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war establishment

The level of equipment and manning laid down for a military unit in wartime.

war, art of, Greek

war, art of, Greek  

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Before the second half of the 5th cent. bc, the Greeks seem to have made no attempt to systematize military theory. The only such works to have survived are Xenophon's Cavalry Commander, his ...
Roman armies

Roman armies  

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Traditionally, Servius Tullius (see rex) made the first attempt to channel the resources of the Roman state into military organization by dividing the citizens into wealth groups, so that the weapons ...
Aratus

Aratus  

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(271–213bc), statesman from Sicyon west of Corinth. He fled to Argos after the murder of his father Cleinias in 264 and was educated there. In 251 he expelled the tyrant Nicocles from Sicyon and ...
Vipsanius Agrippa, Marcus

Vipsanius Agrippa, Marcus  

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Lifelong friend and supporter of Augustus, b. c.63 bc of obscure but probably well‐to‐do family (he neglected his undistinguished family name). He accompanied Octavius (the future Octavian and ...
Gaius Flaminius

Gaius Flaminius  

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Was the only politician before the Gracchi to mount a serious challenge to the senatorial establishment on behalf of the populares (see optimates). A novus homo, he was tribune of the plebs 232 bc, ...
Piraeus

Piraeus  

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The great harbour complex of Athens, is a rocky limestone peninsula some 7 km. (4–5 mi.) SW of Athens, which Themistocles began to fortify in 493/2 as a base for Athens' rapidly expanding fleet in ...
ruler-cult

ruler-cult  

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GreekGreek ruler‐worship is the rendering, as to a god or hero, of honours to individuals widely revered because of their achievements, position, or power.In the aristocratic society of the Archaic ...
Israel

Israel  

After half a century of war and hostility, peace with the Palestinians seems as remote as everIsrael can be considered to have four main geographical regions. To the north is a hilly region that ...
Sicily

Sicily  

A large triangular island in the Mediterranean Sea, separated from the ‘toe’ of Italy by the narrow Strait of Messina. It forms, with the neighbouring islands of Lipari, Egadi, Ustica, and ...
Rome

Rome  

According to tradition the ancient city was founded by Romulus (after whom it is named) in 753 bc on the Palatine Hill; as it grew it spread to the other six hills of Rome (Aventine, Caelian, ...
Pharnaces I

Pharnaces I   Reference library

Brian C. McGing

The Oxford Classical Dictionary (4 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2012
Subject:
Classical studies, History
Length:
160 words

...and aggression of his actions. His most important successes were the capture of Sinope , and the establishment of diplomatic ties with the cities of the north and west coasts of the Black ( Euxine ) Sea. His resources proved insufficient, however, to bring victory in the war of expansion he launched against almost all his neighbours in Asia Minor ( c. 183–179 ); see prusias (2) ii cynegus . Although dismissive of Roman diplomatic intervention during the war, defeat forced him to become the first king of Pontus to enter a relationship of ‘friendship’ with...

Lechaeum

Lechaeum   Reference library

John B. Salmon

The Oxford Classical Dictionary (4 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2012
Subject:
Classical studies, History
Length:
153 words

...in the west. There is no natural harbour: two artificial basins were excavated c. 600 bc . Long Walls were built from Corinth c. 450 ( cf. long walls (Athens)). During the Corinthian War , Spartans were admitted to the Long Walls by treachery; Lechaeum was captured, and Corinthian exiles used it as a base for raids on the rest of Corinthian territory. The establishment of the Roman colonia of Corinth in 44 bc triggered further development of the harbour, now linked to Corinth's forum by a paved street (1st cent. ad ). The only major excavations on...

Mēlos

Mēlos   Quick reference

The Oxford Dictionary of the Classical World

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2007
Subject:
Classical studies, History
Length:
136 words

...Melos contributed two pentekontors ( see ships ) to the Greek fleet in 480 bc ( see salamis, battle of ) and remained independent until the Peloponnesian War , when Athens could no longer tolerate its neutrality. Following a failed expedition in 426 , a more determined campaign in 416–415 ended in execution of the men, enslavement of the women and children, and establishment of an Athenian cleruchy . This was expelled by Lysander in 405 , and Melos was resettled with its former inhabitants. Prosperity returned and increased under the...

