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war establishment

The level of equipment and manning laid down for a military unit in wartime.

Cold War and Africa

Cold War and Africa (1945–1989)   Reference library

Encyclopedia of Africa

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2010

...political competition among Africans themselves provided further opportunities for foreign intervention. China also played a role in the Cold War in Africa, especially in the 1960s and 1970s. Although China and the Soviet Union shared roughly the same Communist objectives, an ideological rivalry emerged between the two powers in the early 1960s. China’s diplomatic contact with Africa, which began with the establishment of its first African diplomatic mission in Cairo, Egypt , in 1956 , was initially based on supporting African revolutionary movements. From...

N’Djamena, Chad

N’Djamena, Chad   Reference library

Encyclopedia of Africa

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2010

...Chad Capital, largest city, and economic center of Chad. N’Djamena lies at the confluence of the Logone and Chari rivers close to Chad ’s border with Cameroon and 80 km (50 mi) southeast of Lake Chad. Known as Fort Lamy from its establishment until September 1973 when President François Tombalbaye “Africanized” all French place names, N’Djamena acquired its present name from a small Kotoko fishing village, Am-Djamena, founded on the site by the nineteenth century. In 1900 the French defeated and killed the Sudanese slaver Rabih...

Islamic Salvation Front

Islamic Salvation Front   Reference library

Encyclopedia of Africa

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2010

...Salvation Front Outlawed political party in Algeria that advocates the establishment of an Islamic state. Islam has been an important presence in Algeria since the seventh century, and during the twentieth century, Islamic groups played a critical role in the struggle against French Colonial Rule. The movement for an Islamic state in Algeria dates from this struggle, gaining momentum after 1978 , when Iranians revolted against the shah and established the Islamic Republic of Iran. In the 1980s the Islamic Salvation Front (Front Islamique du Salut, or...

Crusades

Crusades (1096)   Reference library

Encyclopedia of Africa

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2010

...and defend these lands from infidels (non-Christians). Thousands of Christians took vows to join what they believed was a just and holy war, though arguably their leaders had more interest in controlling the rich markets and trade routes of the East than in converting unbelievers. Many scholars see the Crusades as a precursor to the European wars of conquest in the Americas and parts of Africa two centuries later, wars also justified on religious grounds. Though the Crusades transformed the history and consciousness of western Europe, Islamic rulers at the...

Transition

Transition   Reference library

Encyclopedia of Africa

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2010

...But ideological tensions and personal difficulties frustrated Neogy, and in 1974 he resigned in favor of Wole Soyinka, the Nigerian writer, who had himself only recently been jailed by the Nigerian government for his efforts to end the Biafran War. Soyinka’s Transition was less interested in “establishment democracy” than the “African revolution” and the black diaspora; it covered the sixth Pan-African Congress, the successful armed struggle in Guinea-Bissau, the Black Power Movement in the United States, and the cultural production of Afro-Brazilians....

Women Artists, African: An Interpretation

Women Artists, African: An Interpretation   Reference library

Encyclopedia of Africa

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2010

...stone, both of which were abundantly available, and finished their pieces with emery paper and wax polish. In those early years, Shona sculptures were considered grotesque by the Rhodesian English colonial establishment. However, in 1970 , at the first major overseas exhibit held at Musée d’Art Moderne in Paris, every sculpture sold on the first day. The war against Colonial Rule was by then well under way in Rhodesia, and it continued until the country gained independence in 1980 and Rhodesia became Zimbabwe. Although Shona women participated actively in the...

Ndongo

Ndongo   Reference library

Encyclopedia of Africa

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2010

... 1579 and 1589 resulted in the establishment of the Portuguese fort at Masangano, where the Kwanza and Lukala rivers meet, and the defection or defeat of most of Ndongo’s positions west of the highlands. However, when Dias de Novais’ successor, Luis Serrão, sought to invade Ndongo’s heartland in 1589 , he was severely defeated by Ndongo, which had formed a crucial alliance with Matamba, its eastern neighbor. In the aftermath of the Portuguese defeat, Ndongo recovered some of its lost provinces, but not the post of Masangano. In the subsequent years...

