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war establishment

The level of equipment and manning laid down for a military unit in wartime.

Adams, Richard

Adams, Richard   Reference library

The Oxford Companion to Twentieth-Century Literature in English

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2005

... The Girl in a Swing ( 1980 ), a supernatural thriller, and in Maia ( 1984 ), an epic fantasy of love and war. Traveller ( 1988 ) is an unusual account of the American Civil War seen through the eyes of Traveller, General E. Lee's horse, and told by Traveller to Tom , a domestic cat in his stables. Adams has confessed to being more interested in telling a good story than in writing ‘great literature’, and he has found the literary establishment reciprocating with consistent critical disdain. The Day Gone By ( 1990 ) is an...

Three Guineas

Three Guineas   Reference library

The Oxford Companion to Twentieth-Century Literature in English

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2005

...and fascism. Women, she says (or more narrowly, ‘the daughters of educated men’), are as alien to the propagandist, war-making, male-dominated modern world as they were oppressed in the Victorian home. They should form an ‘anonymous and secret Society of Outsiders’ which would challenge tyranny through ridicule and scepticism and a refusal to ‘join’. This utopian argument involves a wide-ranging attack on the cultural and educational establishment, the media, the Church, psychiatry, and science. Woolf's friends and critics alike took fright at the essay's...

Childers, Erskine

Childers, Erskine   Reference library

The Oxford Companion to Twentieth-Century Literature in English

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...at Haileybury, and at Trinity College, Oxford. He fought in the Boer War and served in the Royal Naval Air Service during the First World War. In peacetime he was a clerk in the House of Commons ( 1895–1910 ). From 1910 he agitated for Home Rule in Ireland and used his own yacht, the Asgard , to supply German arms to the Irish volunteers in 1914 . Elected to the Dáil Éireann in 1921 , he was Principal Secretary to the delegation for the Irish–UK treaty. After the establishment of the Irish Free State, Childers joined the IRA, becoming Director of...

Belloc, Hilaire

Belloc, Hilaire (1870–1953)   Reference library

The Oxford Companion to Edwardian Fiction

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...War , and they began collaborating on political essays and speeches (a double act nick-named by G. B. Shaw the Chester-Belloc). Belloc was the Liberal MP for Salford, 1906–10 (while working as chief book-reviewer for the Morning Post ), but by 1910 had become disillusioned by party politics (his own political views were spelt out most clearly in The Servile State , 1912 ), and in 1913 he founded (with G. K.'s brother Cecil Chesterton , 1879–1918 ) a political weekly, the New Witness , which was gleefully hostile to the Liberal establishment and...

Seven Pillars of Wisdom, The

Seven Pillars of Wisdom, The   Reference library

The Oxford Companion to Twentieth-Century Literature in English

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...War, upon which his reputation as a writer chiefly rests. A lavishly produced limited edition of the book appeared at Lawrence's expense in 1926 , leaving him with substantial debts. He rapidly completed a severe abridgement, excising much moral speculation and troubled examination of his motives, with the result that Revolt in the Desert achieved commercial success in the following year. A trade edition of the complete text was published in 1935 . The book describes events between Lawrence's arrival in Jidda in October 1916 and the establishment of...

Sitwell, Sir Osbert

Sitwell, Sir Osbert   Reference library

The Oxford Companion to Twentieth-Century Literature in English

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... ( 1919 ), contain some incisive satires of official attitudes to the First World War, during which he served with the Grenadier Guards. From 1919 onward he devoted himself to authorship. The best-known of his numerous novels is Before the Bombardment ( 1926 ), a fictionalized treatment of the artillery attack on Scarborough in 1914 . During the 1920s he joined with Edith and Sacheverell in zealously promoting Modernism and disparaging the Georgian literary establishment. His later poetry was noted for its elegant wit, which frequently gave offence. ...

Macnaughtan, S.

Macnaughtan, S. (1864–1916)   Reference library

The Oxford Companion to Edwardian Fiction

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...He has since gambled away the family estate, and when he dies his daughters throw themselves on the mercy of their aunt, Lady Parfield, a good-hearted, businesslike, popular woman with a thriving establishment in London. Macnaughtan also published My Canadian Memories ( 1920 ), My War Experiences in Two Continents ( 1919 ), and A Woman's Diary of the War ( 1915 ). Reviewers commented on her interesting treatment of older women characters. Us Four ( 1909 ) is some autobiographical sketches about her childhood; they contain little...

