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Overview

war establishment

The level of equipment and manning laid down for a military unit in wartime.

Education

Education   Reference library

An Oxford Companion to the Romantic Age

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2009
Subject:
History, modern history (1700 to 1945), Literature
Length:
5,267 words
Publisher:
Oxford University Press

...staff appointed (predominantly from Scotland or abroad). Around 300 men were admitted as students in 1828 . Various forces within the English academic and ecclesiastical establishments strongly opposed the new institution, and it had to wait another eight years before it was granted a charter, which officially renamed it ‘University College, London’. Meanwhile, the establishment forces had set up a counterpart in the metropolis, King's College, which retained Anglican affiliations and stressed the crucial importance of religious values while also...

Revolution

Revolution   Reference library

An Oxford Companion to the Romantic Age

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2009
Subject:
History, modern history (1700 to 1945), Literature
Length:
5,734 words
Publisher:
Oxford University Press

...four years of the decade the British government came under considerable strain: the war with France was going badly; the country was under constant threat of invasion from 1797 ; and it had major difficulties financing the war, resulting in a banking crisis in early 1797 and the suspension of specie payments (maintained until 1821 ). At the end of 1797 William *Pitt was forced to introduce a bill trebling assessed taxes, and a scheme of voluntary contributions to aid war funding was also established; but neither proved adequate to meet needs, and the...

Empire

Empire   Reference library

An Oxford Companion to the Romantic Age

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2009
Subject:
History, modern history (1700 to 1945), Literature
Length:
4,298 words
Publisher:
Oxford University Press

...of State for the Colonies under Henry Bathurst ( 1762–1834 ), the first Secretary for War and Colonies to take a close interest in colonial affairs. Further bureaucratic recognition of the importance of colonial affairs came with the establishment of a Permanent Under-Secretary in 1825 . Between 1836 and 1847 this office was held by Sir James Stephen ( 1789–1859 ), under whom the Colonial Office was put on a firm organizational footing and rendered an effective instrument in advancing representative government and in opposing the slave...

Enlightenment

Enlightenment   Reference library

An Oxford Companion to the Romantic Age

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2009
Subject:
History, modern history (1700 to 1945), Literature
Length:
7,794 words
Publisher:
Oxford University Press

...completely. Stalwart support emerged in a distinctive pocket of enlightened radicalism in south Cardiganshire. Dubbed the Black Spot (Y Smotyn Du) by *Methodists , a cluster of Unitarian chapels emerged, supported by the local farming folk. They declared war on an alien religious establishment and on Methodistical enthusiasm alike, and formed an almost unique example of an enduring rural Enlightenment. It was perhaps inevitable that in the overcharged atmosphere of the 1790s *millenarian ideas proved especially attractive. Mythic notions of the Welsh...

Pericles

Pericles   Reference library

Sonia Massai and Anthony Davies

The Oxford Companion to Shakespeare (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2015
Subject:
Literature, Shakespeare studies and criticism, Performing arts, Theatre
Length:
2,543 words
Publisher:
Oxford University Press

...virgin and no prostitute: he leaves promising to help. The Bawd, outraged by Marina’s behaviour, orders Boult to deflower her, but she persuades him she will be more profitably employed in respectable activities such as sewing, weaving, and dancing. 20 Gower narrates Marina’s establishment as a singer and embroiderer, and the arrival of Pericles’ ship at Mytilene. 21 Lysimachus enquires after Pericles’ distemper and suggests that Marina might be able to cure him. Marina is sent for and sings to the silent Pericles. He initially pushes her away, but his interest...

