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war establishment

The level of equipment and manning laid down for a military unit in wartime.

Pharnaces I

Pharnaces I   Reference library

Brian C. McGing

The Oxford Classical Dictionary (4 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2012
Subject:
Classical studies, History
Length:
160 words

...and aggression of his actions. His most important successes were the capture of Sinope , and the establishment of diplomatic ties with the cities of the north and west coasts of the Black ( Euxine ) Sea. His resources proved insufficient, however, to bring victory in the war of expansion he launched against almost all his neighbours in Asia Minor ( c. 183–179 ); see prusias (2) ii cynegus . Although dismissive of Roman diplomatic intervention during the war, defeat forced him to become the first king of Pontus to enter a relationship of ‘friendship’ with...

Lechaeum

Lechaeum   Reference library

John B. Salmon

The Oxford Classical Dictionary (4 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2012
Subject:
Classical studies, History
Length:
153 words

...in the west. There is no natural harbour: two artificial basins were excavated c. 600 bc . Long Walls were built from Corinth c. 450 ( cf. long walls (Athens)). During the Corinthian War , Spartans were admitted to the Long Walls by treachery; Lechaeum was captured, and Corinthian exiles used it as a base for raids on the rest of Corinthian territory. The establishment of the Roman colonia of Corinth in 44 bc triggered further development of the harbour, now linked to Corinth's forum by a paved street (1st cent. ad ). The only major excavations on...

Mēlos

Mēlos   Quick reference

The Oxford Dictionary of the Classical World

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2007
Subject:
Classical studies, History
Length:
136 words

...Melos contributed two pentekontors ( see ships ) to the Greek fleet in 480 bc ( see salamis, battle of ) and remained independent until the Peloponnesian War , when Athens could no longer tolerate its neutrality. Following a failed expedition in 426 , a more determined campaign in 416–415 ended in execution of the men, enslavement of the women and children, and establishment of an Athenian cleruchy . This was expelled by Lysander in 405 , and Melos was resettled with its former inhabitants. Prosperity returned and increased under the...

Macedonian Wars

Macedonian Wars   Reference library

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Ancient Greece and Rome

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2010
Subject:
Classical studies, History
Length:
820 words

...break Macedonia up into four independent republics based on Rome. But memory of the Antigonids and the past led the Macedonians, in 149 bce , to unite under a pretender, Andriscus, who claimed to be Perseus’ son. The Fourth Macedonian War was a hopeless venture soon won by Rome. The settlement this time was the establishment of the Roman Province of Macedonia, and the Greek states became a collective set of Roman protectorates. [ See also Cynoscephalae, Battle of ; Flamininus, Titus Quinctius ; Macedon ; and Seleucids .] Bibliography Gruen, Erich S. The...

Utica

Utica   Reference library

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Ancient Greece and Rome

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2010
Subject:
Classical studies, History
Length:
332 words

...is an overgrown desolate place several miles from the coast. Sporadic excavations from the 1940s to the 1970s revealed extensive remains of the Roman city but little about the previous Punic establishment, except a necropolis with pottery and fine art from as early as the eighth century bce . [ See also Carthage ; Masinissa ; Numidia ; Phoenicia ; and Punic Wars .] Bibliography Ennabli, Abdelmajid . “Utica.” In The Princeton Encyclopedia of Classical Sites , edited by Richard Stillwell , pp. 949–950. Princeton, N.J.: Princeton University Press, 1976....

evocatio

evocatio   Reference library

Mary Beard

The Oxford Classical Dictionary (4 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2012
Subject:
Classical studies, History
Length:
212 words

...A ritual by which, in the course of a war, a Roman general would attempt to deprive the enemy of divine protection, by formally offering their protecting deity a new home and cult at Rome. The clearest recorded case is the evocation of Juno Regina from the Etruscan city of Veii in 396 bc (Livy, 5. 21 ff.); the ritual led to the establishment of her cult on the Aventine hill in Rome. There has been some debate as to how long the ritual continued to be practised, and (in particular) whether the record of the evocation of Juno from Carthage in 146...

Orchomenus

Orchomenus   Quick reference

The Oxford Dictionary of the Classical World

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2007
Subject:
Classical studies, History
Length:
194 words

...between Orchomenus and Thebes for the hegemony of Boeotia became a constant factor throughout the Classical period. That tension notwithstanding, Orchomenus had joined the Boeotian Confederacy by the time of Xerxes ' invasion ( see persian wars ), when it Medized ( see medism ). Upon the re‐establishment of the Boeotian Confederacy, Orchomenus possessed two units within it. During the Pentekontaetia Athens overran Boeotia after the battle of Oenophyta in 457 , after which Orchomenus formed the principal base for the liberation of the region....

