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war establishment

The level of equipment and manning laid down for a military unit in wartime.

Here Lies Arthur

Here Lies Arthur (2007)   Reference library

The Oxford Companion to Children's Literature (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2015
Subject:
Literature, Children's literature studies
Length:
110 words

... legend by Philip Reeve . When Gwyna meets Myrddin, her life has been destroyed by Arthur’s war band. However, Myrddin needs her to help him create the myth of Arthur, the Once and Future King. So Gwyna becomes Gwyn for a time and learns that history is not necessarily what happens but rather the story people want to hear, and an identity is a thing that can be created. Set against the bleak landscape of the time between the fall of Roman Britain and the establishment of Saxon England, it was awarded the 2008 Carnegie Medal...

Elin-Pelin

Elin-Pelin   Reference library

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Children's Literature

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2006
Subject:
Literature, Children's literature studies
Length:
142 words

...is important in all his works for children; they are clearly written from the superior adult position and are intent on teaching lessons. Elin-Pelin was also the founder and editor of several children's magazines and contributed to the establishment of children's literature in Bulgaria between the two world wars. See also Eastern European Countries . Maria...

Hayes, John F.

Hayes, John F.   Reference library

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Children's Literature

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2006
Subject:
Literature, Children's literature studies
Length:
151 words

...Nation Builders ( 1968 ). Hayes's novels offer fast-paced, action-oriented reading, usually featuring a teenaged boy and his friend against the backdrop of a central event or conflict in Canadian history, such as the settlement of Newfoundland, the War of 1812 , the MacKenzie Rebellion , and the establishment of the Canadian Mounties. Noted for its historical accuracy and readability, his work has received, among other honors, the Canadian Governor General's Literary Award, the Quebec Scientific and Literary Award, the Book-of-the-Year for Children Medal,...

MORPURGO, Michael

MORPURGO, Michael (1943–)   Reference library

The Oxford Companion to Children's Literature (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2015
Subject:
Literature, Children's literature studies
Length:
307 words

...version of War Horse ( 1982 )—a production which would run for years in the West End, on Broadway, and around the world—Morpurgo has continued to produce humane, human, challenging, and endearing books for all ages. Private Peaceful ( 2003 ), his stand-out book for older readers, continued his exploration of the effects of war, as did Shadow ( 2010 ) about a bomb sniffer dog in Afghanistan and A Medal for Leroy ( 2012 ), which included the story of Walter Tull, the only black officer to serve in the British army in the First World War. Michael...

Schmidt, Annie M. G.

Schmidt, Annie M. G.   Reference library

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Children's Literature

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2006
Subject:
Literature, Children's literature studies
Length:
504 words

...for Bio-Chemical Research; Pluk van de Petteflet ( 1971 ), about a little boy living alone in a small house on top of an apartment building; and Otje ( 1980 ). The main theme of all three novels is the struggle of the protagonists, children and childlike adults, against establishment and officialdom. The stories have a realistic, modern setting, but the world is “enchanted” and includes fairy tale elements, for example talking animals who assist the protagonists in their fight against injustice, as an “animal secret service.” The structure shows the...

Austria

Austria   Reference library

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Children's Literature

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2006
Subject:
Literature, Children's literature studies
Length:
924 words
Illustration(s):
1

...German Youth, 1884–1918 ) featured writings of contemporary authors such as Peter Rosegger, while magazines such as Gaudeamus ( 1898–1908 ) or Vergissmeinnicht (Forget Me Not, 1899 ) presented articles about historical and political events. After World War I and with the establishment of the republican government, Austrian children's literature changed, as a new social order was instituted. In his trilogy Die Höhlenkinder (The Children in the Cave, 1918–1920 ), Alois Sonnleitner described the adventures of two children, Eva and Peter ,...

Hughes, Langston

Hughes, Langston   Reference library

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Children's Literature

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2006
Subject:
Literature, Children's literature studies
Length:
634 words
Illustration(s):
1

...of the Harlem Renaissance, Hughes deals primarily with freedom in his works—freedom for African Americans in a country that has systematically discriminated against them. He also penned works of nonfiction about African American history, books that the children's book establishment largely ignored until the 1960s and later. The First Book of Negroes ( 1952 ) tells of the rich history of black leaders such as Harriet Tubman , Ralph Bunche , and Louis Armstrong ; The First Book of Rhythms ( 1954 ) introduces children to the rhythms around them; and...

