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Overview

war establishment

The level of equipment and manning laid down for a military unit in wartime.

Guandong Army

Guandong Army  

The Japanese army in Manchuria which came into being after the Russo-Japanese War, when Japan had assumed control over the southern tip of the Liaotung peninsula (including Port Arthur), which it ...
Hirota Kôki

Hirota Kôki  

(b. 14 Feb. 1878, d. 23 Dec. 1948).Prime Minister of Japan 1936–7 Hirota's origins were humble, but after a brilliant academic career as a student at Tokyo University, he had become a career ...
Konoe Fumimaro

Konoe Fumimaro  

(b. 12 Oct. 1891, d. 16 Dec. 1945).Prime Minister of Japan 1937–9, 1940–1He entered politics as a member of the House of Peers in 1916. A member of the aristocracy, Konoe gave his support to the ...
Amur River Society

Amur River Society  

A Japanese ultra-nationalist organization often mistranslated as the ‘Black Dragon Society’, which, before 1945, promoted Japan's conquest of east Asia. It was established as a successor to other ...
Doihara Kenji

Doihara Kenji  

(b. 8 Aug. 1883, d. 23 Dec. 1948).Japanese general Born into a service family, Doihara rose to become a general in the Guandong Army. With Ishiwara, he is remembered as one of the architects of the ...
Manuel Ávila Camacho

Manuel Ávila Camacho  

(b. 24 Apr. 1897, d. 14 Oct. 1955).President of Mexico 1940–6 Born in Teziutlán, Puebla, his election to the presidency was determined by the outgoing President Cárdenas, under whom he had served as ...
Chen Yi

Chen Yi  

(b. 1901, d. 6 Jan. 1972).Chinese general Born at Loshan (Sichuan province), he studied in St Germain and Grenoble (France) 1919–21, where he met Zhou Enlai. On his return he joined the newly formed ...
Ivo Andrić

Ivo Andrić  

(1892–1975)Yugoslav (Bosnian) short-story writer, novelist, and essayist. He was awarded the Nobel Prize for Literature in 1961.Born near Travnik, Bosnia, of middle-class parents, Andrić was educated ...
Niceto Alcalá Zamora y Torres

Niceto Alcalá Zamora y Torres  

(b. 6 July 1877, d. 18 Feb. 1949).President of Spain 1931–6 Born in Priego de Córdoba, he became a lawyer and an active Liberal. In 1917, he became Minister for Development, and, in 1922, Minister of ...
French West Africa

French West Africa  

Following the establishment of French settlements on the African west coast in 1659 and a gradual extension of the French West African territory during the nineteenth century, it was created a ...
Mapai

Mapai  

Founded in 1930 as the merger of two socialist parties, the Ahdut Haavoda and Hapoel Hatzair. It aimed at the establishment of a Jewish state in Palestine. This would be an agricultural and ...
Shinzo Abe

Shinzo Abe  

(b. 1954).Prime Minister of Japan 2006–  Born in Nagato as the grandson of Prime Minister Nobusuke Kishi, he graduated in political sciences from Seikei University and took up a position at Kobe ...
Filippo Turati

Filippo Turati  

(b. 25 Nov. 1857, d. 29 Mar. 1932).Italian Socialist Born in Como, he studied at the University of Bologna and in 1883 published Il delitto e la questione sociale, in which he argued for a causal ...
Ishiwara Kanji

Ishiwara Kanji  

(b. 18 Jan. 1889, d. 15 Aug. 1949).Japanese general Ishiwara was regarded by many as a prophet and a genius for his writing on Japan's imperial mission in Asia. He played a key role in the planning ...
Dolores Ibarruri

Dolores Ibarruri  

(b. 9 Dec. 1895, d. 12 Nov. 1989).Spanish Communist Born in Gallarta, she was raised in a poor mining family, and took work as a seamstress and cook. After marrying the socialist Julian Ruiz in 1915 ...
Chaim Weizmann

Chaim Weizmann  

(b. 27 Nov. 1874, d. 9 Nov. 1952).President of Israel 1948–52 Born in Motol in Russian Poland, he received a doctorate degree at the University of Freiburg, and from 1904 lectured at the University ...
Kurdistan

Kurdistan  

OverviewA state for the Kurdish nation which has not yet been established. The Kurds inhabit the border region of Turkey (around eleven million people, or 20 per cent of the population), Iran (around ...
March on Rome

March on Rome  

(27– 9 Oct. 1922)The events that led to Mussolini's seizure of power. On 27 October the Fascist movement mobilized, and attempted to cut off all lines of communication to the capital in order to ...
Miki Takeo

Miki Takeo  

(b. 17 Mar. 1907, d. 14 Nov. 1988).Prime Minister of Japan 1974–6 Miki enjoyed a lifelong reputation as a politician with high moral standards, and as such has often appeared an unlikely member of ...
Hatoyama Ichirô

Hatoyama Ichirô  

(b. 1 Jan. 1883, d. 7 Mar. 1959).Prime Minister of Japan 1954–6Early careerFollowing family tradition, Hatoyama pursued a political career from a young age, representing his Tokyo constituency at the ...

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