You are looking at 1-20 of 57 entries  for:

  • All: war establishment x
  • Ancient history (non-classical to 500 CE) x
clear all

View:

Overview

war establishment

The level of equipment and manning laid down for a military unit in wartime.

Archaeological and Research Institutions

Archaeological and Research Institutions   Reference library

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Ancient Egypt

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2005

...with Ludwig Borchardt as its first director. Borchardt had been carrying out research in Egypt since 1899 , as scientific attaché for Egyptology at the German embassy. Research before World War I and between the two world wars focused on Thebes, Tell el-Amarna, and the prehistoric site of Merimde. The institute, whose library and archives were dispersed during World War II, was reestablished in 1957 in a new headquarters in Cairo, with the donation of the library and archives of Ludwig Keimer . This facility serves as a base for the fieldwork of the...

Royal Roles

Royal Roles   Reference library

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Ancient Egypt

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2005

...action. The monarchy, the continuation of the creator god on Earth, is fortified by rituals that mark stages in the royal career: the legitimizing ritual of theogamy, and the more institutional rituals of crowning and the sed -festival; the former relates to the King's establishment as royal, and the latter is a verification of royal competencies. The alliance between the vigor of the monarchy and the renewal of the divine force is complete. The panegyric of the Instructions of Sehtepibre , the oldest copy of which dates from the period of Amenemhet...

Cities

Cities   Reference library

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Ancient Egypt

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2005

...religious center. Religion was always an important element of (theocratic) Egyptian kingship. The pharaohs were supported by a religious establishment that maintained the mortuary cults and the ceremonies central to the legitimization of their divine rule. Religion was also used for economic and political advantage, and it was used at times to undermine the rule of certain kings. During the New Kingdom, the establishment of Akhetaten as a center of a new religion might well have represented a threat to the power of the Theban priests, who had benefitted...

Chronology and Periodization

Chronology and Periodization   Reference library

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Ancient Egypt

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2005

...years. Certainly by the third dynasty the state had brought into its apparatus the concept of a census of cattle, one that took place on a regular biennial basis. The cattle “counts” appear on the lower portions of the entries on the Palermo Stone, and they coincide with the establishment of the expansive economic unity of the third dynasty and onward. Although difficult to determine with total accuracy, this system became annual in the sixth dynasty, thereby forming the basis of the regularized and simple system of official state bookkeeping and records....

Second Intermediate Period

Second Intermediate Period   Reference library

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Ancient Egypt

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2005

...mid-twelfth dynasty, an inscription of Amenemhet II records among booty from the sack of two foreign places 1,554 Near Eastern captives. Influx by war might have been compounded by economic migration, with establishment of foreign trading emporia in the eastern Delta in the early thirteenth dynasty. Salable (“slave”) status of Near Easterners in late Middle Kingdom legal documents may reflect origins as war captives, in which case it would not necessarily extend to all Near Easterners. At least thirty-six funerary monuments, in addition to documentary...

Egyptology

Egyptology   Reference library

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Ancient Egypt

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2005

...effective fundraiser and publicist. As professor of Egyptology at the University of Chicago, beginning in 1896 , he embarked on the expedition mentioned above, which culminated in the publication of Ancient Records of Egypt ( 1906 ), and he was the major force in the establishment of the Oriental Institute. A student of Erman and vigorous partisan of the Berlin school, Breasted firmly established the “new” movement as normative for the study of Egyptian language and chronology in North America. His history textbooks, especially Ancient Times: A History...

New Kingdom

New Kingdom   Reference library

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Ancient Egypt

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2005

...III was the first king since Ramesses II to celebrate a jubilee, his death shortly afterward (c. 1166 bce ) was clouded by a conspiracy against the heir apparent that involved not only dissidents from the royal family but also high officials at court and in the military establishment. No such disturbances seem to have marred the next seven reigns (since scholars no longer believe in hostilities between Ramesses VI and his two predecessors), but serious economic problems did. Notable was an increase in the price of grain, which rose to four times its...