Religion

Religion   Reference library

An Oxford Companion to the Romantic Age

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2009
Subject:
History, modern history (1700 to 1945), Literature
Length:
5,549 words
Publisher:
Oxford University Press

...rates for the upkeep of church buildings and churchyards, a right much changed and eroded in the nineteenth century. The intrinsically problematical character of Warburton's analysis—which he had insisted was rooted in the order of nature—is underscored by the ways in which establishment elsewhere in Britain and Ireland was realized. The Presbyterian Church of Scotland, descending from the sixteenth-century Reformation, was governed (again under the King, who adhered to different religions north and south of the border) through a hierarchy of mixed lay and...

Viewing

Viewing   Reference library

An Oxford Companion to the Romantic Age

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2009
Subject:
History, modern history (1700 to 1945), Literature
Length:
6,051 words
Publisher:
Oxford University Press

...ethnographic in nature was not welcomed by connoisseurs and artists whose first desire was the establishment of a National Gallery of Art. The notion of a gallery that could educate artists, impress foreigners, and definitively answer the aspersions cast against the taste of the British public, had been advanced periodically through the century. However, development of a national gallery in England was hampered by political apathy, the expense of successive wars, and latterly by the whiff of *republicanism that accompanied the notion of a public art...

Industrialization

Industrialization   Reference library

An Oxford Companion to the Romantic Age

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2009
Subject:
History, modern history (1700 to 1945), Literature
Length:
5,380 words
Publisher:
Oxford University Press

...always revolved around the rise of disruptive new patterns of work, the *factory system , and machine-driven production. Probably fewer than 12 per cent of the British workforce was employed in factories by 1850 , and as late as 1871 the average size of a manufacturing establishment was under twenty employees. Indeed, craft and unmechanized trades were still the most numerous; there were more shoemakers than coalminers in 1851 , and coalmining was itself hardly exemplary in its use of powered machinery, relying primarily on muscle-power for the hewing...

Prose

Prose   Reference library

An Oxford Companion to the Romantic Age

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2009
Subject:
History, modern history (1700 to 1945), Literature
Length:
4,185 words
Publisher:
Oxford University Press

...new knowledges, alongside work in already established prose fields such as *biography , *autobiography , and *novels [31] . Yet their summary judgements on these books encouraged the accusation that, instead of allowing readers to ‘think for themselves’, the new reviewing establishment was imperiously imposing its own opinions (whether *Whig or *Tory ) on an unsuspecting public. A turning-point in the history of British reviewing culture developed in the early 1780s. Writers for the Whiggish Monthly and Tory Critical reviews had expressed their...

Utopianism

Utopianism   Reference library

An Oxford Companion to the Romantic Age

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2009
Subject:
History, modern history (1700 to 1945), Literature
Length:
4,929 words
Publisher:
Oxford University Press

...the millenarian restoration of an ancient Jewish constitution and homeland. They also saw the ‘Jubilee Day’ expounded in Leviticus 25, when Moses dramatically freed the slaves and restored the alienated lands of the Hebrew tribes, as a loose revolutionary model for the re-establishment in Britain of a democratic, smallholder, agrarian republic. Many *Spenceans thus sought, in the manner of Blake, to bring about the advent of a new Jerusalem in England's ‘green and pleasant land’. Spencean utopias were scarcely disguised manifestos for revolutionary...

Design

Design   Reference library

An Oxford Companion to the Romantic Age

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2009
Subject:
History, modern history (1700 to 1945), Literature
Length:
6,178 words
Publisher:
Oxford University Press

...according to classical precedent. Boulton saw his factory as a ‘Temple of the Vulcanian Arts’. Besides manufacturing toys and Sheffield plate on a large scale, he started in the late 1760s to produce high-quality ormolu and silverware, the latter greatly stimulated by the establishment of an Assay Office in Birmingham in 1773 , largely through his efforts. Wedgwood named his new factory ‘Etruria’, on the generally but mistakenly held belief that the Etruscans made the finest antique vases. By selling ‘Vases, Urns and other ornaments after the Etruscan,...

