's war guilt. A prolific author, he wrote a biography of Engels as well as a detailed account of Marx 's economic theory....

Kautsky, Karl

Kautsky, Karl (1854–1938)   Quick reference

A Dictionary of Critical Theory (2 ed.)

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2018

...means of living, even while living abroad, as he frequently did. Kautsky was an outspoken critic of the First World War. After the November Revolution in Germany (the chaotic period from the end of the First World War in November 1918 until the establishment of the Weimar Republic in August 1919 ), he was given a senior position in the Foreign Office of the briefly reigning revolutionary government, which he used to try to prove Germany’s war guilt. A prolific author, he wrote a biography of Engels as well as a detailed account of Marx ’s economic theory....

Almack’s

Almack’s   Reference library

Brewer's Dictionary of Phrase & Fable (19 ed.)

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2013

...held there during the london season for more than 75 years. To be admitted was regarded as being almost as great a distinction as being presented at Court. On Almack ’s death in 1781 the establishment passed to his niece, Mrs Willis . In 1893 part of the premises was taken over by auctioneers and the rest let as shops. The building was bombed in the Second World War, and in 1949–50 a block of offices known as Almack House was built on the same...

Ingarden, Roman

Ingarden, Roman (1893–1970)   Quick reference

A Dictionary of Critical Theory

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2010

...influence on the establishment of both Reception Theory and Reception Aesthetics . Born in Kraków, then a part of the Austro-Hungarian empire, Ingarden studied mathematics in Lviv (in the Ukraine), and philosophy in Göttingen under Edmund Husserl . He moved to Freiburg with Husserl and completed his doctorate on Henri Bergson under his supervision in 1918 . He then returned to Poland, teaching first at Lviv University, until it was closed because of war in 1941 , then at the Nicolaus Copernicus University after the war. Ingarden's career...

Ingarden, Roman

Ingarden, Roman (1893–1970)   Quick reference

A Dictionary of Critical Theory (2 ed.)

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2018

...influence on the establishment of both Reception Theory and Reception Aesthetics . Born in Kraków, then a part of the Austro-Hungarian empire, Ingarden studied mathematics in Lviv (in the Ukraine), and philosophy in Göttingen under Edmund Husserl . He moved to Freiburg with Husserl and completed his doctorate on Henri Bergson under his supervision in 1918 . He then returned to Poland, teaching first at Lviv University, until it was closed because of war in 1941 , then at the Nicolaus Copernicus University after the war. Ingarden’s career...

Arendt, Hannah

Arendt, Hannah (1906–75)   Quick reference

A Dictionary of Critical Theory

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2010

...of Arendt's work in his analyses of what he calls the homo sacer . Probably her most influential work, The Human Condition ( 1958 ) pursued the problems raised in the previous work by examining political action, specifically the establishment of rights. She gained public notoriety in 1963 when she reported on the Eichmann war crimes trials in Jerusalem for the New Yorker (later in the same year published in book form as Eichmann in Jerusalem ). Eichmann was responsible for a large proportion of the logistical side of the Holocaust, such as the...

Arendt, Hannah

Arendt, Hannah (1906–75)   Quick reference

A Dictionary of Critical Theory (2 ed.)

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2018

...of Arendt’s work in his analyses of what he calls the homo sacer . Probably her most influential work, The Human Condition ( 1958 ) pursued the problems raised in the previous work by examining political action, specifically the establishment of rights. She gained public notoriety in 1963 when she reported on the Eichmann war crimes trials in Jerusalem for the New Yorker (later in the same year published in book form as Eichmann in Jerusalem ). Eichmann was responsible for a large proportion of the logistical side of the Holocaust, such as the...

Chinese

Chinese   Reference library

Brewer's Dictionary of Phrase & Fable (19 ed.)

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2013

...Chinese ship’s cook, left his vessel and, marrying an English girl, set up an eating establishment in Piccadilly Circus. The restaurant, the Cathay, catered mainly for old colonial types who had returned to England from the Far East. Its popularity increased in the Second World War, when US GIs began taking their girlfriends there. Other family-run restaurants started to open elsewhere in London and in cities such as Liverpool and Manchester, their chief clientele after the war being British soldiers who had returned from the Far East. Chinese restaurant...

Uncle

Uncle   Reference library

Brewer's Dictionary of Phrase & Fable (19 ed.)

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2013

... ( 1789–1883 ), a slave who was subsequently ordained as a Methodist preacher, and who came to London in 1876 to be presented to Queen Victoria . The phrase ‘Uncle Tom’ is now used critically to denote a black person regarded as subservient or obsequious to the white establishment . Bob’s your uncle See under bob . Dutch uncle See under dutch . Old Uncle Tom Cobbleigh See under old...

Decisive battles

Decisive battles   Reference library

Brewer's Dictionary of Phrase & Fable (19 ed.)