Biographies

Biographies   Reference library

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Ancient Egypt

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2005

...in the first person; therefore, the texts are labeled “autobiographies” rather than “biographies,” even though the true author remains unknown. Egyptian autobiography developed varying stylistic, formal, and thematic patterns in different historical periods. Soon after its establishment within funerary culture (at the end of the fifth dynasty), an artistic tradition evolved that can be related to specific writing skills and the tendency to formal and phraseological stereotypes. Yet some texts, especially during the Middle Kingdom, emphasize such qualities as...

Syria-palestine

Syria-palestine   Reference library

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Ancient Egypt

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2005

...Hyksos soon captured Memphis, removing statuary to Tell ed-Dabʿa. They subsequently dominated Upper Egypt as far south as Thebes, which lies north of a Hyksos garrison post at Gebelein, and received taxes from Egyptian vassal nomes. A stela of Kamose and later texts note the establishment of Near Easterners in garrisons (“the places of the Asiatics”) throughout northern Egypt. The late seventeenth dynasty Theban rulers fought the Hyksos: Seqenre-Ta'o's skull bears axe and dagger wounds that match Hyksos-style weaponry. Kamose erected two stelae detailing...

Military

Military   Reference library

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Ancient Egypt

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2005

...fast operational platform; it was not yet deployed in formations during military actions. Its strategic advantage, however, was soon recognized. Thutmose III, famous for his multiple campaigns to Nubia and Syria that led to the establishment of an empire, seems to have benefited fully from this new army branch in his wars against the kingdom of Mitanni and its allies. His account of the Battle of Megiddo, a town in the Palestinian hill country where he encountered the unified forces of a Syro-Palestinian coalition, claims that the Egyptian army was...

Irrigation

Irrigation   Reference library

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Ancient Egypt

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2005

...modern Asyut, replacing the ruined sluice gates with brick structures. The twelfth dynasty nomarch Khnumhotep II appears to have engaged in some sort of public irrigation work in the area of Beni Hasan. Scarabs of King Amenhotpe III (r. 1410–1372 bce ) commemorate the establishment of a new flood basin at Akhmim, suggesting that this was not a routine event. For a long time, there was a dearth of technology to lift water mechanically, and both Old and Middle Kingdom reliefs show manual lifting or the transport of two buckets of water suspended from a...

Kingship

Kingship   Reference library

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Ancient Egypt

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2005

...Kings certainly participated in the founding of various cities of Egypt: Menes built the fort of the White Wall all the way to Alexandria; the workers' villages in the necropolises of the Memphite region, at Illahun, and Deir el-Medina may have been planned by the royal establishment. The architecture and urbanism bear witness to an ongoing process in which technical investigation and administrative and liturgical imperatives come together to effect a monumental transposition in stone of the circumstances of the world and the reinforcement of the...

Historical Sources

Historical Sources   Reference library

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Ancient Egypt

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2005

...model depicting the master of the house counting his cattle was supplemented by one of the barn where the animals were tended and fed. A model butcher shop was found that showed where meat was prepared. A granary illustrated the storage of grain, and a brewing and baking establishment depicted its products. The finely detailed weaving and carpentry workshops furnish considerable information on the tools and procedures of both crafts. There were also two gardens, complete with water pools and model trees. The flotilla of model boats in this burial included...

Necropolis

Necropolis   Reference library

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Ancient Egypt

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2005
Subject:
History, Ancient history (non-classical to 500 CE)
Length:
5,652 words
Illustration(s):
1

...sites mentioned in this article; Tomb Robbery Papyri ; and the composite article on Tombs . Breasted, James H. Ancient Records of Egypt , vol. 1. Chicago, 1906. A handy collection of English translations of Egyptian documents, including several contracts referring to the establishment of mortuary cults. Brunton, Guy . Qau and Badari I-III, British School of Archaeology in Egypt 44–45 and 50 . London, 1927–1930; Mostagedda and the Tasian Culture. London, 1937; Matmar. London, 1948. Brunton's volumes on his excavations in the cemeteries between Qau and...

