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war establishment

The level of equipment and manning laid down for a military unit in wartime.

Education

Education   Reference library

An Oxford Companion to the Romantic Age

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2009
Subject:
History, modern history (1700 to 1945), Literature
Length:
5,267 words
Publisher:
Oxford University Press

...staff appointed (predominantly from Scotland or abroad). Around 300 men were admitted as students in 1828 . Various forces within the English academic and ecclesiastical establishments strongly opposed the new institution, and it had to wait another eight years before it was granted a charter, which officially renamed it ‘University College, London’. Meanwhile, the establishment forces had set up a counterpart in the metropolis, King's College, which retained Anglican affiliations and stressed the crucial importance of religious values while also...

Revolution

Revolution   Reference library

An Oxford Companion to the Romantic Age

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2009
Subject:
History, modern history (1700 to 1945), Literature
Length:
5,734 words
Publisher:
Oxford University Press

...four years of the decade the British government came under considerable strain: the war with France was going badly; the country was under constant threat of invasion from 1797 ; and it had major difficulties financing the war, resulting in a banking crisis in early 1797 and the suspension of specie payments (maintained until 1821 ). At the end of 1797 William *Pitt was forced to introduce a bill trebling assessed taxes, and a scheme of voluntary contributions to aid war funding was also established; but neither proved adequate to meet needs, and the...

Empire

Empire   Reference library

An Oxford Companion to the Romantic Age

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2009
Subject:
History, modern history (1700 to 1945), Literature
Length:
4,298 words
Publisher:
Oxford University Press

...of State for the Colonies under Henry Bathurst ( 1762–1834 ), the first Secretary for War and Colonies to take a close interest in colonial affairs. Further bureaucratic recognition of the importance of colonial affairs came with the establishment of a Permanent Under-Secretary in 1825 . Between 1836 and 1847 this office was held by Sir James Stephen ( 1789–1859 ), under whom the Colonial Office was put on a firm organizational footing and rendered an effective instrument in advancing representative government and in opposing the slave...

Enlightenment

Enlightenment   Reference library

An Oxford Companion to the Romantic Age

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2009
Subject:
History, modern history (1700 to 1945), Literature
Length:
7,794 words
Publisher:
Oxford University Press

...completely. Stalwart support emerged in a distinctive pocket of enlightened radicalism in south Cardiganshire. Dubbed the Black Spot (Y Smotyn Du) by *Methodists , a cluster of Unitarian chapels emerged, supported by the local farming folk. They declared war on an alien religious establishment and on Methodistical enthusiasm alike, and formed an almost unique example of an enduring rural Enlightenment. It was perhaps inevitable that in the overcharged atmosphere of the 1790s *millenarian ideas proved especially attractive. Mythic notions of the Welsh...

Religion

Religion   Reference library

An Oxford Companion to the Romantic Age

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2009
Subject:
History, modern history (1700 to 1945), Literature
Length:
5,549 words
Publisher:
Oxford University Press

...rates for the upkeep of church buildings and churchyards, a right much changed and eroded in the nineteenth century. The intrinsically problematical character of Warburton's analysis—which he had insisted was rooted in the order of nature—is underscored by the ways in which establishment elsewhere in Britain and Ireland was realized. The Presbyterian Church of Scotland, descending from the sixteenth-century Reformation, was governed (again under the King, who adhered to different religions north and south of the border) through a hierarchy of mixed lay and...

Viewing

Viewing   Reference library

An Oxford Companion to the Romantic Age

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2009
Subject:
History, modern history (1700 to 1945), Literature
Length:
6,051 words
Publisher:
Oxford University Press

...ethnographic in nature was not welcomed by connoisseurs and artists whose first desire was the establishment of a National Gallery of Art. The notion of a gallery that could educate artists, impress foreigners, and definitively answer the aspersions cast against the taste of the British public, had been advanced periodically through the century. However, development of a national gallery in England was hampered by political apathy, the expense of successive wars, and latterly by the whiff of *republicanism that accompanied the notion of a public art...

Industrialization

Industrialization   Reference library

An Oxford Companion to the Romantic Age

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2009
Subject:
History, modern history (1700 to 1945), Literature
Length:
5,380 words
Publisher:
Oxford University Press

...always revolved around the rise of disruptive new patterns of work, the *factory system , and machine-driven production. Probably fewer than 12 per cent of the British workforce was employed in factories by 1850 , and as late as 1871 the average size of a manufacturing establishment was under twenty employees. Indeed, craft and unmechanized trades were still the most numerous; there were more shoemakers than coalminers in 1851 , and coalmining was itself hardly exemplary in its use of powered machinery, relying primarily on muscle-power for the hewing...

