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war establishment

The level of equipment and manning laid down for a military unit in wartime.

Translation and Interpretation

Translation and Interpretation   Reference library

International Encyclopedia of Linguistics (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2003
Subject:
Linguistics
Length:
2,942 words

...over the years. Conference interpreting became important after World War I, when the establishment of the League of Nations brought together diplomats speaking a variety of languages. Consecutive interpreting (CI) was then the norm, however. Although IBM had developed a basic simultaneous interpreting (SI) system early in the 20th century, it was not widely adopted until it was introduced at the United Nations after having been successfully employed at the Nuremberg Trials following World War II. An advantage of SI over CI is that, because the interpretation is...

Scandinavian Languages

Scandinavian Languages   Reference library

International Encyclopedia of Linguistics (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2003
Subject:
Linguistics
Length:
2,961 words
Illustration(s):
2

...independence, and were granted autonomy in a dynastic union with Sweden, which lasted until 1905 . The dismemberment of Scandinavia was completed when Finland won its independence in 1917 , and Iceland in 1943 . The linguistic consequence of the dismemberment has been the establishment of the five standard languages listed earlier—including Faroese, which has benefited from the autonomy given the islands in 1948 . Danish is now restricted to Denmark, though it is still taught in Iceland and the Faroes. Swedish is an official minority language in Finland; it...

Spanish

Spanish   Reference library

International Encyclopedia of Linguistics (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2003
Subject:
Linguistics
Length:
3,663 words

...during the 16th and 17th centuries, combined to marginalize the indigenous languages of the New World, and to ensure the hegemony of Spanish after Latin American independence. Castilian flourished as a medium of epic and lyric verse in the later medieval period. Its establishment as a vehicle of scholarly prose was achieved in the 13th century, and is credited to Alfonso X El sabio “the Wise” (reigned 1252–84 ). “Old Spanish” is generally considered to end in the late 16th century, with a flurry of changes at all linguistic levels; since then, the...

History of Linguistics

History of Linguistics   Reference library

International Encyclopedia of Linguistics (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2003
Subject:
Linguistics
Length:
44,721 words
Illustration(s):
1

... 1962. Biblical words for time . (Studies in Biblical Theology, 33.) London: SCM. Crystal, David . 1965. Linguistics, language and religion . (Faith and Facts Books, 131) London: Burns and Dales. Dotan, A. , I. Zwiep , C. del B. Valle , and W. J. van Bekkum . 2000. The establishment of Hebrew linguistics. In History of the language sciences , vol. 1, edited by S. Auroux et al., pp. 215–244. Berlin and New York: de Gruyter. Hayman, P. 1986. Some observations on Sefer Yesira (2) . Journal of Jewish Studies 37.176–182. Hirschfeld, H. 1926. Literary...

Israel

Israel  

After half a century of war and hostility, peace with the Palestinians seems as remote as everIsrael can be considered to have four main geographical regions. To the north is a hilly region that ...
Sicily

Sicily  

A large triangular island in the Mediterranean Sea, separated from the ‘toe’ of Italy by the narrow Strait of Messina. It forms, with the neighbouring islands of Lipari, Egadi, Ustica, and ...
Rome

Rome  

According to tradition the ancient city was founded by Romulus (after whom it is named) in 753 bc on the Palatine Hill; as it grew it spread to the other six hills of Rome (Aventine, Caelian, ...
Science

Science   Reference library

Encyclopedia of Rhetoric

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2006
Subject:
Language reference, Linguistics
Length:
7,139 words

...that received scientific wisdom should be taught dogmatically. Indeed, religiously inspired inquirers may be better placed than most to see the flaws in secular scientific accounts, simply because they are motivated by something other than the reward system of the scientific establishment. Of course, this does not ensure the validity of their observations, let alone the religious beliefs that underwrite them, but it does provide a kind of check that scientists who specialize in, say, evolutionary biology might not otherwise encounter. In the end, perhaps the...

Deliberative genre

Deliberative genre   Reference library

Encyclopedia of Rhetoric

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2006
Subject:
Language reference, Linguistics
Length:
5,376 words

...They find wars being stopped by college students, environmental laws passed by the children of corporation executives, and Nelson Mandela's cause assisted by a distant band of college professors. They point to an American president driven from office by a free press, a Russian president honored for dismantling a mighty Communist machine, and an Iraqi dictator stopped in his tracks by an unlikely coalition of United Nations forces. They could point, too, to gays suddenly being treated as full citizens, to a massive military establishment put on a short...

African-American rhetoric

African-American rhetoric   Reference library

Encyclopedia of Rhetoric

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2006
Subject:
Language reference, Linguistics
Length:
9,882 words

...significantly to the establishment of the academic discipline of sociology in the United States, and was a founding member of the National Association for the Advancement of Colored People ( NAACP ). Double-consciousness, Du Bois remarked, reflected “a sense of always looking at one's self through the eyes of others, of measuring one's soul by the tape of a world that looks on in amused contempt and pity. One ever feels his two-ness—an American, a Negro; two souls, two thoughts, two unreconciled strivings; two warring ideals in one dark body, whose...

Classical rhetoric

Classical rhetoric   Reference library

Encyclopedia of Rhetoric

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2006
Subject:
Language reference, Linguistics
Length:
16,967 words

...work by Aristotle, credit the “invention” of an art of rhetoric to two Sicilians called Corax and Tisias. The alleged occasion was the need to provide some skill in public speaking to persons involved in litigation of property rights after the expulsion of the tyrants and establishment of democracy in Syracuse about 466 bce Corax means “crow” in Greek, and it is probable that Corax and Tisias are the same person and that the nickname “Corax” was given to Tisias by those who resented his “cawing.” Although details in the story are unreliable, two...