Réunion

Réunion   Reference library

Encyclopedia of Africa

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2010

...in 1802 , but also resumed direct control over all the island colonies. France and Great Britain had been competing for hegemony in the Indian Ocean since the War of Austrian Succession ( 1740–1748 ). Conflicts continued throughout the eighteenth and nineteenth centuries during the Seven Years’ War ( 1756–1763 ), the War of American Independence ( 1775–1783 ), and finally the Napoleonic Wars ( 1793–1815 ). In 1810 the British captured Réunion and Ile de France, renaming them Bourbon and Mauritius, respectively, and firmly establishing British dominance...

Krio

Krio   Reference library

Encyclopedia of Africa

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2010

...elite accrued wealth and Sierra Leone served as an educational, religious, and commercial center on the West African coast. However, the colonization of the Guinean interior by the French after 1890 cut off Freetown from many of its former inland trading partners. After the establishment of the British Protectorate over Freetown’s more immediate hinterland in 1896 , Krio power declined. Africans from the interior identified the Krio with European colonizers, and during the Mende uprising of 1898 , for example, many Krio and Europeans were killed. The Krio...

Liberia

Liberia   Reference library

Encyclopedia of Africa

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2010
Subject:
Social sciences, Regional and Area Studies, History, Regional and National History
Length:
3,469 words
Illustration(s):
2

...from other countries that produced the same crops, and persistent economic problems forced Liberia to seek foreign loans. In return for support from the United States and Great Britain, Liberia served as a base for Allied armies during World War I, after declaring war on Germany in 1917 . When the war was over, foreign industries began arriving. The Firestone Tire and Rubber Company was the most influential—it started operations in 1926 and eventually became the country’s largest private employer. In 1929 , the American-led League of Nations...

Sierra Leone

Sierra Leone   Reference library

Encyclopedia of Africa

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2010
Subject:
Social sciences, Regional and Area Studies, History, Regional and National History
Length:
3,419 words
Illustration(s):
3

...earliest modern nationalists in Africa, and many played prominent roles in the National Congress of British West Africa in the 1920s. The process of democratic reforms, which led to independence far more quickly than the British had intended, began after World War II ( 1939–1945 ) with the establishment of an assembly for the protectorate. Chiefs dominated this body, which met for the first time in 1946 . The new constitution in 1947 provided for ten elected representatives from the protectorate and did not require that these representatives be literate. The...

Egypt

Egypt   Reference library

Encyclopedia of Africa

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2010
Subject:
Social sciences, Regional and Area Studies, History, Regional and National History
Length:
5,635 words
Illustration(s):
4

...1907 , however, these Egyptian landowners began to demand more control over the economy through the establishment of a national bank. This would become part of the institutional basis of modern Egyptian nationalism. At the onset of World War I ( 1914–1918 ), when the Ottoman Empire sided with Germany, the British declared that Egypt no longer belonged to the Ottomans. The British declared Egypt a protectorate in 1914 and ruled through martial law during the war. Though the 1918 Versailles Treaty and the new League of Nations promoted the concept of...

Ghana

Ghana   Reference library

Encyclopedia of Africa

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2010
Subject:
Social sciences, Regional and Area Studies, History, Regional and National History
Length:
4,578 words
Illustration(s):
1

...British rule in the Third British–Asante War ( 1900–1901 ), also known as the Yaa Asantewa War. After heavy losses on both sides, Asante surrendered for the last time and the British exiled Asantewa, along with the entire Asante leadership. Between 1896 and 1910 , Great Britain gradually conquered the peoples to the north of Asante, many of them former Asante tributaries. In 1902 the British annexed Asante and the Northern Territories. When Great Britain acquired the western third of German Togoland after World War I as a mandate, the colonial government...