Seuss, Dr.

Seuss, Dr.   Reference library

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Children's Literature

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2006
Subject:
Literature, Children's literature studies
Length:
1,251 words
Illustration(s):
1

...sentiment aroused by World War I. He graduated from Dartmouth College and did graduate work in literature at Lincoln College, Oxford, before working as an illustrator, cartoonist, and humorist for Judge , Life , and Vanity Fair magazines. At Oxford he met Helen Marion Palmer , whom he married in 1927 , and in 1928 the couple moved to La Jolla, California. After Helen Palmer Geisel died in 1967 , Geisel married Audrey Stone Diamond in 1968 . He headed Random House's Beginner Books division from its establishment in 1957 until his death....

Spain

Spain   Reference library

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Children's Literature

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2006
Subject:
Literature, Children's literature studies
Length:
1,119 words
Illustration(s):
1

...mold of children's literature in Spain. They achieved recognition and prestige, not only among young readers but among intellectuals as well, and all three had to go into exile when the civil war ended in 1939 , leading to the disappearance of the republic and the establishment by General Franco of a dictatorship that ended only with his death in 1975 . The civil war brought with it propagandistic children's literature aimed at indoctrinating youngsters on both sides of the struggle. The winners, seeing its effectiveness, kept publishing such books for the...

girls’ stories

girls’ stories   Reference library

The Oxford Companion to Children's Literature (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2015
Subject:
Literature, Children's literature studies
Length:
1,125 words

...) and the early ' Billabong ' books by Mary Grant Bruce . In Britain the girls’ story began to establish itself as a popular genre in the 1880s, with the arrival of L. T. Meade and Evelyn Everett-Green (Meade virtually created the girls’ school story , set in boarding establishments for young ladies). Though they and other girls’ authors of the period were writing at a time when female emancipation was a burning topic, they gave no real support to it and implied that higher education and other such activities of the ‘modern girl’ or ‘new woman’ were...

Eastern European Countries

Eastern European Countries   Reference library

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Children's Literature

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2006
Subject:
Literature, Children's literature studies
Length:
3,165 words
Illustration(s):
2

...audiences. After World War II the Eastern European nations were incorporated into the Soviet Union or brought together in artificial federations (Czechoslovakia and Yugoslavia), or they existed as formally independent but in fact highly subordinate Communist states in which politics, culture, and education were rigorously governed by the Soviet guidelines. The fall of Communism in 1989 was followed by the emergence of many new national states in Eastern Europe, as well as a number of serious national conflicts. Although the establishment and further...

Meltzer, Milton

Meltzer, Milton   Reference library

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Children's Literature

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2006
Subject:
Literature, Children's literature studies
Length:
729 words

...to children in recognition of lifetime achievement. As demonstrated by his influential 1976 Horn Book article, “Where Do All the Prizes Go?”, Meltzer's activism also seeks to address the inequities that trouble the children's book world, calling attention to the literary establishment's favoring fiction over nonfiction and the major award committees' veritable silence about informational books for children. See also Information Books ; Multicultural Books ; Nonfiction ; and United States . Cathryn M. Mercier Chatton, Barbara . “Milton Meltzer: A Voice...

KIPLING, (Joseph) Rudyard

KIPLING, (Joseph) Rudyard (1865–1936)   Reference library

The Oxford Companion to Children's Literature (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2015
Subject:
Literature, Children's literature studies
Length:
910 words

...He described his years with the Holloways in the story ‘Baa, Baa Black Sheep’ (in Wee Willie Winkie and other child stories , 1898 ). He was eventually rescued from this hell, and was sent in 1878 to school at the United Services College at Westward Ho! in Devon, an establishment recently founded to prepare boys for the armed forces. His experiences there closely resemble the goings-on in Stalky & Co . Though at first unhappy (there was plenty of bullying), he soon came to enjoy the tough atmosphere and to make firm friendships. At school, Kipling...

libraries

libraries   Reference library

The Oxford Companion to Children's Literature (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2015
Subject:
Literature, Children's literature studies
Length:
849 words

...libraries. Sunday schools also made books available for home reading—most churches and chapels had a Sunday school library—and reading rooms attached to Working Men’s Institutes and similar organizations sometimes allowed young people to use their facilities. The establishment of civic-owned public libraries began in Britain and America in the mid-19th cent. A few British towns had facilities for children from the start, with juvenile reading rooms being opened in Westminster ( 1857 ), Cambridge ( 1872 ), and Nottingham, where the Library for Boys...

