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war establishment

The level of equipment and manning laid down for a military unit in wartime.

war establishment

war establishment   Reference library

The Oxford Essential Dictionary of the U.S. Military

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2002

... establishment the level of equipment and manning laid down for a military unit in...

Service Associations

Service Associations  

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Overview Page
The establishment of service associations or societies for military personnel is a key milestone in the development of professionalism in the U.S. armed forces. America's first military society, the ...
Committee of Imperial Defence

Committee of Imperial Defence  

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Overview Page
The permanent establishment of the Committee of Imperial Defence (CID), a decade before the outbreak of WW I, was a turning point in the development of defence management in Britain. ...
Women in the Australian Military

Women in the Australian Military  

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Overview Page
Have a long history, beginning with the establishment in 1899 of the Army Nursing Service in New South Wales. Army nurses served in the Boer War; recognition of their value ...
Cochrane, Thomas

Cochrane, Thomas (1775–1860)   Reference library

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Maritime History

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2007
Subject:
History, Military History
Length:
674 words

...however, Cochrane seized the war chest, paid his squadron and himself, and in 1823 decamped to Brazil to serve in the war with Portugal . Again disgusted at not being paid for his services, he sailed to England in 1825 and resigned. Cochrane had arrived in time to serve in the Greek War of Independence, helping his old radical colleagues collect and spend a small fortune in the cause. He ordered two frigates and six steam warships, and delayed his departure until some of them were ready. This left the work of the war to his Greek colleagues, notably...

Burke, Arleigh

Burke, Arleigh (1901–1996)   Reference library

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Maritime History

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2007
Subject:
History, Military History
Length:
663 words

...military establishment and the navy’s role in national defense and in developing Cold War strategy. He played a key role in building the navy’s headquarters staff in Japan during the Korean War and spent six months attempting to negotiate a truce with the Communists. His experience and reputation led President Dwight Eisenhower to choose then Rear Admiral Burke over ninety-two senior admirals as chief of naval operations in 1955 . As the last chief of naval operations to command operational fleets directly, Burke was a committed Cold War warrior who...

Boston

Boston   Reference library

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Maritime History

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2007
Subject:
History, Military History
Length:
383 words

...Empire, particularly with the West Indies, where fish were exchanged for sugar and molasses. After independence in 1783 , Boston extended its trade to all parts of the world, including China, India , and South America. Boston ’s mercantile activities gave rise to the establishment of banks and insurance companies in the town ( Boston became a city in 1822 ). Wealth derived from these enterprises helped to underwrite the founding of several educational, cultural, and medical institutions, including Harvard College (in nearby Cambridge ), the ...

Bergen

Bergen   Reference library

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Maritime History

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2007
Subject:
History, Military History
Length:
1,486 words

...from sail to steam, Bergen took the lead. Shipping had been a sideline to trading in Bergen during the days of the sailing ships; now ship owning became a profession. At the same time, the city’s maritime business diversified with the establishment of several shipbuilding enterprises. Prior to World War I, shipping in Bergen differed from Norwegian shipping in general. As early as 1883 , Bergen had more steamship than sail-ship tonnage; for Norway as a whole this was not the case until the beginning of the twentieth century. From 1870 to 1900 ,...

Naval Logistics

Naval Logistics   Reference library

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Maritime History

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2007
Subject:
History, Military History
Length:
5,086 words

...at home when construction began at Haslar Hospital, Gosport, Hampshire , in 1746 . When the hospital finally opened in 1753 , it was reputed to be the largest brick building in Europe and a model medical facility. Similarly, the establishment of Greenwich Hospital for Seamen in 1694 , devoted to the care of disabled war veterans, was a significant naval development that had been modeled on the military hospital founded at Chelsea ( 1661 ) in London and on the Hôtel des Invalides ( 1671 ) in Paris . At the opening of the twenty-first century, the...

Hospitals

Hospitals   Reference library

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Maritime History

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2007
Subject:
History, Military History
Length:
3,662 words
Illustration(s):
1

...for its attentive, judicious, and moral care to patients. A navy is unique in that its medical facilities exist both ashore and afloat (as hospital ships). This did not prevent the establishment of special hospitals to better serve sailors and marines. This trend of temporary wartime hospitals, started during the Tripolitan Wars ( 1801–1805 ), continued in the Civil War ( 1861–1865 ) at Beaufort, South Carolina ( 1863 ), at Port Royal, South Carolina ( 1864 ), at Memphis, Tennessee ( 1863 ), at Mound City, Illinois ( 1862 ), at New Bern, North...

Istanbul

Istanbul   Reference library

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Maritime History

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2007
Subject:
History, Military History
Length:
742 words
Illustration(s):
1

...needs of the Imperial Arsenal and other military establishments prompted the state authorities to employ strict measures for the provisioning of the city, a development reminiscent of the Byzantine era. This policy made the city absorb vast amount of raw materials from Egypt , the Balkans , the Mediterranean , and the Black Sea region , which remained the principal supplier of provisions and raw materials including grain, meat, hides, and lumber until the early nineteenth century. Thanks to the establishment of a vast network of sea and land routes, as well...

