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war establishment

The level of equipment and manning laid down for a military unit in wartime.

Uthman ibn Affan

Uthman ibn Affan (c.574–656)   Reference library

The Oxford Dictionary of the Middle Ages

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2010
Subject:
History, Early history (500 CE to 1500)
Length:
115 words

... *caliph (r. 644–56 ); a wealthy Meccan merchant, early supporter of *Muhammad and also his son-in-law. He was named caliph by a council established by his predecessor *Umar . Uthman ’s apparent nepotism contributed to civil war, calls for abdication, and his assassination in 656 , but also set the stage for the establishment of the Umayyads. Uthman ’s standardization of the *Quran also made him unpopular. Shawkat M. Toorawa M. Hinds , ‘ The Murder of the Caliph “Uthman ” ’, International Journal of Middle East Studies , 3 (1972), 450–69. H. Kennedy...

Chelčický, Peter

Chelčický, Peter (c.1390–1460)   Reference library

The Oxford Dictionary of the Middle Ages

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2010
Subject:
History, Early history (500 CE to 1500)
Length:
206 words

...and equality. His belief that all territorial authority is a form of violence and that the corruption of society began with the official acceptance of Christianity by the Roman imperial establishment is explored in The Net of Faith ( c .1440 ). Chelčický’s ideas were put into practice by his followers, who founded the Unitas Fratrum in 1467 . See also hussite wars and leaders . Alfred Thomas P. Brock , The Political and Social Doctrines of the Unity of Czech Brethren (1957). M. L. Wagner , Peter Chelčický: A Radical Separatist from Hussite...

Ašot III Ołormac῾

Ašot III Ołormac῾   Reference library

The Oxford Dictionary of Byzantium

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2005
Subject:
History, Early history (500 CE to 1500)
Length:
212 words

...separatists), and by the assertion of royal authority over the magnates. Ašot was successful in his war against the Caucasian mountaineers and the Ḥamdānid emirs. Moreover, supported by his vassals, he checked the advance of Emp. John I Tzimiskes at the Armenian border ( 974 ), whereupon the emperor declared him his ally and spiritual son ( Matthew of Edessa , ed. Dulaurier 16–24). Ašot's reign saw a great expansion of monasticism with the establishment of the future intellectual centers of Sanahin ( 966 ) and Hałbat ( 976 ); his extensive philanthropic...

Hospital, Hospice

Hospital, Hospice   Reference library

Encyclopedia of the Middle Ages

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2005
Subject:
History, Early history (500 CE to 1500)
Length:
1,345 words
Illustration(s):
1

... provided establishments with fixed revenues, to which were added various additional resources of a more contingent nature: the product of collections , offerings granted by pious visitors, all the more important since indulgences were sometimes granted by the ecclesiastical authorities, goods in kind ( clothing , sheets) voluntarily given or levied on the effects of sick people who died in the hospital, or confiscated as a fine on the property of the condemned. The temporalities of hospitals suffered much from the crises and wars that marked the...

Orderic Vitalis

Orderic Vitalis (16 Feb. 1075)   Reference library

The Oxford Dictionary of Byzantium

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2005
Subject:
History, Early history (500 CE to 1500)
Length:
280 words

...traditions on the Norman establishment in southern Italy (2:56–64, 98–104), but his information improves after monks from St. Evroul migrated to St. Eufemia in Calabria (e.g., 2:100–02). He described Anglo-Saxon emigration to Constantinople and connected Michael VII 's fall with resentment of the power of the senate (2:202–04). His monastery provided oral sources (e.g., on the pilgrimage of Abbot Thierry [ 1050–57 ] to the Levant, 2:68–74; on Normans with family ties to St. Evroul who participated in Robert Guiscard's war with Byz., 4:10–38)....

Languedoc

Languedoc   Reference library

The Oxford Dictionary of the Middle Ages

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2010
Subject:
History, Early history (500 CE to 1500)
Length:
268 words
Illustration(s):
1

...establishment of royal government, the term was used to designate the seneschaussées of *Beaucaire , *Carcassonne , and *Toulouse , or as a synonym for the ‘land of written [Roman] law’. In the 6th century it was under *Visigoth rule, the eastern portion under Ostrogoth rule ( 509–37 ) and the western portion ruled by the Franks from 507 (except for the coast). The coastal region was conquered by the Arabs (early 8th century), then reconquered by the Franks, becoming the kingdom of *Aquitaine ( 781–987 ). During the *Carolingian succession-wars in...

Arles

Arles   Reference library

Encyclopedia of the Middle Ages

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2005
Subject:
History, Early history (500 CE to 1500)
Length:
676 words

...of the Seven Provinces. This central status explains why the town kept an important political function under the Visigoths and Ostrogoths and justifies the claims of its Bishops not to come under the authority of the Metropolitan bishop of Vienne as well as the establishment of an autonomous ecclesiastical provice in 450 . The early Middle Ages were for Arles a time of withdrawal within a town wall restored under Theodoric, the time when the town's religious topography was established ( cathedral , Saint-Étienne, monastery of Saint-Césaire)....

Bagratids

Bagratids   Reference library

The Oxford Dictionary of Byzantium

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2005
Subject:
History, Early history (500 CE to 1500)
Length:
459 words

...at Ani , where the ruler styled himself King of Kings, and junior ones at Kars (Vanand) from 961 onward and at Loṛi (Tašir, Joraget) from 972 (?) onward. Nevertheless they did not hold the Arsacid capital of Duin and their control of Armenia was challenged by the establishment of a separate kingdom of Vaspurakan in 908 . By the mid-11th C., Bagratid power had dwindled so far that Byz. annexed their kingdoms, except for Loṛi, which survived into the 13th C. Secondary branches of the Bagratid house settled in Iberia and Tayk῾/Tao early in the 9th...

caliphate, Abbasid

caliphate, Abbasid (749/50–1258)   Reference library

The Oxford Dictionary of the Middle Ages

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2010
Subject:
History, Early history (500 CE to 1500)
Length:
483 words

...presence of the Persian element alienated both the Khorasanian Arabs and the Shiites who had supported the Abbasids in their takeover. Once in power, the Abbasids embraced Sunni Islam and disavowed any support for Shiism. This led to conflicts and uprisings, resulting in the establishment of other Islamic dynasties such as that in *al-Andalus with its capital *Córdoba as a rival to Baghdad, the *Idrisid dynasty in the Maghreb, and the Fatimid dynasty in *Egypt . Aside from these dynasties, the Abbasids faced challenges closer to home, especially after...

Cumans

Cumans   Reference library

The Oxford Dictionary of the Middle Ages

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2010
Subject:
History, Early history (500 CE to 1500)
Length:
504 words

...important roles in the history of *Byzantium and Rus’, as raiders but also as military allies, serving various Rus’ princes in civil wars, and defeating the Pechenegs in 1091 as Byzantine allies. Although first encountered as raiders by sedentary societies, Cumans also integrated into such societies. Groups of Cumans settled in Georgia in the early 12th century; in *Bulgaria , where they participated in the establishment of the Asenid polity in 1187 ; and in *Hungary in the mid 13th century. In these regions the Cumans played key military roles in...

trade, collapse, and revival

trade, collapse, and revival   Reference library

The Oxford Dictionary of the Middle Ages

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2010
Subject:
History, Early history (500 CE to 1500)
Length:
498 words

...This economic decline was further heightened by the raiding of *Vikings , *Magyars , and Saracens which began in the late 8th century and continued for several centuries. These raids, both coastal and inland, led to the fortification of towns and helped contribute to the establishment of *feudalism , which further depressed trade and commerce. What little organized trade that still continued to exist in this period in northern Europe was controlled by the Vikings who oversaw the only remaining major east-west trading route. In the east, trade continued for...

Barcelona

Barcelona   Reference library

The Oxford Dictionary of the Middle Ages

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2010
Subject:
History, Early history (500 CE to 1500)
Length:
778 words
Illustration(s):
1

.... A major port, it was home to many merchants and traders, who greatly profited from its rise, as well as a flourishing Christian church (subject to Tarragona from 1154 ) and *religious orders and noted Jewish theologians, jurists, and poets. In the 13th century, with the establishment of a Catalan navy, the city reached the height of its power. *Majorca was conquered ( 1230 ), and Barcelona provided many men and provisions for the Valencian conquest ( 1238 ). A number of businessmen, having gained great wealth through *trade and commerce , established...

Hus, Jan

Hus, Jan (c.1370–1415)   Reference library

Encyclopedia of the Middle Ages

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2005
Subject:
History, Early history (500 CE to 1500)
Length:
779 words
Illustration(s):
1

... De Ecclesia , in which Hus, following his Oxford master, demanded a radical reform of the schismatic Church with the co-operation of the secular powers, invoking the validity for everyone of the strict norms of “divine law”. But the ideal that he aimed at was not the establishment of a new social order , but rather the amelioration of the existing situation through the overall harmonization of the relations between rich and poor or between lords and serfs. Trusting in the victory of his truth, Hus agreed in autumn 1414 to go to the council of ...

Taxation

Taxation   Reference library

Encyclopedia of the Middle Ages

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2005
Subject:
History, Early history (500 CE to 1500)
Length:
1,092 words
Illustration(s):
1

...The rise of the State and the bureaucratization that accompanied it, as well as war, obliged Kings to find new sources of revenue. It was to taxation that they turned. The later Middle Ages are thus characterised by the establishment of a State taxation system. Presented at the outset as an extraordinary levy, the tax had firstly to be legitimized. Theoreticians and jurists set themselves to demonstrate that the prince could tax his subjects in case of necessity such as war or the defence of the realm and the “public thing”. Another idea came into being,...

Geoffrey of Monmouth

Geoffrey of Monmouth (c.1100–1155)   Reference library

Encyclopedia of the Middle Ages

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2005
Subject:
History, Early history (500 CE to 1500)
Length:
590 words

...Aeneas, and his settlement in Great Britain. Like all medievals, Geoffrey was susceptible to the myth of Trojan origins: the Britons too had those glorious losers as models. The history then shows the establishment of kingship in Britain, the royal genealogies up to Caesar, then relations with Rome: at the moment when the country, devastated by successive wars, was a prey to the barbarians appeared the prophecies of Merlin . Then came the British recovery, with the reigns of Ambrosius, Uther and finally Arthur , who unified Britain under their power; with...

Habsburg

Habsburg   Reference library

Encyclopedia of the Middle Ages

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2005
Subject:
History, Early history (500 CE to 1500)
Length:
545 words

...members go back to the 10th c. and seem to be related to the Etichonids. The eponymous castle ( Habichtsburg , later becoming Habsburg , in the Aargau) was built c. 1020 and the title “count of Habsburg” appeared in 1108 . The Habsburgs built up their establishment in south-west Germany by war, money , marriage and thanks to the support of the Staufen . Thus they took the place, in whole or in part, of extinct dynasties (Lenzburg, Kiburg, Zähringen, then Staufen itself). Rudolf IV of Habsburg, elected king of the Romans ( Rudolf I ) in 1273 ,...

Maiolus of Cluny

Maiolus of Cluny (c.909–994)   Reference library

Encyclopedia of the Middle Ages

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2005
Subject:
History, Early history (500 CE to 1500)
Length:
531 words

.... Adelaide, widow of Otto I , and her son Otto II even offered Maiolus the succession to Pope Benedict VI in 974 . The Abbot 's activity as founder and reformer was considerable in West Francia as well as in the kingdom of Burgundy , in Provence and in Italy ; the establishments he reformed in a personal capacity were not integrated into the network of Cluniac dependencies but entrusted to his disciples, such as William of Volpiano (or of Dijon ) and Heldric of Auxerre . Maiolus died in 994 at the Cluniac priory of Souvigny, on the way to ...

Rouen

Rouen   Reference library

Encyclopedia of the Middle Ages

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2005
Subject:
History, Early history (500 CE to 1500)
Length:
526 words
Illustration(s):
1

...region the main centre of the county and then duchy of Normandy , in touch with the Nordic world. In the late 10th c., a ducal tower was built in the south-east corner of the walls. The monastic dynamism of the 11th c. was expressed in the renewal or creation of numerous establishments. The conquest of 1066 allowed the Rouennais to establish privileged links with the British Isles. The following century, under the impetus of the Plantagenets , saw the town expand behind a new and larger wall, while Henry II gave the Rouennais a communal charter (the...

Saint-Martin at Tours

Saint-Martin at Tours   Reference library

Encyclopedia of the Middle Ages

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2005
Subject:
History, Early history (500 CE to 1500)
Length:
636 words

...had come down to 70, and 56 vicars were instituted to supplement them. Deterioration accelerated in the 14th and 15th cc.: the revenues were thinned out by the Hundred Years' War, prestige was affected by the moral laxity of the ministers and the rise of the mendicant orders; the influence of the Tomb suffered from the vogue of other pilgrimages and even from the establishment of the cult of St Gatien in the cathedral ; Châteauneuf lost its identity, it was included within the great wall that unified the town ( 1357 ) and the chapter no longer...

Saint-Maurice d'agaune

Saint-Maurice d'agaune   Reference library

Encyclopedia of the Middle Ages

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2005
Subject:
History, Early history (500 CE to 1500)
Length:
577 words

... Burgundian King Sigismund, recently converted to Catholicism, installed there a monastic community richly endowed and devoted, on the advice of the saintly Bishop Avitus of Vienne, to the Eastern practice of perpetual praise. Well situated on the Great St Bernard route, the establishment prospered; its abbots were at the same time bishops of Sion, which made a regime of exemption , which was contested up to the Valaisan revolution of 1798 , very theoretical. The Carolingian reform transformed the abbey into a community of secular canons under the...

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