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war establishment

The level of equipment and manning laid down for a military unit in wartime.

Peasants' War

Peasants' War  

(1524–26)A mass revolt of the German lower classes during the Reformation. It began in south-west Germany and spread down the River Rhine and into Austria. Frustrated by economic hardships, the ...
Charles V

Charles V  

(1500–58)Holy Roman Emperor (1519–56) and (as Charles I) King of Spain (1516–56). The son of Philip I (the Handsome) and Joanna of Spain, and grandson of Emperor Maximilian I, Charles came to the ...
Müntzer Thomas

Müntzer Thomas  

(c.1489–1525), German radical reformer. In 1517/8 he attended lectures at Wittenberg and probably on M. Luther's recommendation became preacher in Zwickau in 1520. He developed a spiritual and ...
Henry VIII

Henry VIII   Reference library

The Oxford Dictionary of the Renaissance

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2005
Subject:
History, Early Modern History (1500 to 1700)
Length:
169 words

...VIII ( 1491–1547 ), King of England. The most far-reaching event of Henry VIII's long reign was the establishment of a separate Church of England with Henry at its head. Henry's desire for a male heir, and the apparent inability of Catherine of Aragon to provide one, prompted the break with Rome, which refused to grant a divorce. Henry's second wife Anne Boleyn , mother of Elizabeth , was executed following allegations of adultery and incest; a male heir was secured when Henry's third wife Jane Seymour gave birth to the future Edward VI . Following...

France

France   Reference library

The Oxford Dictionary of the Renaissance

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2005
Subject:
History, Early Modern History (1500 to 1700)
Length:
396 words

...the fifteenth and sixteenth centuries France was at war, initially with England in the Hundred Years War (which ended in 1453 ) and then with Italy and the Habsburgs in the Wars of Italy ( 1494–1559 ); in the second half of the sixteenth century France was ravaged by a series of civil wars, the Wars of Religion ( 1562–98 ). The preoccupation with war meant that France did not compete on a scale appropriate to its size and importance with other European countries in exploration or in the establishment of overseas colonies, though Cartier and ...

England

England   Reference library

The Oxford Dictionary of the Renaissance

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2005
Subject:
History, Early Modern History (1500 to 1700)
Length:
557 words

...however, and Henry VI was temporarily restored to the throne in 1470–1 . Edward's victory over the Lancastrians in 1471 appeared to end the Wars of the Roses, but disturbances began again when his brother Richard III seized the throne in the infancy of Edward V . It was only with Henry Tudor's successful challenge to Richard, and, as Henry VII , his establishment of the Tudor dynasty, that the Wars of the Roses finally concluded: an ending cemented with Henry's marriage to Elizabeth of York. Henry's reign, between 1485 and 1509 , bequeathed...

Germany

Germany   Reference library

The Oxford Dictionary of the Renaissance

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2005
Subject:
History, Early Modern History (1500 to 1700)
Length:
492 words

...the Hussite Wars erupted in Bohemia. The families that were to dominate German politics for centuries to come were consolidating their power in Brandenburg ( see Hohenzollern family ), Saxony ( see Wettin family ), and Bavaria and the Palatinate ( see Wittelsbach family ) and within the institution of the Holy Roman Emperors, which reverted to the Habsburgs on the accession of Albrecht II in 1437 . In banking, families such as the Fuggers and Welsers were establishing Augsburg as a European financial centre. The establishment of a series...

Nantes, edict of

Nantes, edict of   Reference library

The Oxford Dictionary of the Renaissance

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2005
Subject:
History, Early Modern History (1500 to 1700)
Length:
219 words

...law , and fair administration of criminal justice through the establishment of mixed Protestant and Catholic courts (in the parlements of Bordeaux, Paris, and Toulouse) for cases involving Huguenots; they were also to be given subsidies for their militias, clergy, and schools, and control of the universities of Montauban, Nîmes, and La Rochelle. They were also allowed to garrison at royal expense some 100 towns that were designated as places de sûreté . The Edict brought the French Wars of Religion to a temporary conclusion; they erupted again after ...

