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war establishment

The level of equipment and manning laid down for a military unit in wartime.

Young, Andrew

Young, Andrew (1885–1971)   Reference library

Christopher Reid

The Oxford Companion to Modern Poetry (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2013

...poems, ‘Into Hades’ and ‘A Traveller in Time’, which purport to recount other-worldly journeys made by the poet himself and which were published in 1958 under the joint title, Out of the World and Back . Because Young revised or rejected so much of his early work, the establishment of a canonic text has been no simple matter. After the poet's own 1950 edition, a Collected Poems edited by Leonard Clark was published in 1960 , and this was followed in 1974 by a Complete Poems , also edited by Clark . The most satisfactory text, however, is...

Eliot, T. S.

Eliot, T. S. (1888–1965)   Reference library

Hugh Haughton

The Oxford Companion to Modern Poetry (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2013
Subject:
Literature, Literary studies - poetry and poets
Length:
2,588 words

...contrived oeuvres in twentieth-century literature. John * Berryman named ‘Prufrock’ the first ‘modern’ poem, and The Waste Land quickly became established as the archetypal monument of poetic modernity in English. During his later career Eliot became a thoroughly establishment figure, an embodiment of cultural conservatism and the doyen of academic criticism. Perhaps as a result, much of the most interesting subsequent poetry and criticism in the USA and Britain appeals to other values and directions than those he came to represent, especially in...

Japanese Poetic Diaries

Japanese Poetic Diaries   Reference library

E. Sarra

The Princeton Encyclopedia of Poetry and Poetics (4 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2017
Subject:
Literature, Literary studies - poetry and poets
Length:
1,355 words

...Kamakura period women ( 1185–1336 ) often call attention to the diarist’s talent in both poetry and prose narrative, with the increased emphasis on narrative implying perhaps the importance of imperial and high-aristocratic women as the diarists’ primary audience. With the establishment of the military government at Kamakura and the increased physical mobility of the literate elite throughout the Kamakura and Muromachi periods ( 1336–1573 ), the practice of writing poetic travel diaries (kikō) proliferated. These diaries include not only the traditional...

Nicaragua, Poetry of

Nicaragua, Poetry of   Reference library

S. F. White

The Princeton Encyclopedia of Poetry and Poetics (4 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2017
Subject:
Literature, Literary studies - poetry and poets
Length:
3,142 words

...González (b. 1972 ), editor of La Prensa Literaria , cofounder of Nicaragua’s most important new literary group 400 Elefantes , and author of Huérfana embravecida ( 1999 ) and Casa de fuego ( 2008 ). VII. Caribbean Coast Writers. Given the Pacific Coast literary establishment’s refusal to recognize multilingual Atlantic Coast writers, one esp. welcome recent develop. is the attention that the Nicaraguan Association of Women Writers ( ANIDE ) has paid to the country’s Caribbean women authors. In the jour. Anide , editor Vilma de la Rocha has...

Japan, Modern Poetry of

Japan, Modern Poetry of   Reference library

L. Morton

The Princeton Encyclopedia of Poetry and Poetics (4 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2017
Subject:
Literature, Literary studies - poetry and poets
Length:
4,321 words

...word tanka was preferred by poets who considered themselves reformers. Old-style tanka known as kyūha-waka had been dominated by the Outadokoro (Palace School) poets who were associated with courtier families and with the imperial family itself, which had authorized the establishment of the office of Palace Poetry in 1871 . Opposed to the hidebound, moribund mode of expression favored by these poets, such young iconoclastic writers as Ochiai Naobumi ( 1861–1903 ), his pupil Yosano Tekkan ( 1873–1935 ), and Masaoka Shiki ( 1867–1902 ), better known...

Postcolonial Poetics

Postcolonial Poetics   Reference library

J. Ramazani

The Princeton Encyclopedia of Poetry and Poetics (4 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2017
Subject:
Literature, Literary studies - poetry and poets
Length:
2,152 words

...meanings. “Occurring or existing after the end of colonial rule; of or relat-ing to a former colony” is the OED’ s definition. In this sense, postcolonial poetry is postindependence poetry—written, i.e., by peoples liberated after the ending of Eur. colonial rule and the establishment of sovereignty over their lands. Accordingly, the term has been applied primarily to parts of Asia, Africa, Oceania, the Caribbean, and elsewhere in the third world after decolonization, particularly from the time of Indian and Pakistani independence in 1947 through the...

Korea, Poetry of

Korea, Poetry of   Reference library

Y.-J. Lee and D. R. McCann

The Princeton Encyclopedia of Poetry and Poetics (4 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2017
Subject:
Literature, Literary studies - poetry and poets
Length:
4,202 words

...Historical records witness singing and dancing as significant aspects of ancient Korean life. Koreans believed in the power of singing, music, and dance as ways to communicate with humans or the heavenly spirits. There are, however, few direct literary records from before the establishment of the Unified Silla kingdom ( 668–918 ). The first Korean literary genre is Silla’s most noteworthy, the songs called hyangga or “native songs.” Fourteen hyangga are included in the monk Iryŏn’s book Samguk yusa (Remnants of the Three Kingdoms, late 13th c.). The songs...