Prose

Prose   Reference library

An Oxford Companion to the Romantic Age

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2009
Subject:
History, modern history (1700 to 1945), Literature
Length:
4,185 words
Publisher:
Oxford University Press

...new knowledges, alongside work in already established prose fields such as *biography , *autobiography , and *novels [31] . Yet their summary judgements on these books encouraged the accusation that, instead of allowing readers to ‘think for themselves’, the new reviewing establishment was imperiously imposing its own opinions (whether *Whig or *Tory ) on an unsuspecting public. A turning-point in the history of British reviewing culture developed in the early 1780s. Writers for the Whiggish Monthly and Tory Critical reviews had expressed their...

Utopianism

Utopianism   Reference library

An Oxford Companion to the Romantic Age

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2009
Subject:
History, modern history (1700 to 1945), Literature
Length:
4,929 words
Publisher:
Oxford University Press

...the millenarian restoration of an ancient Jewish constitution and homeland. They also saw the ‘Jubilee Day’ expounded in Leviticus 25, when Moses dramatically freed the slaves and restored the alienated lands of the Hebrew tribes, as a loose revolutionary model for the re-establishment in Britain of a democratic, smallholder, agrarian republic. Many *Spenceans thus sought, in the manner of Blake, to bring about the advent of a new Jerusalem in England's ‘green and pleasant land’. Spencean utopias were scarcely disguised manifestos for revolutionary...

Design

Design   Reference library

An Oxford Companion to the Romantic Age

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2009
Subject:
History, modern history (1700 to 1945), Literature
Length:
6,178 words
Publisher:
Oxford University Press

...according to classical precedent. Boulton saw his factory as a ‘Temple of the Vulcanian Arts’. Besides manufacturing toys and Sheffield plate on a large scale, he started in the late 1760s to produce high-quality ormolu and silverware, the latter greatly stimulated by the establishment of an Assay Office in Birmingham in 1773 , largely through his efforts. Wedgwood named his new factory ‘Etruria’, on the generally but mistakenly held belief that the Etruscans made the finest antique vases. By selling ‘Vases, Urns and other ornaments after the Etruscan,...

Democracy

Democracy   Reference library

An Oxford Companion to the Romantic Age

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2009
Subject:
History, modern history (1700 to 1945), Literature
Length:
5,165 words
Publisher:
Oxford University Press

...as well as finance a series of pointless foreign wars. Parliamentary reform would result in cheaper government and much lower taxes, the abolition of tithes, the repeal of the game laws, and changes to the laws which put so many small debtors in prison. Paine believed that the rich should be taxed to fund a range of social welfare reforms, and that a democratic political system would save huge amounts of money by reducing corruption, waste, and the size of the civil administration and the military establishment. His critique became a part of radical polemic in...

Painting

Painting   Reference library

An Oxford Companion to the Romantic Age

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2009
Subject:
History, modern history (1700 to 1945), Literature
Length:
5,778 words
Publisher:
Oxford University Press

...by the initial success of Boydell's Shakespeare Gallery. The Gallery's fortunes had subsequently been catastrophically affected by war with France, which cut off the crucial international markets for Boydell's engravings. More generally, the war years of the 1790s saw a dramatic slump in patronage for native painting, a depression accentuated by the wide interest in the Old Master pictures flooding into the country from war-torn Europe. These circumstances severely hampered Fuseli's own one-man exhibition project of the period, in which he single-handedly...

Music

Music   Reference library

An Oxford Companion to the Romantic Age

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2009
Subject:
History, modern history (1700 to 1945), Literature
Length:
5,344 words
Publisher:
Oxford University Press

...from late October until Christmas. Here was an ideal concentration of audience and purchasing power, a community much given to tattle, which incidentally served to document more musical gossip for future historians than was common at the time. For its entertainment a local establishment of musicians was joined by visiting celebrities, aspirants, and protégés. George Bridgetower , 11-year-old ‘son of an African prince’, soon to be taken up by the Prince of Wales and to join Beethoven in the ‘Kreutzer’ Sonata's first performance, earned 200 guineas for a...