Bethlem Hospital

Bethlem Hospital   Reference library

The Oxford Dictionary of the Renaissance

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2005
Subject:
History, Early Modern History (1500 to 1700)
Length:
237 words

...foundation and presented by Henry VIII to the City of London. In 1675 Bethlem moved to Moorfields, in 1815 to Lambeth (to the buildings that are now the Imperial War Museum), and in 1930 to its present location in Beckenham (Kent). Bethlem was Europe's second hospital for the insane. The first was established by the Moors in Granada in 1365 ; Islamic influence lay behind the establishment of a succession of such hospitals in Spain, at Valencia ( 1407 ), Zaragoza ( 1427 ), Seville ( 1436 ), Barcelona ( 1481 ), and Toledo ( 1483 ). Jonathan Andrews et...

international law

international law   Reference library

The Oxford Dictionary of the Renaissance

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2005
Subject:
History, Early Modern History (1500 to 1700)
Length:
796 words

...of international trade, the establishment of courts to administer maritime law and the Law Merchant , and the development of international diplomacy all required increasingly detailed international laws. The sphere of war was the first arena in which international conventions of honourable practice began to be formulated as if they were laws. In the fourteenth and fifteenth centuries there was a nascent ius fetiale for the declaration of war and peace and an uncodified ius belli which imposed limits on the savagery of war, but in practice the...

Genoa

Genoa   Reference library

The Oxford Dictionary of the Renaissance

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2005
Subject:
History, Early Modern History (1500 to 1700)
Length:
581 words

...of Corsica . Genoa became a reluctant participant in the Wars of Italy , and in May 1522 was sacked by Spanish troops; in 1527 the city was retaken for France by Cesare Fregoso , but in 1528 Andrea Doria expelled the French and established a republic under imperial (Spanish) protection; the Fieschi Conspiracy of 1547 threatened to topple the government, but in the event the republican constitution, which was a form of mercantile oligarchy, remained in place until the establishment of the Ligurian republic in the wake of the French Revolution....

German law

German law   Reference library

The Oxford Dictionary of the Renaissance

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2005
Subject:
History, Early Modern History (1500 to 1700)
Length:
702 words

...and institutions. Early in the fifteenth century an anonymous ‘mirror of legal plaints’ ( Der richterliche Klagspiegel ), compiled from Italian sources, brought Roman law and the tradition of Italian legal commentary to bear on civil law and on criminal law and procedure. The establishment in 1495 of the Imperial Court of Chancery (the Reichskammergericht ), a court required to dispense justice in accordance with the principles of Roman law, led to an implementation of Roman law in lower courts, and by this date the universities were teaching Roman law on an...

Hus, Jan

Hus, Jan   Reference library

The Oxford Dictionary of the Renaissance

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2005
Subject:
History, Early Modern History (1500 to 1700)
Length:
690 words

...Sbinko and the other three ‘nations’ (Saxons, Bavarians, and Poles) supported Gregory. By a royal decree of 18 January 1409 control of the university had been awarded to the Czech ‘nation’ (which led to the withdrawal of thousands of foreigners and the subsequent establishment of the University of Leipzig), and in October Hus became rector. Sbinko was isolated, and so transferred his allegiance to Pope Alexander in return for the promulgation of a bull ( 20 December 1409 ) commanding that Wycliffe's doctrines be abjured and his books be burnt....

Padua

Padua   Reference library

The Oxford Dictionary of the Renaissance

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2005
Subject:
History, Early Modern History (1500 to 1700)
Length:
586 words

...four of the sixteenth-century frescoes are by Titian . Padua was the headquarters of the cavalry of Venice, and the presence of large numbers of horses of high quality, together with the interest in chivalry evinced by many of the university's students, led to the establishment of many schools of equitation, which in turn secured for Padua a place on the grand tours being undertaken by young aristocrats from all over Europe. The musical life of Padua produced a form of dance known as the padovano , which evolved into the pavan . Benjamin Kohl , ...