Basque Country, Poetry of the

Basque Country, Poetry of the   Reference library

M. J. Olaziregi

The Princeton Encyclopedia of Poetry and Poetics (4 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2017
Subject:
Literature, Literary studies - poetry and poets
Length:
1,464 words

...lang., together with Castilian (Sp.), in the provinces in the Sp. Basque region; however, the same is not the case in the Fr. Basque Country, where Basque does not hold the status of an official lang. The consequences of this imbalance are easy to predict: factors such as the establishment of bilingual models of teaching and the existence of grants for publications in the Basque lang. have made the literary system in the Sp. Basque Country much stronger and more dynamic than that on the French side. Within Basque lit., poetry has always been a crucial genre. The...

Documentary Poetics

Documentary Poetics   Reference library

A. Morris

The Princeton Encyclopedia of Poetry and Poetics (4 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2017

...lighting, and staging, jazz musicians such as Dizzy Gillespie and Charlie Parker composed in the moment of performance, Jack Kerouac developed a free-form “spontaneous bop prosody,” and Allen Ginsberg documented his generation and attacked the military-industrial establishment in the explosive breath units of such poems as Howl and “Wichita Vortex Sutra” ( see beat poetry ). Skeptical of the romantic interiority that accompanies improvisatory composition, such 21st-c. poets as Mark Nowak and Claudia Rankine sample the journalistic, corporate,...

Ethnopoetics

Ethnopoetics   Reference library

M. Damon

The Princeton Encyclopedia of Poetry and Poetics (4 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2017

...on the collection, trans., and sometimes emulation by Western (esp. U.S.) scholars and poets of indigenous verbal artifacts as “poetry.” The intentions were to acknowledge the cultural and aesthetic sophistication of these expressions, to introduce the Western literary establishment to these powerful cultural writings, and to declare them equal in significance and achievement to the canon of poetic masterpieces by individuated and revered poets. Major participants in the movement have included Rothenberg and Quasha; anthropologists Dell Hymes , Barbara...

Ukraine, Poetry of

Ukraine, Poetry of   Reference library

G. G. Grabowicz and M. G. Rewakowicz

The Princeton Encyclopedia of Poetry and Poetics (4 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2017
Subject:
Literature, Literary studies - poetry and poets
Length:
2,656 words

...the Ukrainian national revolution and at the end of his life an orthodox spokesman for the Soviet system, Tychyna underwent a complex evolution; but in his early and mature poetry, he remains the most innovative and influential poetic voice of his time. In the 1920s, with the establishment of Soviet rule in Ukraine and the official policy of “Ukrainization,” Ukrainian lit. experienced a spectacular revival, as manifested in the proliferation of separate modernist and avant-garde movements, mainly neoclassicism, with such outstanding poets as Maksym Ryl’s’ky (...

Hungary, Poetry of

Hungary, Poetry of   Reference library

V. Varga

The Princeton Encyclopedia of Poetry and Poetics (4 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2017
Subject:
Literature, Literary studies - poetry and poets
Length:
3,304 words

...poetry can be traced back to the oral trad. of tribes that settled in the Carpathian basin around the 9th c., although there is no record of these primarily shamanistic songs and their afterlife is part of Hungarian folklore, not lit. The trad. of pagan bards was, after the establishment of a Christian Hungarian state at the end of the 10th c., slowly absorbed by entertainers of the Middle Ages ( see jongleur ). The first literary record can be dated from the end of the 12th c. (a funeral sermon) and the first instance of lyric poetry, The Lament of Mary ,...

Ciceronianism

Ciceronianism   Reference library

A. García-Bryce

The Princeton Encyclopedia of Poetry and Poetics (4 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2017
Subject:
Literature, Literary studies - poetry and poets
Length:
1,323 words

...means of eliciting the requisite emotional register in the listener ( see petrarchism ). Thus, making use of the civic sensibilities and accompanying formal parameters of Ciceronian rhet.—the careful balance between elocutio and inventio, between gravity and artifice—in the establishment of a Tuscan literary preeminence, Bembo created a blueprint for the construction of a standardized cultural authority that would become pivotal in the consolidation of other literary trads. This process was furthered by theorists and poets such as Bernardino Daniello , ...