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2013

...; tudor ; yorkist . Tenochtitlán ( 1521 ). The capture of the aztec capital by the Spanish conquistador Hernán Cortés was followed by the establishment of the first overseas European empire. Pavia ( 1525 ). The defeat and capture of Francis I of France by Imperial forces ended French ambitions in Italy. Panipat ( 1526 ). Babur of Kabul’s great victory in India was followed by the establishment of the mogul Empire in the subcontinent. Mohács ( 1526 ). The Turkish defeated the Hungarians and went on to conquer their country. Lepanto ( 1571...

Durkheim, Émile

Durkheim, Émile (1858–1917)   Quick reference

A Dictionary of Critical Theory

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2010

...go to rabbinical school, Durkheim instead studied at the prestigious college, the École Normale Supérieure (his classmates included Henri Bergson and Jean Jaurès ). He determined to take a scientific approach to the study of society, which put him at odds with the humanist establishment and made his career progression difficult as a consequence. He obtained a post at the University of Bordeaux in 1887 and for the next 15 years this was his base from which to launch his assault on the French academic system and begin the work of establishing sociology as a...

Durkheim, Émile

Durkheim, Émile (1858–1917)   Quick reference

A Dictionary of Critical Theory (2 ed.)

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2018

...go to rabbinical school, Durkheim instead studied at the prestigious college, the École Normale Supérieure (his classmates included Henri Bergson and Jean Jaurès ). He determined to take a scientific approach to the study of society, which put him at odds with the humanist establishment and made his career progression difficult as a consequence. He obtained a post at the University of Bordeaux in 1887 and for the next 15 years this was his base from which to launch his assault on the French academic system and begin the work of establishing sociology as a...

Stone

Stone   Reference library

Brewer's Dictionary of Phrase & Fable (19 ed.)

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Current Version:
2013

...considerably over the continents, with the use of bows and arrows, stone axes, bone tools and the like persisting in Papua New Guinea, for example, in the present century. See also neolithic age ; palaeolithic age . Stone frigate A sailor’s name for barracks or a shore establishment. Stone lilies St cuthbert’s beads . Stone of Destiny, The See stone of scone . Stone of Scone, The The great coronation stone, the Stone of Destiny, on which the Scottish kings were formerly crowned at Scone, near Perth. It was removed by Edward I in 1296 and brought to...

Lacan, Jacques

Lacan, Jacques (1901–81)   Quick reference

A Dictionary of Critical Theory

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2010

...thesis, De la psychose paranoïaque dans ses rapports avec la personnalité (Paranoid psychosis and its relation to personality), defended in 1932 . Although Lacan scrupulously avoided any mention of his Surrealist inspiration in his thesis so as not to put off the medical establishment, it was the Surrealists rather than the psychiatric community who first recognized its brilliance. For the next four years, as part of his training as a psychoanalyst Lacan underwent analysis with the Jewish-Polish exile Rudolph Loewenstein , during which time he wrote very...

Lacan, Jacques

Lacan, Jacques (1901–81)   Quick reference

A Dictionary of Critical Theory (2 ed.)

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Subject Reference
Current Version:
2018

...thesis, De la psychose paranoïaque dans ses rapports avec la personnalité (Paranoid psychosis and its relation to personality), defended in 1932 . Although Lacan scrupulously avoided any mention of his Surrealist inspiration in his thesis so as not to put off the medical establishment, it was the Surrealists rather than the psychiatric community who first recognized its brilliance. For the next four years, as part of his training as a psychoanalyst Lacan underwent analysis with the Jewish-Polish exile Rudolph Loewenstein , during which time he wrote very...

Red

Red   Reference library

Brewer's Dictionary of Phrase & Fable (19 ed.)

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Subject Reference
Current Version:
2013

...to be prepared for an emergency. The term dates from the 1950s and chiefly finds application in military establishments and hospitals. In the latter it is an instruction that emergency cases only are to be admitted. Red Army The combined Soviet army and air force were officially so named from 1918 to 1946 , when the forces were renamed the Soviet Army. The original name was long preferred by the Western media, however. Red Baron, The The World War I German fighter pilot Manfred Freiherr von Richthofen ( 1892–1918 ), so known from his red Fokker aircraft....

Old

Old   Reference library

Brewer's Dictionary of Phrase & Fable (19 ed.)

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2013

...custom, as ‘Ye Olde Tea Shoppe’. London’s Olde Mitre Tavern in Ely Place is a genuine 16th-century building. Old Firm The collective name for Glasgow’s two most famous and successful football teams, Rangers and Celtic, when regarded together as the Scottish football ‘establishment’. The term, which dates back to the early 20th century, reflects the dominance these two clubs have always had over Scottish football. One theory is that it derives from a newspaper report of the first Celtic–Rangers match in 1888 , which said that the players ‘got on so well...

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