Clarke, Allen

Clarke, Allen (1863–1935)   Reference library

The Oxford Companion to Edwardian Fiction

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2005

...in this period includes the anti-Imperialist Starved into Surrender ( 1904 ), in which a wicked Russian prince resolves to bring down the degenerate British empire by buying up all the corn in England and blockading the ports, which leads to starvation, revolution, and the establishment of a utopian commonwealth, and Lancashire Lads and Lasses ( 1906 ), in which a mill-owner's son falls in love with a mill girl whose father was swindled by his father; he is nearly hanged for parricide but all is revealed and the novel ends with a wedding and a chorus of...

O'Donovan, Gerald

O'Donovan, Gerald (1871–1942)   Reference library

The Oxford Companion to Edwardian Fiction

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2005

...the education and eventual unfrocking of a young Catholic priest, with much emphasis on the cynicism and hypocrisy of the Catholic establishment; and Waiting ( 1914 ), in which an idealistic, nationalist, National Schoolmaster who wants to marry a Protestant woman is frustrated in his political ambitions by the malevolence of his parish priest. He published four later novels, the last in 1922 . During the First World War he became head of the Italian section of the Department for Propaganda in Enemy Countries of the Ministry of Information. There he met...

Mumford, Lewis

Mumford, Lewis   Reference library

The Oxford Companion to Twentieth-Century Literature in English

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...literature, in which he made a significant contribution to the critical analysis of the role of puritanism in American culture and the establishment of the canon of nineteenth-century literature as we now understand it. These include The Golden Day ( 1926 ), a book on New England themes; Herman Melville ( 1929 ), a psychocritical biography; and The Brown Decades ( 1931 ), a study of artistic development from the Civil War until 1895 . Other works are Faith for Living ( 1940 ), In the Name of Sanity ( 1954 ), and Transformations of Man ( 1956 )....

Bunting, Basil

Bunting, Basil   Reference library

The Oxford Companion to Twentieth-Century Literature in English

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... 1966 on Newcastle's Evening Chronicle . Tom Pickard stimulated British interest in Bunting's work, arranging for publication of The Spoils in 1965 ; Loquitur ( 1965 ), a collection of early poems, and First Book of Odes ( 1966 ) followed, preparing for the rapid establishment of his considerable reputation with Briggflatts and Collected Poems . Donald Davie 's Under Briggflatts ( 1989 ) argues for Bunting's central importance to British poetry of the previous thirty years as a master of the modernist idiom who remained rooted in the cultural...

Lurie, Alison

Lurie, Alison   Reference library

The Oxford Companion to Twentieth-Century Literature in English

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... Imaginary Friends ( 1967 ) features the attempts of two sociologists to penetrate a religious cult in upstate New York; and The War between the Tates ( 1974 ) describes marital strife alongside student unrest. The world of writers and artists is examined in novels such as Real People ( 1969 ), set in an artistic community, and The Truth about Lorin Jones ( 1988 ), which casts an ironic eye over the New York art establishment and feminist movement, as an art historian finds her identity entwined with that of her research subject. Although most of Lurie's...

Lewis, Wyndham

Lewis, Wyndham   Reference library

The Oxford Companion to Twentieth-Century Literature in English

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2005

...literary establishment; his isolation was compounded when, in 1931 , he published a book expressing his admiration for Hitler . Auden described him as ‘that lonely old volcano of the Right’, but in spite of his damaged reputation Lewis produced some of his best work during the late 1930s and early 1940s. The Revenge for Love ( 1937 ), an intricately plotted thriller set at the time of the Spanish Civil War, and The Vulgar Streak ( 1941 ), set in Italy on the eve of the Munich crisis, show Lewis's incisive style at its best. Lewis spent the war years in...