Nöstlinger, Christine

Nöstlinger, Christine   Reference library

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Children's Literature

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2006
Subject:
Literature, Children's literature studies
Length:
1,136 words
Illustration(s):
1

...In the wake of the 1968 student revolts, the prevailing Marxist- inspired school of antiauthoritarianism accepted only unflinching, taboo-blind “problem literature,” rejecting fairy tale and fantasy alike as escapist and (as it was said then) systemerhaltend , that is, pro-establishment. Nöstlinger, by contrast, innovatively crafts an uncompromising critical message, completely and undogmatically aware of the subtle metaphorical paths of literary reception taken by young readers. In Fiery Frederica , for example, the heroine's flaming red hair provokes...

Alcott, Louisa May

Alcott, Louisa May   Reference library

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Children's Literature

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2006
Subject:
Literature, Children's literature studies
Length:
1,134 words
Illustration(s):
1

...tomboy Jo, with her evergreen appeal for readers, is Alcott's semiautobiographical portrayal of her own youth: her literary and dramatic leanings, her battles with her impatience and temper, and her flinching at the constraints of standardized womanhood. Foundational in its establishment of a distinctively American domestic realism in literature for children, Little Women has been praised for its characterization and its accurate portrayal of New England life and adolescent psychology. Sharing some of the didactic qualities of children's literature that came...

Montgomery, L. M.

Montgomery, L. M.   Reference library

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Children's Literature

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2006
Subject:
Literature, Children's literature studies
Length:
1,138 words
Illustration(s):
1

...in housekeeping (in Jane of Lantern Hill Jane learns to run her father's establishment at age eleven), romance (the heroine of Montgomery's 1926 novel The Blue Castle , deluded into thinking that she has a terminal illness, throws off the stultifying constraints imposed by her unappreciative family and proposes marriage to a disreputable-appearing man who later turns out to be a prime matrimonial catch), child care (Anne's teenage daughter Rilla takes on a “war baby,” a task that bestows on her a new maturity and depth), or artistry (Anne and...

adventure stories

adventure stories   Reference library

The Oxford Companion to Children's Literature (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2015
Subject:
Literature, Children's literature studies
Length:
1,199 words

...penny dreadfuls, the most notable result being the establishment in Britain, in the last decade of the 19th cent., of Harmsworth ’s series of boys’ adventure weeklies; the most celebrated of these were Marvel ( 1893–1922 ), Pluck ( 1894–1916 ), and Union Jack ( 1894–1933 ). At the same period in Britain the Henty tradition was continued in books by such writers of boys’ stories as Captain F. S. Brereton , Herbert Strang , and Percy F. Westerman , all of whom wrote stories about the First World War. They in turn were succeeded by Captain W. E....

school stories

school stories   Reference library

The Oxford Companion to Children's Literature (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2015
Subject:
Literature, Children's literature studies
Length:
1,415 words

...Assistant ( 1796 ), provides a rare instance of a late 18th-cent. account of public school life. Two stories by Elizabeth Sandham , The Boys’ School; or, Traits of Character in Early Life ( 1800 ) and The Schoolfellows ( 1818 ), are didactic narratives set in boarding establishments, the latter in a girls’ school. Charles and Mary Lamb ’s book Mrs Leicester’s School ( 1809 ) is on the model of The Governess . Harriet Martineau ’s The Crofton Boys ( 1841 ) began to show what could be done in a school narrative, with its tale of goings-on,...

School Stories

School Stories   Reference library

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Children's Literature

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2006
Subject:
Literature, Children's literature studies
Length:
3,613 words
Illustration(s):
1

...Tom Jones fame) is thought to be the first such story set in a school. Following its publication in 1749 , novels for boys set in boys’ schools as well as novels for girls set in girls’ schools were produced, often by the same writers. The settings (small private or village establishments) and the messages (the sad consequences of disobedience and folly, the need for repentance and forgiveness) were similar, and the plots often involved a deathbed or near deathbed scene. That the majority of the authors of these tales were female (among them, Maria Edgeworth...

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