Messenian cults and myths

Messenian cults and myths   Reference library

Madeleine Jost

The Oxford Classical Dictionary (4 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2012
Subject:
Classical studies, History
Length:
538 words

...of Messenian myths is an evident wish to confer antiquity on cults; hence local legends which place the births of Zeus and Asclepius in Messenia. Other myths, such as that of Caucon at Andania , are concerned with the establishment of cults, or with the central figure of Aristomenes ( 1 ) , who in the tradition of the Second Messenian War symbolizes the Messenian wish for freedom. His saga, mixing epic elements from Rhianus with themes of tragedy, was put together in order to create a glorious past as a foundation for Messenian identity. P. Themelis in ...

Punic Wars

Punic Wars   Reference library

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Ancient Greece and Rome

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2010
Subject:
Classical studies, History
Length:
2,461 words

...202 he won a decisive victory over Hannibal, who had been recalled to Africa, at Zama, effectively ending the war. The terms imposed on Carthage at this point were far harsher than those at the end of the first war with respect to both financial and diplomatic penalties; the peace terms effectively destroyed the network of alliances on which Carthaginian control of North Africa had depended. The most important move in this regard was the establishment of the Roman ally Masinissa as ruler of Numidia. Scipio himself took the cognomen Africanus to celebrate his...

armies, Roman

armies, Roman   Quick reference

The Oxford Dictionary of the Classical World

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2007
Subject:
Classical studies, History
Length:
653 words

...levy as Rome faced a series of foreign wars, and the property qualification was further reduced. Then in 107 the consul Marius extended this practice by accepting volunteers from the propertyless and had them equipped at the state's expense for the war in Africa ( see jugurtha ). Undoubtedly conscription along the normal lines still continued, but many volunteers probably chose to serve for sixteen years, and this contributed to the development of a professional, long‐term army. The consequences of the Social War ( 91–87 ) were also far‐reaching, since...

Samnites

Samnites   Reference library

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Ancient Greece and Rome

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2010
Subject:
Classical studies, History
Length:
988 words

...Capua, Italy's second-biggest city and one that had a hold of Campania. This the First Samnite War ( 343–341 ) had no clear victor on the battlefield, but the ensuing peace treaty that confirmed Samnitic control of the Sidicini, as well as Rome's alliance with Capua, favored the Romans, who now had greater control over much of prosperous Campania. Rome's establishment of colonies at Cales in 334 and at Fregellae in 327 provoked the Second (or Great) Samnite War ( 327–321 , 316–304/3 ). These colonies were located at important points between Latium and...

Aratus

Aratus   Quick reference

Peter Sidney Derow

Who's Who in the Classical World

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2003
Subject:
Classical studies, History
Length:
382 words

...in 224 and victory over Cleomenes at Sellasia ( 222 ) preserved the Achaean Confederacy from disruption but at the price of a Macedonian garrison on the Acrocorinth and the re-establishment of Macedonian influence in the Peloponnese. On the accession of Philip V , Aratus called in Doson's Hellenic League against Aetolian aggression ( 220 ). In the ensuing Social War he exposed the treachery of the Macedonian court cabal under Apelles, and after the Peace of Naupactus ( 217 ) resisted Philip's anti-Roman policy and proposed seizure of Ithome in...

Flaminius, Gaius

Flaminius, Gaius (d. 217 bce)   Reference library

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Ancient Greece and Rome

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2010
Subject:
Classical studies, History
Length:
360 words

...Gaius ( d. 217 bce ), Roman politician and general . An early popularis (supporter of plebeian interests against the senatorial establishment), Flaminius’ struggle with the senate foreshadowed those of the Gracchi a century later. While serving as tribune in 232 he passed a plebiscite distributing an extensive area south of Ariminum to landless plebeians amid senatorial protests. As praetor in 227 , he was the first governor of the new province of Sicily. But his subsequent activities were focused on Italy north of Rome. Elected to his first...