Ferdinand V

Ferdinand V   Reference library

The Oxford Dictionary of the Renaissance

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2005
Subject:
History, Early Modern History (1500 to 1700)
Length:
545 words

...of the reign of Ferdinand and Isabella, including the establishment of the Spanish Inquisition ( 1479 ), the voyages of Columbus ( 1492–1504 ), the expulsion of the Jews from Spain ( 1492 ), and the Conquest of Granada ( 1492 ), Ferdinand was the supporter of Isabella rather than the initiator. Ferdinand's passions lay elsewhere, in the conquest of ports on the north coast of Africa and in the securing of Naples , which had been overrun by France in the opening campaign of the Wars of Italy . Ferdinand dispatched an army commanded by ...

Maximilian I

Maximilian I   Reference library

The Oxford Dictionary of the Renaissance

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2005
Subject:
History, Early Modern History (1500 to 1700)
Length:
1,460 words

... and (in 1498 ) the Aulic Council , but declined to accept the Diet's proposal that he be subject to an executive council ( Reichsregiment ); his military reforms included the establishment of the Landsknechte . Maximilian's attempt to subdue Rhaetia drew him into a war with the entire Swiss Confederation known as the Swabian (or, more properly, the Swiss) War, which led to the secession of the Confederation de facto , if not de jure , from the Empire under the terms of the Treaty of Basel ( September 1499 ). A revised programme of reform...

Sixtus IV

Sixtus IV   Reference library

The Oxford Dictionary of the Renaissance

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2005
Subject:
History, Early Modern History (1500 to 1700)
Length:
798 words

...as Pope Sixtus IV . On his election, Sixtus IV proposed to organize a crusade against the Turks. He paid for the preparation of a crusading fleet, but the European powers failed to rally to his call, and in the event he achieved only a few local successes, such as the establishment of a bridgehead in Smyrna (now İzmir) in 1472 . The fall of Otranto to the Ottomans on 11 August 1480 prompted Sixtus to proclaim another crusade the following year; the papal galleys did manage to recapture Otranto in September 1482 , but this victory probably owed more...

Reuchlin, Johann

Reuchlin, Johann   Reference library

The Oxford Dictionary of the Renaissance

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2005
Subject:
History, Early Modern History (1500 to 1700)
Length:
892 words

...the Swabian League . For many years Reuchlin had been studying Hebrew, and in 1498 he had returned from Italy with a large consignment of Hebrew books. Reuchlin was dauntingly learned in many fields of humanist endeavour, especially in the study of Greek, but it was his establishment (and subsequent defence) of Hebrew scholarship in Germany that was to prove to be his most important contribution to humanist scholarship. His De rudimentis Hebraicis ( 1506 ) and De accentibus et orthographia linguae Hebraicae ( 1518 ) are the founding texts of Hebrew...

academies

academies   Reference library

The Oxford Dictionary of the Renaissance

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2005
Subject:
History, Early Modern History (1500 to 1700)
Length:
1,418 words

...della Crusca , 1612 ), which adhered to the view of Bembo that trecento Tuscan should be regarded as the basis of the literary vernacular, was influential both in terms of the growth of lexicography (many other academies subsequently produced dictionaries) and in the establishment of Tuscan as the standard form of literary Italian. Academies of the fine arts have their origins in the school of Bertoldo di Giovanni in Florence and the circle of Leonardo da Vinci in Milan, but the first formally constituted fine art academy was the Accademia del...

17th century

17th century: c. 1600 - 1700  

Reference type:
Timeline
Current Version:
2012

...War Britain 1500-1750 Politics War British Isles Europe Wars and Revolutions Britain 1642 1642 Charles I, at Nottingham, raises the royal standard - signalling that he considers himself at war English Civil War (1642–49) A Dictionary of World History 2 English Civil War Britain 1500-1750 War British Isles Europe Wars and Revolutions Britain 1642 1642 Charles I leads his army into action at Edgehill - the first, but inconclusive, battle in the English Civil War English Civil War (1642–49) A Dictionary of World History 2 English Civil War Britain 1500-1750 War...

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