Prisoners of War

Prisoners of War   Reference library

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Maritime History

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2007
Subject:
History, Military History
Length:
4,319 words
Illustration(s):
1

...Anderson, Olive . The Establishment of British Supremacy at Sea and the Exchange of Naval Prisoners of War, 1689–1783 . English Historical Review 75, no. 294 (1960): 77–89. Anderson, Olive . The Impact on the Fleet of the Disposal of Prisoners of War in Distant Waters, 1689–1783 . Mariner’s Mirror 45, no. 3 (1959): 243–249. Anderson, Olive . The Treatment of Prisoners of War in Britain during the American War of Independence . Bulletin of the Institute of Historical Research 28 (1955): 63–83. Barker, A. J. Prisoners of War . New York: Universe...

Gorshkov, Sergei

Gorshkov, Sergei (1910–1988)   Reference library

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Maritime History

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2007
Subject:
History, Military History
Length:
724 words

...Gorshkov reached flag rank and national prominence in 1941 . Commanding the amphibious operations in the Black Sea that were among the most successful of the Soviet Navy’s campaigns of the Great Patriotic War, Gorshkov developed good links with the political establishment, especially in the person of Leonid Brezhnev, his commissar in the Crimea. After the war, Joseph Stalin and the naval commander-in-chief Admiral Nikolai Kuznetsov wanted to move the navy on from its stress on coastal defense and army support to build a balanced Western-style oceangoing...

Havana

Havana   Reference library

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Maritime History

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2007
Subject:
History, Military History
Length:
450 words

...empire, but sugar continued to advance, imposing a monoculture. The population reached 240,000 by 1900 . Under United States hegemony following the Spanish-American War ( 1898 ) and sustained by a preferential sugar market, Havana prospered, numbering 813,300 inhabitants in 1958 . It became a spectacular city, frequented by tourists, artists, actors, and authors. The establishment of Communism following the Cuban revolution that brought Fidel Castro to power in 1959 altered Havana’s personality radically, and Havana has since lost commercial...

Privateering

Privateering   Reference library

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Maritime History

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2007
Subject:
History, Military History
Length:
2,694 words

...the Caribbean colonies through the establishment of Vice Admiralty Courts and naval bases. In North America a similar pattern can be discerned, as metropolitan authority was gradually imposed on colonial predators between the 1680s and 1730 . Here, however, the line between piracy and privateering, which had been blurred in the heyday of Caribbean buccaneering in the 1660s and 1670s, was more sharply defined. Whereas a small number of fully sanctioned colonial privateers were active in the 1688–1697 and 1701–1714 wars, New England seafarers such as ...

Naval Dockyards and Bases

Naval Dockyards and Bases   Reference library

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Maritime History

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2007
Subject:
History, Military History
Length:
5,940 words

...establishment and development of the dockyard at Malta became central to British command of the Mediterranean . The early sugar wealth of the West Indies attracted conflict from the mid-seventeenth century. Spain and England maintained overseas squadrons in the West Indies during peace as well as during war, but the French kept only wartime bases at Guadeloupe and Saint Dominique. Ships’ hulls were maintained by careening, and there were no dry docks, since the tidal range in the West Indies is only one to two feet. The largest establishment...

Portsmouth

Portsmouth   Reference library

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Maritime History

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2007
Subject:
History, Military History
Length:
2,107 words
Illustration(s):
1

...depot. The existence of such a large and attractive heritage focus means that Portsmouth’s place at the heart of Britain’s maritime life seems secure. [ See also Dreadnought ; Navies, Great Powers, subentry on British Isles, 1500 to the Present ; and Wars, Maritime, subentries on World Wars and Wars after 1945 .] Coad, Jonathan . The Royal Dockyards, 1690–1850: Architecture and Engineering Works of the Sailing Navy . Aldershot, U.K.: Scolar, 1989. Out of print, but the definitive work on British dockyard history in the period covered by it. The same...

Jones, John Paul

Jones, John Paul (1747–1792)   Reference library

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Maritime History

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2007
Subject:
History, Military History
Length:
988 words
Illustration(s):
1

...made from one of the plaster versions and one of these was used to identify Jones when his body was disinterred in Paris and moved to Annapolis in 1905. Réunion des Musées Nationaux / Art Resource, NY An able seaman and a courageous leader, Jones advocated reforms, including establishment of a naval academy, a squadron of evolution, and a system of promotion based on merit. Jones was the most successful officer in the Continental Navy. His victories over the British raised American morale but little influenced the outcome of the American Revolution. Jones’s...

Athens

Athens   Reference library

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Maritime History

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2007
Subject:
History, Military History
Length:
2,969 words

...of Piraeus was completed with the establishment of a free zone within it in 1932 . The Piraeus Port Authority, its free zone, and the large-scale port works of the 1930s held much promise for the future of Piraeus. However, the heavy bombing of Piraeus by German and Allied aircraft during World War II and the blowing up of port installations by the Germans in the course of their withdrawal from Greece in October 1944 resulted in the destruction of most of the port. The latter half of the 1940s saw the repair of war damage, and between 1955 and 1982 ...

Hong Kong

Hong Kong   Reference library

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Maritime History

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2007
Subject:
History, Military History
Length:
571 words

...and Swire, to name two. Hong Kong became famed in British imperial mythology as the “Pearl of the Orient”—an image broken only by events such as the seventeen-month general strike of 1925–1926 and the realities of Japanese military occupation in 1941–1945 . With the establishment of the People’s Republic of China in 1949 , Hong Kong witnessed a substantial influx of refugees from mainland China. While Hong Kong benefited immeasurably from the skills that the newcomers brought with them, its economy suffered sporadically from political developments...

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