Frontinus, Sextus Julius

Frontinus, Sextus Julius (c. ad 30)   Reference library

The Grove Encyclopedia of Classical Art and Architecture

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2007
Subject:
Art & Architecture, Classical studies
Length:
369 words

...of Wales led to the establishment of Caerleon and Chester as permanent legionary fortresses. He was probably responsible for initiating the programme of Roman urban development in Britain for which Tacitus ( On the Life of Agric-ola xxi) gave credit to his father-in-law, Agricola, who succeeded Frontinus as governor. In ad 97 Frontinus was commissioned to reorganize Rome ’s water supply and in 100 was awarded the unusual distinction of a third consulship. Frontinus wrote on the aqueducts of Rome , surveying, the art of war, stratagems and...

Lemnos

Lemnos   Reference library

Eugene N. Borza

The Oxford Classical Dictionary (4 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2012
Subject:
Classical studies, History
Length:
328 words

...inscription is dated to c. 500 , by which time Lemnos began to receive Athenian colonists led by the younger Miltiades acting in his capacity as ruler of the Thracian Chersonesus (1) . Athenian interest in this strategically located island is further evidenced by the establishment of a cleruchy c. 450 . After a brief period of Spartan rule ( 404–393 ) Lemnos again fell within the Athenian orbit. Together with the neighbouring islands of Imbros and Scyros it remained an advanced Athenian base in the northern Aegean. Despite occasional raids by ...

Campania

Campania   Reference library

Nicholas Purcell

The Oxford Classical Dictionary (4 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2012
Subject:
Classical studies, History
Length:
395 words

...plains and foothills (e.g. the agri Campanus and Falernus , the Phlegraei campi ) and the numerous harbours and beach-heads combined to give it a wider Italian and Mediterranean significance. Seaborne contacts of the bronze age and geometric periods were followed by the establishment of a sequence of apoikiai , Pithecusae on the island of Ischia, and its successor Cumae on the mainland opposite, with its daughter-settlements Dicaearchia (later Puteoli ) and Neapolis (Naples). Etruscan cultural influence shaped the principal cities of the interior,...

Cardia

Cardia   Reference library

Eugene N. Borza

The Oxford Classical Dictionary (4 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2012
Subject:
Classical studies, History
Length:
293 words

...Cardia's fortunes were restored, and by Strabo's time it was the largest city in the Chersonesus. The city produced two famous sons: Eumenes (3) was secretary to Philip (1) and Alexander (3) of Macedon, and was a major figure in the wars of the Successors. Hieronymus (1) was an eyewitness to the establishment of the early Hellenistic kingdoms, and his account is our primary source for those events. B. Isaac , The Greek Settlements in Thrace until the Macedonian Conquest (1986); IACP no. 665. Eugene N....

Melos

Melos   Reference library

Richard William Vyvyan Catling

The Oxford Classical Dictionary (4 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2012
Subject:
Classical studies, History
Length:
388 words

...cent. Melos contributed two pentekontors (50-oared warships) to the Greek fleet in 480 bc ( see Salamis, battle of ) and remained independent until the Peloponnesian War , when Athens could no longer tolerate its neutrality. Following a failed expedition in 426 , a more determined campaign in 416–15 ended in execution of the men, enslavement of the women and children, and establishment of an Athenian cleruchy . This was expelled by Lysander in 405 , and Melos was resettled with its former inhabitants. Prosperity returned and increased under the Roman...

Vandals

Vandals   Reference library

Peter John Heather

The Oxford Classical Dictionary (4 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2012
Subject:
Classical studies, History
Length:
355 words

...the Hasdings, whose leaders were henceforth officially titled ‘kings of the Vandals and Alans’. Under Gunderic (d. 428) the new combined force moved to southern Spain, and, under his successor Gaiseric , to north Africa in 429 . An initial series of campaigns led to their establishment in Numidia and Mauretania by treaty in 436 . In 439 they broke the treaty and captured Carthage to establish a kingdom further east in the richer Roman provinces: Byzacena and Proconsularis ( see africa, roman ). The west Romans recognized the conquests by treaty in...

Piraeus

Piraeus   Quick reference

The Oxford Dictionary of the Classical World

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2007
Subject:
Classical studies, History
Length:
363 words

...laying it out on an orthogonal plan. The presence of numerous metics led to the establishment of many foreign cults here, including the Thracian Great Goddess Bendis, Isis , and Mother of the Gods ( see cybele ). In 458/7 Piraeus was joined to Athens by Long Walls , and in c. 446 the building of the Middle Wall eliminated Phaleron from the fortified area. In 429 moles were constructed on either side of each harbour's mouth which could be closed by chains in time of war. The fortifications were destroyed by the Spartans in 404 but rebuilt by ...

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