Cultural Criticism

Cultural Criticism   Reference library

V. B. Leitch

The Princeton Encyclopedia of Poetry and Poetics (4 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2017
Subject:
Literature, Literary studies - poetry and poets
Length:
1,759 words

...conditions and, more important, that enlighten the mind and spirit. Poetry serves an ethicopolitical role in society, providing a high ground for personal devel. and social crit., which are linked to a broad project of social reform undertaken by the educational establishment and the state. In the Arnoldian trad., cultural crit. seeks to foster through the free play of consciousness a better social self and a better world. Thus, poetry is valued not primarily for its aesthetic refinement or for its insight into the artist’s soul or for its power to...

Tragedy

Tragedy   Reference library

T. J. Reiss

The Princeton Encyclopedia of Poetry and Poetics (4 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2017
Subject:
Literature, Literary studies - poetry and poets
Length:
7,041 words

...this, in general such drama signals a tense process in a transitional time after collapse of a stable order and before establishment of another. II. Performances. Throughout the 5th c. bce , tragedy had remained deeply caught up in issues both of the internal political order of an Athens whose form of government and power relations were a constant matter of debate and conflict and of external relations whose instability climaxed in the war with Sparta in 431 . Final defeat came in 404 . But the entire period was one of political and military struggle in...

Thailand, Poetry of

Thailand, Poetry of   Reference library

T. J. Hudak

The Princeton Encyclopedia of Poetry and Poetics (4 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2017
Subject:
Literature, Literary studies - poetry and poets
Length:
1,683 words

...tragic romance of Prince Phra Lǫ and two princesses from a neighboring kingdom. Literary output declined after Narai, however, because of war and internal strife. Notable works from the end of the Ayutthaya period include a collection of boating songs in kāp, Kāp hae͞ ru̧a , and a description in chan of the king’s journey to a Buddhist shrine, Bunnōwāt kham chan . In 1767 the Burmese destroyed Ayutthaya. The establishment of the new capital at Bangkok in 1782 revived literary production at court, this time primarily in klǫn , which probably first appeared...

Dialect Poetry

Dialect Poetry   Reference library

M. C. Cohen

The Princeton Encyclopedia of Poetry and Poetics (4 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2017
Subject:
Literature, Literary studies - poetry and poets
Length:
2,207 words

...that a composite version of the northern dialects would be the monarchy’s administrative lang., and efforts to reform and standardize spelling and grammar began. The centralization of ling. and literary authority continued through the cl. Fr. period, culminating in the establishment of the Académie Française in 1635 . However, Fr. imperialism proliferated Fr. dialects around the world, and in many places—such as Québec—poetry in Fr. dialect has fostered a local identity opposed to reigning structures of power, as in the work of Gaston Miron. In Haiti,...

Futurism

Futurism   Reference library

G. J. Janecek

The Princeton Encyclopedia of Poetry and Poetics (4 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2017
Subject:
Literature, Literary studies - poetry and poets
Length:
2,568 words

...( 1893–1930 ), and Khlebnikov. Clearly based in style and content on the earlier It. manifestos, it advocated throwing Alexander Pushkin , Fyodor Dostoevsky , Leo Tolstoy , et al. from the “Steamship of Modernity” and attacked the leading members of the current literary establishment. It then called for increasing the vocabulary with arbitrary and derived words, declared a hatred for previously existing lang., and proclaimed the “samovitoe” (self-sufficient) word. The collection featured major poems by Khlebnikov, incl. “Bobèobi pelis’ guby” (Bobeobi Sang...

Romania, Poetry of

Romania, Poetry of   Reference library

V. P. Nemoianu

The Princeton Encyclopedia of Poetry and Poetics (4 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2017
Subject:
Literature, Literary studies - poetry and poets
Length:
2,147 words

...role of aesthetic production. Doinaş is a consummate craftsman in a wide range of genres and forms, an admirable translator of poetry (e.g., Faust ), a poet of intense metaphoric creativity, and the author of ethical satire and Neoplatonic visionary evocations. The establishment of a communist regime in 1947 that suppressed artistic freedoms led to more than a decade of poetic barrenness. Only the more liberal 1960s brought a revival of poetry. Nichita Stǎnescu ( 1933–83 ) became the standard-bearer of a generation devoted to experiment and to a...

Gay Poetry

Gay Poetry   Reference library

E. Keenaghan

The Princeton Encyclopedia of Poetry and Poetics (4 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2017
Subject:
Literature, Literary studies - poetry and poets
Length:
2,999 words

...of his own homosexuality in his autobiographical lyrics, incl. “Two Years Later” (ca. 1964 ), “How to Cope with This?” ( 1968 ), and “Queer” ( 1968 ). Much gay poetry became overtly politicized in the wake of the 1969 Stonewall riots in New York City and the subsequent establishment of the Gay Liberation Front ( GLF ), the first radical, rather than assimilationist, gay and lesbian political organization. In the U.S. during this period, gay poetry was characterized by both sexual playfulness and political consciousness. It gave license to straight poets...

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