African Condition in the Shadow of Globalization

African Condition in the Shadow of Globalization   Reference library

Encyclopedia of Africa

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2010

...civil war could get out of hand. This has been the problem in Algeria since the pro-Islamic elections were aborted in 1992 . This was true of Somalia's struggle against the dictatorship of Mohamed Siad Barre, who had been in power since 1969 . The dictatorship was indeed overthrown in 1991 , but what followed were anarchy, starvation, and persistent conflict. The Cold War rivalry between the superpowers had poured too many weapons into Somalia. The post–Cold War era turned those weapons against the Somali people themselves. The Liberian civil war also...

Development in Africa: An Interpretation

Development in Africa: An Interpretation   Reference library

Encyclopedia of Africa

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2010
Subject:
Social sciences, Regional and Area Studies, History, Regional and National History
Length:
3,504 words
Illustration(s):
1

...conditions of these reserves, yet their wages, brought back to the reserves, helped sustain traditional subsistence farming and thus helped keep labor cheap. Finally, in regions where the local social conditions did not permit the establishment of a trade-based economy and the mineral resources did not justify the establishment of labor reserves, concessionary companies created economies of pillage, based on taxation and forced labor. The Congo River basin (split between the colonies of the Belgian Congo and the French Moyen-Congo) belonged to this third...

Mandinka

Mandinka   Reference library

Encyclopedia of Africa

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2010

...Islam mostly by Mandinka teachers, refer to Islam as “the path of the Mandinka.” In southern Senegal, Mandinka traders became important to local commerce; they were often appointed as local administrators, given continued resistance by other southern Senegalese peoples to the establishment of French authority. In Senegal and The Gambia, however, Mandinka were slow to avail themselves of a Western education, given its association with Christianity . Since independence, the Mandinka have played a dominant role in the political life of Guinea and Gambia. The...

Hausa States

Hausa States   Reference library

Encyclopedia of Africa

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2010
Subject:
Social sciences, Regional and Area Studies, History, Regional and National History
Length:
2,459 words
Illustration(s):
1

...control of the Hausa states. This Fulani campaign shook the political, economic, and religious foundations of the Hausa kingdoms and led to the establishment of the Muslim-controlled state known as the Sokoto Caliphate. In his capacity as teacher to the sons of the king of Gobir state (in what is now southeastern Niger), Usuman repeatedly, but unsuccessfully, asked the ruler to implement political and religious reforms. In the end, convinced that peaceful persuasion was useless, Usuman called for political overthrow of the Hausa ruling system. He soon built...

Cinema, African

Cinema, African   Reference library

Encyclopedia of Africa

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2010

...African languages and intended for African audiences. The BECE periodically employed Africans to perform menial tasks, and its supervisor Leslie Alan Notcutt urged that similar cinema projects, also employing Africans, be established throughout British Africa. The subsequent establishments of colonial film units throughout the British colonies provided Africans with one way to acquire filmmaking skills. In the Belgian Congo a similar opportunity emerged for Africans interested in film. In the 1940s the colonial government’s Film and Photo Bureau made...

Soyinka, Wole

Soyinka, Wole (1986)   Reference library

Encyclopedia of Africa

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2010

...with the quality of public life and speaks openly as the conscience of his nation. (An example of Soyinka’s civic activism and his attempt to improve the safety of road travel in Nigeria was his establishment of the Oyo Road Safety Corps in 1980 .) His incarceration for nearly two years (although he was never formally charged or tried) during the Nigerian civil war ( 1967–1970 ) was a painful manifestation of his attempt to redress “the colossal moral failure” in the nation. “The man dies in all who keep silent in the face of tyranny,” he remarks in his...

Slavery in Africa

Slavery in Africa   Reference library

Encyclopedia of Africa

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2010

...to the emancipation of slaves in either Sudan or the Sokoto caliphate. With the establishment of colonial rule, slavery was reformed but not abolished. Slave owners, no longer able to hope for new captives, put higher value on infant and child slaves; both the prices and the level of nourishment of children increased. Workloads for adult slaves decreased accordingly, as their survival now became more important. In Ethiopia, for instance, the abolition of slave trade during World War I (when Ethiopia sought European approbation of its regime in order to avoid...

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