Macedonian Wars

Macedonian Wars   Reference library

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Ancient Greece and Rome

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2010
Subject:
Classical studies, History
Length:
820 words

...break Macedonia up into four independent republics based on Rome. But memory of the Antigonids and the past led the Macedonians, in 149 bce , to unite under a pretender, Andriscus, who claimed to be Perseus’ son. The Fourth Macedonian War was a hopeless venture soon won by Rome. The settlement this time was the establishment of the Roman Province of Macedonia, and the Greek states became a collective set of Roman protectorates. [ See also Cynoscephalae, Battle of ; Flamininus, Titus Quinctius ; Macedon ; and Seleucids .] Bibliography Gruen, Erich S. The...

Utica

Utica   Reference library

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Ancient Greece and Rome

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2010
Subject:
Classical studies, History
Length:
332 words

...is an overgrown desolate place several miles from the coast. Sporadic excavations from the 1940s to the 1970s revealed extensive remains of the Roman city but little about the previous Punic establishment, except a necropolis with pottery and fine art from as early as the eighth century bce . [ See also Carthage ; Masinissa ; Numidia ; Phoenicia ; and Punic Wars .] Bibliography Ennabli, Abdelmajid . “Utica.” In The Princeton Encyclopedia of Classical Sites , edited by Richard Stillwell , pp. 949–950. Princeton, N.J.: Princeton University Press, 1976....

evocatio

evocatio   Reference library

Mary Beard

The Oxford Classical Dictionary (4 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2012
Subject:
Classical studies, History
Length:
212 words

...A ritual by which, in the course of a war, a Roman general would attempt to deprive the enemy of divine protection, by formally offering their protecting deity a new home and cult at Rome. The clearest recorded case is the evocation of Juno Regina from the Etruscan city of Veii in 396 bc (Livy, 5. 21 ff.); the ritual led to the establishment of her cult on the Aventine hill in Rome. There has been some debate as to how long the ritual continued to be practised, and (in particular) whether the record of the evocation of Juno from Carthage in 146...

Orchomenus

Orchomenus   Quick reference

The Oxford Dictionary of the Classical World

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2007
Subject:
Classical studies, History
Length:
194 words

...between Orchomenus and Thebes for the hegemony of Boeotia became a constant factor throughout the Classical period. That tension notwithstanding, Orchomenus had joined the Boeotian Confederacy by the time of Xerxes ' invasion ( see persian wars ), when it Medized ( see medism ). Upon the re‐establishment of the Boeotian Confederacy, Orchomenus possessed two units within it. During the Pentekontaetia Athens overran Boeotia after the battle of Oenophyta in 457 , after which Orchomenus formed the principal base for the liberation of the region....

Messenian cults and myths

Messenian cults and myths   Reference library

Madeleine Jost

The Oxford Classical Dictionary (4 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2012
Subject:
Classical studies, History
Length:
538 words

...of Messenian myths is an evident wish to confer antiquity on cults; hence local legends which place the births of Zeus and Asclepius in Messenia. Other myths, such as that of Caucon at Andania , are concerned with the establishment of cults, or with the central figure of Aristomenes ( 1 ) , who in the tradition of the Second Messenian War symbolizes the Messenian wish for freedom. His saga, mixing epic elements from Rhianus with themes of tragedy, was put together in order to create a glorious past as a foundation for Messenian identity. P. Themelis in ...

Punic Wars

Punic Wars   Reference library

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Ancient Greece and Rome

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2010
Subject:
Classical studies, History
Length:
2,461 words

...202 he won a decisive victory over Hannibal, who had been recalled to Africa, at Zama, effectively ending the war. The terms imposed on Carthage at this point were far harsher than those at the end of the first war with respect to both financial and diplomatic penalties; the peace terms effectively destroyed the network of alliances on which Carthaginian control of North Africa had depended. The most important move in this regard was the establishment of the Roman ally Masinissa as ruler of Numidia. Scipio himself took the cognomen Africanus to celebrate his...

armies, Roman

armies, Roman   Quick reference

The Oxford Dictionary of the Classical World

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2007
Subject:
Classical studies, History
Length:
653 words

...levy as Rome faced a series of foreign wars, and the property qualification was further reduced. Then in 107 the consul Marius extended this practice by accepting volunteers from the propertyless and had them equipped at the state's expense for the war in Africa ( see jugurtha ). Undoubtedly conscription along the normal lines still continued, but many volunteers probably chose to serve for sixteen years, and this contributed to the development of a professional, long‐term army. The consequences of the Social War ( 91–87 ) were also far‐reaching, since...

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