Audience

Audience   Reference library

Encyclopedia of Rhetoric

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2006
Subject:
Language reference, Linguistics
Length:
11,691 words

...can spread across a time-zone, a nation, or occasionally the entire planet—are typical examples of noncontiguous attention collectives, print media led the way well before electronic media. Not least among the historical consequences of the printing press was the establishment of dispersed social collectives such as scientific “invisible colleges” and national “imagined communities” ( Anderson , 1991 ). Medieval manuscript culture did sustain farflung diasporas among Jewish, Christian, and Muslim scholars, but print, combined with mass literacy,...

Logos

Logos   Reference library

Encyclopedia of Rhetoric

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2006
Subject:
Language reference, Linguistics
Length:
8,568 words

...division of intellectual labor among academic disciplines began to emerge. With that differentiation, the history of logos also differentiates: logos means quite different things in philosophy, literature and aesthetics, and rhetoric. Modernity: Logos Divided . The establishment of modernity is marked by the development of the sciences, the specialization of knowledge in academic disciplines, the revolutionary transformation of customary political forms, and the construction of subjectivity as a particular mode of knowledge. Under these circumstances,...

Cambridge English

Cambridge English   Quick reference

The Oxford Companion to the English Language (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2018

...Cambridge English . A name for English literature as taught at the U. of Cambridge since the establishment in 1912 of the Edward VII Chair of English Literature, whose first incumbent was Arthur Quiller-Couch : ‘Eventually an English Tripos [final honours degree examination] was proposed and agreed to in 1917 , when, it was remarked, many of the dons who might have opposed it were away at the war. The ensuing Golden Age of Cambridge English has been widely commemorated in myth and memoir’ ( Bernard Bergonzi , Exploding English , 1990 ). Major figures...

Orwell, George

Orwell, George (1903–50)   Quick reference

The Oxford Companion to the English Language (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2018

...Orwell, George ( 1903–50 ) . Pen name of Eric Arthur Blair , English novelist, journalist, and political thinker. The adoption in 1933 of the pen name, taken from the River Orwell in East Anglia, marked his transformation from a member of the establishment of the British Empire into a social, political, and literary radical. He was born in Montihari, Bengal, India, the son of a British civil servant, and educated at Eton (where Aldous Huxley was one of his masters). From there he went in 1922 to serve in the Indian Imperial Police in Burma, but...

Spengler, Oswald

Spengler, Oswald (1880–1936)   Reference library

Encyclopedia of Semiotics

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2007
Subject:
Language reference, Linguistics
Length:
697 words

...But Spengler's hold on the popular imagination was great and provides a telling index of the somber mood of the Germany between the two world wars. Most of Spengler's writings other than the Decline focus on contemporary German politics. In “Prussianism and Socialism” ( 1919 ), he argues that the two extreme poles of German politics, the conservatives and the socialists, have a similar aim: the establishment of a strong state designed to further the welfare of its people. Every nation within a larger historical culture (e.g., “Faustian,” “Magian,” etc.),...

Prefix

Prefix   Quick reference

The Oxford Companion to the English Language (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2018

...do not. They usually occur singly ( un - in unhappy, re - in re-write ), but sometimes occur in pairs: un -, re -, in unremarried not married again; anti -, dis -, in antidisestablishment . In these examples, both prefixes are productive (that is, married and establishment are independent base words), but pairing is commonly the addition of a productive to a non-productive prefix: productive in - to non-productive re - in irredeemable (no * deemable ); in - added to con - in inconclusive (no * clusive ). Sometimes, the same prefix may...

American English

American English   Quick reference

The Oxford Companion to the English Language (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2018
Subject:
Language reference, History of English, Linguistics
Length:
3,936 words

...of journalism, the expansion of education at all levels, and the publication of textbooks and dictionaries. The establishment of a national identity and its domestic elaboration were the preoccupation of this period, but by the end of the century new directions in national policy began to affect the language. By the 1890s the domestic frontier was exhausted, and expansionism took Americans into territories overseas. The Spanish-American War ( 1898 ) lasted barely four months, but was a turning-point in foreign policy. During the 120 years since the...

polysystem theory

polysystem theory   Reference library

Encyclopedia of Semiotics

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2007
Subject:
Language reference, Linguistics
Length:
1,521 words

...Once a model (or its features) enters the system's repertoire and becomes stabilized through canonization and imitation, it ceases to be a primary type and becomes a secondary one. This is a distinction between innovation and conservation, the latter leading to the establishment of normative features for texts so that deviations are regarded as shocking or as tending to produce inferior texts. Traditional models of genre provide a useful instance of how models become secondary: the model for dramatic tragedy established by Aristotle in the Poetics ,...

Received Pronunciation

Received Pronunciation   Quick reference

The Oxford Companion to the English Language (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2018
Subject:
Language reference, History of English, Linguistics
Length:
1,793 words

...favoured for recruits to the Foreign Office and other services representing the British nation (largely drawn from the public schools, with a slight enlargement of the catchment area in recent years). Newcomers to the British establishment have tended to ensure that their children acquire RP by sending them to the ‘right’ schools or, especially in the past in the case of girls, to elocution teachers. In these schools the accent has never been overtly taught, but appears to have been indirectly encouraged and often promoted through peer pressure that has...

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