Nubia

Nubia   Reference library

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Ancient Egypt

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2005
Subject:
History, Ancient history (non-classical to 500 CE)
Length:
4,484 words
Illustration(s):
1

...Nehesyw to regain their independence, but this was short-lived. Renewed Egyptian interference was instigated by the pharaoh Amenemhet I (r. 1991–1962 bce ) and concluded by Senwosret I (r. 1971–1928 bce ), culminating in the conquest of the whole of Lower Nubia and the establishment of a frontier at the upstream end of the Second Cataract at Semna, perhaps with an outpost at Sai 100 kilometers (about 65 miles) to the south. The area was rigidly controlled, with a large number of massive fortresses being constructed in the Second Cataract zone and also at...

People

People   Reference library

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Ancient Egypt

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2005

...hairstyles. Some may have come to Egypt as captives from military campaigns, although there was considerable movement of peoples going both ways for trade and diplomacy. Egypt gradually became more engaged with Near Eastern peoples during the later Middle Kingdom, through the establishment of a major point of immigration at Tell ed-Dab'a in the eastern Nile Delta. This site has all the hallmarks of a trade diaspora, an expatriate settlement serving as an interface between the two trading partners. Excavations document a gradual increase in the numbers and...

Mediterranean Area

Mediterranean Area   Reference library

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Ancient Egypt

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2005

...cloaks, bedspread), furniture, and boxes inlaid with gold and lapis lazuli. A text from Year 34 of Ramesses II records the stabilization of commerce with Khatte, noting that a man or woman leaving on business to Syria could reach Khatte in confidence, owing to Ramesses II's establishment of peace. Hittite relations with Egypt include the visit of a Hittite prince to Egypt, and the marriage of Ramesses II (in Year 34 and in 40/45) to two Hittite princesses who are accompanied by personnel, their belongings, and gifts (gold, silver, copper, stone vessels,...

Old Kingdom

Old Kingdom   Reference library

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Ancient Egypt

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2005

...monuments that he left. In addition to a pyramid in Meidum, the site of Sneferu's original residence of Djedsneferu, he was also responsible for the two large pyramids at Dahshur known as the Bent Pyramid and Red Pyramid. The reasons behind his abandonment of Meidum and establishment of a new royal residence at Dahshur are not entirely clear. It is possible that they were related to an attempt to move closer to the capital city Inebuhedj (later Memphis), or perhaps they were of a family nature. Members of the so-called first generation of Sneferu's family...

Zealots

Zealots   Reference library

Encyclopedia of the Dead Sea Scrolls

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2008

...of Habta (Aphthia) and was chosen in this new way. Josephus describes Pinhas as a man who not only did not come from the dynasty of the high priests, but knew nothing at all of the significance of the office of high priest ( The Jewish War 4.151–157). In this way the Zealots expressed their aversion to the priestly establishment, and stressed their tendency toward a kind of democratic process of the sort that typified the structure of their party. The rural element among the Zealots poured into Jerusalem from the areas of the country that had been taken over by...

Palestine Archaeological Museum

Palestine Archaeological Museum   Reference library

Encyclopedia of the Dead Sea Scrolls

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2008

...Archaeological Museum . Following the cessation of hostilities after World War I and the establishment of the British Mandate in Palestine, the pace of archaeological activity in the Middle East increased at a tremendous rate. British authorities, realizing the need to expand these archaeological explorations and exhibit the finds to the public, turned to John D. Rockefeller Jr. , who previously had promised ten million dollars to build a museum in Egypt. Difficulties with King Fu᾽ād of Egypt over the preconditions of the generous grant led Rockefeller...

View: