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war establishment

The level of equipment and manning laid down for a military unit in wartime.

MIR

MIR (RUSSIAN)   Reference library

Charles Malamoud

Dictionary of Untranslatables: A Philosophical Lexicon

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2017
Subject:
Philosophy, Literature, Literary reference works
Length:
5,935 words

...become individual farmers. But the upheavals of civil war and the changes triggered by the reform of 1918 (“land to the peasants!”) resulted in the mir being reconstituted, and a good number of peasants who had left their communes returned. For more than a decade, the Soviet government allowed the mir to subsist, even as it sought to invigorate the class struggle in the villages and to favor soviets of poor peasants. It was only with generalized collectivization (elimination of the kulaks, establishment of kolkhozes and sovkhozes ) at the beginning of...

BAROQUE

BAROQUE   Reference library

Claude Mignot

Dictionary of Untranslatables: A Philosophical Lexicon

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2017
Subject:
Philosophy, Literature, Literary reference works
Length:
2,593 words

...opposed to the baroque in the original, figurative sense of the term. The overcoming of this cultural blockage, of which Michel Butor ’s novel La modification ( 1957 ) offers a premonitory novelistic expression, closely followed the signature of the Treaty of Rome and the establishment of the Common Market. Victor Tapié’s book Baroque et classicisme ( 1957 ) no doubt played a major role in the substitution of the word “baroque” for the word “classic” in France. Our generation saw Versailles, which had earlier been considered the masterpiece of French...

SAUDADE

SAUDADE (PORTUGUESE)   Reference library

Fernando Santoro

Dictionary of Untranslatables: A Philosophical Lexicon

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2017
Subject:
Philosophy, Literature, Literary reference works
Length:
2,119 words

...portuguesa ) However, the religious idea of salvation was not involved in saudade before the existentialist and mystical poets and philosophers of the Portuguese renaissance, the nationalist and messianic cultural movement of the early twentieth century that accompanied the establishment of the republic in Portugal. Leonardo Coimbra and Teixeira de Pascoaes, the founder of the review A Águia , made this feeling an existential foundation, indeed a goddess, with a special religion and form of worship. Saudade is thus associated with the most important events...

ENTREPRENEUR

ENTREPRENEUR (FRENCH)   Reference library

Hélène Vérin

Dictionary of Untranslatables: A Philosophical Lexicon

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Subject Reference
Current Version:
2017
Subject:
Philosophy, Literature, Literary reference works
Length:
3,459 words

...practical realization, the setting in motion of the transaction; and by “adventurer,” “enterpriser,” and “projector,” to emphasize the risks related to speculation. At the end of the eighteenth century, the French word entreprise acquired the new meaning of an “industrial establishment.” Entrepreneur accordingly acquired the sense of the head or direction of a business of production (superintendent, employer, manager). In France, at the beginning of the eighteenth century, the noun entrepreneur had strong political connotations, in particular in the...

LIBERAL

LIBERAL   Reference library

Catherine Audard and Philippe Raynaud

Dictionary of Untranslatables: A Philosophical Lexicon

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Subject Reference
Current Version:
2017
Subject:
Philosophy, Literature, Literary reference works
Length:
4,315 words

...age was in the nineteenth century, and it has appeared to be on the wane since then, with the progress of socialism, the establishment of worker and trade union traditions, and the rise of the postwar welfare state, all of which has led European liberalism to be more closely aligned with the conservative right. Margaret Thatcher ’s new right in Great Britain appropriated the term “liberal” and gave it a new meaning in order to wage war on both the welfare state and the paternalism of traditional conservatives. She thus introduced so-called liberal...

VIRTÙ

VIRTÙ (ITALIAN)   Reference library

Alessandro Fontana

Dictionary of Untranslatables: A Philosophical Lexicon

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2017
Subject:
Philosophy, Literature, Literary reference works
Length:
6,166 words

...precedents for Machiavellian virtù should be sought not in the philosophers, but in the historians (Thucydides, Titus-Livy, Sallust, Plutarch, and especially Tacitus) who rely for their models on the Sparta of Lycurgus and Republican Rome (before the outbreak of civil wars and the establishment of the empire, in which, as they acknowledge, ancient virtue was lost). It was on the basis of the Roman models—revived by the English republicans of the seventeenth century and leading to the French equation of “virtue” with “republic” by Montesquieu, Rousseau, and...

FRENCH

FRENCH   Reference library

Alain Badiou

Dictionary of Untranslatables: A Philosophical Lexicon

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2017
Subject:
Philosophy, Literature, Literary reference works
Length:
5,144 words

... Language Stripped Bare by Its Philosophers ➤ CIVIL SOCIETY , COMBINATION AND CONCEPTUALIZATION , COMMON SENSE , ENGLISH , ERZÄHLEN , EUROPE , GERMAN , GREEK , ITALIAN , LOGOS , PEOPLE , POLITICS , PORTUGUESE , REASON , RUSSIAN , SEX , TO BE , WORD ORDER The establishment of thought in the French language took on a political meaning from the start: the privilege given to French does not derive from any intrinsic character of the language, but instead from the possibility of a universal and democratic philosophical communication. A language of...

CONSCIOUSNESS

CONSCIOUSNESS   Reference library

Étienne Balibar

Dictionary of Untranslatables: A Philosophical Lexicon

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2017
Subject:
Philosophy, Literature, Literary reference works
Length:
13,665 words

...relation between man and God ( Vorlesungen über 1. Mose [ 1535–45 ], in Werke , 44:546.30–31). At no time is man alone with his conscience. The latter is in no way productive, it is only the reflection or “bearer” ( Träger : Hirsch, Lutherstudien ) of a relationship whose establishment does not depend on it. That is why Luther’s statements regarding conscience vary so much. He also calls it an “evil beast” ( mala bestia ) that “makes man oppose himself” when it persuades him to put his trust in good works rather than in faith to gain salvation ( Vorlesungen...

GREEK

GREEK   Reference library

Lambros Couloubaritsis

Dictionary of Untranslatables: A Philosophical Lexicon

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2017
Subject:
Philosophy, Literature, Literary reference works
Length:
8,763 words

...1976 . Six years later, an association for the Greek language published a manifesto signed by seven well-known personalities—including Odysseas Elytis, winner of the Nobel Prize in literature, and Georgios Babiniotis, the most gifted linguist of the time—criticizing the legal establishment of the language, seeing in it a linguistic and expressive constraint likely to destroy “the foundations of the freedom of thought” in the name of an “artificial” demotic established by self-described “modernists.” Reactions followed, reopening a debate that was believed...

PEOPLE

PEOPLE   Reference library

Marc Crépon, Barbara Cassin, and Claudia Moatti

Dictionary of Untranslatables: A Philosophical Lexicon

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2017
Subject:
Philosophy, Literature, Literary reference works
Length:
13,225 words

...To differentiate between government and people, as if two separate spheres of power, one stronger and higher, the other weaker and lower, were negotiating and coming to agreement, is a bit of inherited political sensibility that still accords exactly with the historical establishment of the power relationship in most states. When, for example, Bismarck describes the constitutional form as a compromise between government and people, he is speaking according to a principle that has its reason in history (which is, of course, also the source for that...

PRAXIS

PRAXIS (GREEK)   Reference library

Étienne Balibar, Barbara Cassin, and Sandra Laugier

Dictionary of Untranslatables: A Philosophical Lexicon

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2017
Subject:
Philosophy, Literature, Literary reference works
Length:
13,389 words

...here. Very schematically, there are four preconditions for the understanding of this formulation of praxis . The first, purely negative, is the fact that, in the course of the centuries intervening between the translatio philosophiae from Athens to Rome and the final establishment of European philosophies in vernacular languages, the Greek term praxis did not find any genuine Latin translation, with the result that the reactivation of this or that aspect of Aristotle’s problematics was always accompanied by recourse to the Greek word or to a...

WORD

WORD   Reference library

Marc Baratin, Barbara Cassin, Irène Rosier-Catach, Frédérique Ildefonse, Jean Lallot, and Jacqueline Léon

Dictionary of Untranslatables: A Philosophical Lexicon

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2017
Subject:
Philosophy, Literature, Literary reference works
Length:
14,590 words
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..., la parole incarnée [the eternal word, the unbegotten word, the word incarnate] although one more commonly says le Verbe .” The Word of God ( Verbum Dei ) refers in both dictionaries to the Holy Scripture. E. Mot/Parole In the seventeenth century, as a result of the establishment of French as the language of the state and the national language (see Collinot and Mazière, Un prêt-à-parler ), the production of the Port-Royal Grammaire générale et raisonnée ( 1660 ), and the appearance of the first monolingual dictionaries, French came of age as a...

SUBJECT

SUBJECT   Reference library

Étienne Balibar, Barbara Cassin, and Alain de Libera

Dictionary of Untranslatables: A Philosophical Lexicon

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2017
Subject:
Philosophy, Literature, Literary reference works
Length:
23,322 words

...): “a possible subject of a better world, which he has in its idea” (B 426). In historical terms, one would like to be able to relate this substratum of Kant’s thought to the “becoming a subject” of the revolutionary and postrevolutionary citizen, and especially to the establishment of the category of a “subject of law” ( Rechtssubjekt ) of which we do not, as yet, have a sufficiently clear idea. In a recent study, Yves-Charles Zarka notes in Leibniz, in contrast, a problematic of justice and equity that requires everyone to “put himself in the place of...

TO TRANSLATE

TO TRANSLATE   Reference library

Clara Auvray-Assayas, Christian Bernier, Barbara Cassin, André Paul, and Irène Rosier-Catach

Dictionary of Untranslatables: A Philosophical Lexicon

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2017
Subject:
Philosophy, Literature, Literary reference works
Length:
17,498 words

...letter 57, to Pammachius, para. 6). The variants of this editio , and especially the recensions, seemed to reflect a very ancient model of Greek related to a Hebrew family of texts that were found among the scrolls of Qumran. This Bible made a significant contribution to the establishment of Christian Latin as distinct from classical Latin. The vocabularies of occidental languages that derive from Latin are deeply influenced by it. Shocked by the profusion of variants and its general literary impoverishment (at one point a sermo humilis had been the rule),...

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