Mo, Timothy

Mo, Timothy   Reference library

The Oxford Companion to Twentieth-Century Literature in English

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...by a brutal military regime based on Suharto's, and the heroic resistance of the freedom fighters with whom Adolph takes refuge. Mo published Brownout on Breadfruit Boulevard ( 1995 ) himself, as a protest against the editorial and financial policies of the publishing establishment. After the epic scale of his most recent works, Brownout is a smaller, sharper performance; it is, however, equally distant from the domestic comedy of his early novels. Set in the Philippines, it adopts the perspectives of Asians and Westerners to analyse the vicissitudes...

Periodicals

Periodicals   Reference library

The Oxford Companion to Twentieth-Century Literature in English

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...internationalism in the 1920s is reflected in the establishment in Paris of the Transatlantic Review and transition ; later magazines of a markedly international character include the multilingual Botteghe Oscure and the eclectic Paris Review and Antaeus . The closure of numerous important publications in the late 1930s supports the widely held view that by 1940 the heyday of the literary periodical was over. Despite the rationing of paper and the dispersal of contributors caused by the Second World War, Horizon and Poetry London continued to...

Lawrence, D. H.

Lawrence, D. H.   Reference library

The Oxford Companion to Twentieth-Century Literature in English

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...figure, as the famous trial over the eventual publication of Lady Chatterley's Lover as late as 1960 amply demonstrates, but his reputation has swung sharply. Censored and vilified by the establishment in his own time, he was later valued as a moralist and spokesman for stifled instinct by a range of major critics and writers after the Second World War when his work became for many a cornerstone of the twentieth-century canon. Subsequently, however, he has been revalued by feminists troubled by what is seen as his male-centredness. John Worthen's ...

Harris, Frank

Harris, Frank (1856–1931)   Reference library

The Oxford Companion to Edwardian Fiction

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2005

..., 1901–2 ; Vanity Fair , 1907–10 ; Hearth & Home , 1911–12 ; Modern Society , 1913–14 ) became increasingly obscure and scandalous, and he was sent to prison for a report on a divorce suit, an experience which inspired him with a hatred for the British establishment. During the First World War he went to America, and published pro-German articles and England or Germany ( 1915 ). His biography of Wilde was published in New York ( 1916 , 1918 ); his pornographic and self-aggrandizing memoirs were privately published in Paris ( 1922–7 ). He lived in...

Amis, Sir Kingsley

Amis, Sir Kingsley   Reference library

The Oxford Companion to Twentieth-Century Literature in English

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...of Swansea, Princeton University, and Peterhouse, Cambridge. Amis won immediate fame with his first novel, Lucky Jim ( 1954 ); in its portrayal of the ‘ Angry Young Man ’, Jim Dixon , a lecturer in a provincial university, the novel displayed an irreverence towards the establishment and a satirical humour which were to characterize his work as a whole. That Uncertain Feeling ( 1955 ), also with a university setting, confirmed Amis as an iconoclast whose dislike of all forms of dogma allied him as much with satirists on the Left as on the Right. Other...

James, Henry

James, Henry (1843–1916)   Reference library

The Oxford Companion to Edwardian Fiction

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2005

...central part of his complex fate, ‘this doom of inordinate exposure to appearances, aspects, images’. He met George Eliot ( 1819–80 ), John Ruskin ( 1819–1900 ), Robert Browning ( 1812–89 ), Matthew Arnold ( 1822–88 )—most of the great figures of the British literary establishment. Listening to Tennyson ( 1809–92 ) he was surprised that he ‘failed to swoon away’; despite his immersion in European life he always retained an American's ironic edge. Late in 1875 James moved to Paris as correspondent of the New York Tribune , two weeks before his first...

Meredith, George

Meredith, George (1828–1909)   Reference library

The Oxford Companion to Edwardian Fiction

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2005

...OM ( 1905 ), married, first ( 1849 ), Mary Ellen Nicolls née Peacock ( c. 1820–61 ) and, secondly ( 1864 ), Marie Vulliamy ( d. 1886 ). Now the least read of the great Victorian novelists, Meredith was born at Portsmouth, where his grandfather owned a naval outfitter's establishment. His mother died when he was 5. He was educated at St Paul's Church School, Southsea, and later in Germany ( 1842–4 ). In 1844 he was articled to a London solicitor, but soon turned to journalism, at the same time publishing poems and essays in literary journals. With his...

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