Popular Culture

Popular Culture   Reference library

An Oxford Companion to the Romantic Age

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2009
Subject:
History, modern history (1700 to 1945), Literature
Length:
5,520 words
Publisher:
Oxford University Press

...thanks to the long-established tradition of Scottish folk scholarship, had managed to become a literary celebrity without relinquishing his political independence or raffish ways. One imagines that Clare longed similarly to be able to get away with writing a pungent, anti-establishment satire like Burns's ‘Holy Willy’. Another favourite hero and Clare persona was the plebeian prizefighter Jack Randall , whose brawn had defied all comers and whose pugilistic skills had been eagerly sought after by aristocrats like Lord *Byron . The latter Clare admired most...

Bernardin de Saint-Pierre, Jacques-Henri

Bernardin de Saint-Pierre, Jacques-Henri (1737–1814)   Reference library

Encyclopedia of the Enlightenment

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2005
Subject:
History, modern history (1700 to 1945)
Length:
644 words

...their preoccupations in his writings. His use of the motif of travel for comparison is consistent with the practice of many contemporaries. Likewise, his depiction of a superficially ideal society in Paul et Virginie follows much utopian thought; indeed, he had proposed the establishment of a model republic in Russia. In 1792 , he supervised the celebrated Jardin des Plantes and was elected to the Convention. He married a young woman in 1793 with whom he had two children, appropriately named Paul and Virginie . He supported Napoleon and was granted a...

Hospitals

Hospitals   Reference library

Encyclopedia of the Enlightenment

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2005
Subject:
History, modern history (1700 to 1945)
Length:
1,438 words

...such as France and Austria, hospitals retained their traditional religious goal of saving souls and remained closely associated with traditional welfare policies until the reforms of the French Revolution and enlightened despotism in Austria sought to transform them into establishments for the exclusive care of the sick poor. Britain relied largely on private and voluntary initiatives instead of the government plans implemented in other European countries. New institutions were founded under the patronage of “alliances against misery” composed of...

Banks, Joseph

Banks, Joseph (1743–1820)   Reference library

Encyclopedia of the Enlightenment

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2005
Subject:
History, modern history (1700 to 1945)
Length:
888 words

...called on to provide expert advice on a wide range of imperial and scientific issues. Among them was the need, in the wake of the American Revolution, to find a new site for a penal colony. Drawing on his own experience, Banks suggested Botany Bay, thus initiating the establishment of the colony of New South Wales, in whose welfare Banks took a continuing interest. Another major venture largely initiated by Banks was the ill-famed Bounty expedition of 1787–1789 , led by his client, William Bligh , with the aim of blending imperial and scientific...

Socinianism

Socinianism   Reference library

Encyclopedia of the Enlightenment

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2005
Subject:
History, modern history (1700 to 1945)
Length:
1,033 words

...By 1696 , John Toland's Christianity Not Mysterious was widely attacked as a deist book for espousing the same principles, as was John Locke's The Reasonableness of Christianity ( 1695 ), notwithstanding its difference in content and in tone. Evolution from Establishment to Radical Socinians were often lumped with deists, new laws against anti-Trinitarianism were enacted, and a few distinguished but outspoken Unitarians like the Cambridge mathematician William Whiston were penalized for their beliefs. None-theless, discreet Unitarians...

Spain

Spain   Reference library

Encyclopedia of the Enlightenment

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2005
Subject:
History, modern history (1700 to 1945)
Length:
2,630 words

...with his so-called nueva planta (“new establishment”) of 1714 . Henceforth, they would be governed from Madrid by the Council of Castile and would be represented in the Cortes of Castile, although the latter hardly met in the eighteenth century. Customs barriers between Castile and the kingdom of Aragon were abolished, and henceforth the latter was expected to bear much more than it formerly had of the fiscal burden of the monarchy. Other changes, too, were introduced by Philip V during and after the Wars of the Spanish Succession. Aided by a number of...

Kellgren, Johan Henric

Kellgren, Johan Henric (1751–1795)   Reference library

Encyclopedia of the Enlightenment

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2005
Subject:
History, modern history (1700 to 1945)
Length:
1,304 words

... Maître , Nature , Prêtre des Païens ). There is an inherent tension in Kellgren's relationship with the Enlightenment, partly stemming from his dual roles: as an independent publicist, he was an enlightened citizen defending the cause of reason; as a representative of the establishment in the position of theater censor, he watched over the moral and political orthodoxy of the Swedish stage. In social matters, he can be described as an elitist with a disdain for the “mob” ( pöbeln ). Kellgren greeted the outbreak of the French Revolution with enthusiasm in a...

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