Democracy

Democracy   Reference library

An Oxford Companion to the Romantic Age

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2009
Subject:
History, modern history (1700 to 1945), Literature
Length:
5,165 words
Publisher:
Oxford University Press

...as well as finance a series of pointless foreign wars. Parliamentary reform would result in cheaper government and much lower taxes, the abolition of tithes, the repeal of the game laws, and changes to the laws which put so many small debtors in prison. Paine believed that the rich should be taxed to fund a range of social welfare reforms, and that a democratic political system would save huge amounts of money by reducing corruption, waste, and the size of the civil administration and the military establishment. His critique became a part of radical polemic in...

Painting

Painting   Reference library

An Oxford Companion to the Romantic Age

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2009
Subject:
History, modern history (1700 to 1945), Literature
Length:
5,778 words
Publisher:
Oxford University Press

...by the initial success of Boydell's Shakespeare Gallery. The Gallery's fortunes had subsequently been catastrophically affected by war with France, which cut off the crucial international markets for Boydell's engravings. More generally, the war years of the 1790s saw a dramatic slump in patronage for native painting, a depression accentuated by the wide interest in the Old Master pictures flooding into the country from war-torn Europe. These circumstances severely hampered Fuseli's own one-man exhibition project of the period, in which he single-handedly...

Music

Music   Reference library

An Oxford Companion to the Romantic Age

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2009
Subject:
History, modern history (1700 to 1945), Literature
Length:
5,344 words
Publisher:
Oxford University Press

...from late October until Christmas. Here was an ideal concentration of audience and purchasing power, a community much given to tattle, which incidentally served to document more musical gossip for future historians than was common at the time. For its entertainment a local establishment of musicians was joined by visiting celebrities, aspirants, and protégés. George Bridgetower , 11-year-old ‘son of an African prince’, soon to be taken up by the Prince of Wales and to join Beethoven in the ‘Kreutzer’ Sonata's first performance, earned 200 guineas for a...

Popular Culture

Popular Culture   Reference library

An Oxford Companion to the Romantic Age

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2009
Subject:
History, modern history (1700 to 1945), Literature
Length:
5,520 words
Publisher:
Oxford University Press

...thanks to the long-established tradition of Scottish folk scholarship, had managed to become a literary celebrity without relinquishing his political independence or raffish ways. One imagines that Clare longed similarly to be able to get away with writing a pungent, anti-establishment satire like Burns's ‘Holy Willy’. Another favourite hero and Clare persona was the plebeian prizefighter Jack Randall , whose brawn had defied all comers and whose pugilistic skills had been eagerly sought after by aristocrats like Lord *Byron . The latter Clare admired most...

Fryer Memorial Library

Fryer Memorial Library  

Reference type:
Overview Page
Subject:
Literature
Part of the University of Queensland library, is named after J. D. Fryer, an ex-serviceman who died in 1924 from injuries sustained in the First World War; its establishment in ...
Imperium in Imperio

Imperium in Imperio  

Reference type:
Overview Page
Subject:
Literature
Sutton E. Griggs's first novel, Imperium in Imperio (1899), is a visionary work positing the establishment of an underground organization of educated and militant African Americans bent on either an ...
Giuseppe Garibaldi

Giuseppe Garibaldi  

Reference type:
Overview Page
Subject:
Literature
(1807–82)Italian patriot and military leader. He was a hero of the Risorgimento (the movement for the unification and independence of Italy), who began his political activity as a member of the Young ...
A History of New York

A History of New York  

Reference type:
Overview Page
Subject:
Literature
From the Beginning of the World to the End of the Dutch Dynasty, by Diedrich Knickerbocker, burlesque history by Irving, published in 1809 and revised in 1812,1819, and 1848. It satirizes the methods ...
Maria W Stewart

Maria W Stewart  

Reference type:
Overview Page
Subject:
Literature
(1803–1879), essayist, lecturer, abolitionist, and women's rights activist.Maria Stewart was the earliest known American woman to lecture in public on political themes and leave extant copies of her ...

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