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war establishment

The level of equipment and manning laid down for a military unit in wartime.

Howard Carter

Howard Carter  

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Overview Page
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Archaeology
(1873–1939) [Bi]British archaeologist famous for his discovery of the tomb of Tutankhamen in Egypt. Born in Brompton, London, the youngest of eleven children, he spent his early years in Swaffham, ...
Battlefield Archaeology

Battlefield Archaeology   Reference library

Douglas D. Scott

The Oxford Companion To Archaeology (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2012
Subject:
Archaeology
Length:
2,485 words

...on a long history and has deep intellectual roots. It has a very rich and complex literature that should not be approached or used simplistically. Yet concepts and terms that army leaders have developed to plan and execute war are easily applied to archaeological analysis of battlefields and other military sites. Most military establishments maintain a regular series of training publications designed to make the conceptual basis of military activities available to new personnel. They offer clear explanations of the range of activities involved in organizing and...

Asia, Archaeology in

Asia, Archaeology in   Reference library

Charles Higham

The Oxford Companion To Archaeology (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2012
Subject:
Archaeology
Length:
672 words

...booming as never before. The development of archaeology in Japan can be traced to the period of the Tokugawa Shogunate ( 1603–1868 ), when some gentlemen scholars began to collect ancient artifacts out of interest in their country’s past. Despite a policy of isolation, the establishment of a Dutch trading station at Nagasaki in the eighteenth century is known to have introduced Western ideas into Japan at that time. Indeed, it was Arai Hakuseki ( 1657–1725 ) who first pronounced that stone arrowheads were fashioned by prehistoric people rather than falling...

Levant

Levant   Reference library

Thomas W. Davis

The Oxford Companion To Archaeology (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2012
Subject:
Archaeology
Length:
2,453 words

...began to seriously foment unrest, which bore fruit during World War I. The Ottomans entered the war on the side of the Central Powers (German Empire, Austro-Hungarian Empire, and Bulgaria) in late 1914. Palestine and Syria witnessed the ultimately victorious Allied campaign (United Kingdom, France, the Russian Empire; later Italy and the United States), aided by an Arab revolt, which culminated in October of 1918 with the capture of Damascus, leading the Ottomans to sue for peace. After the war, the Ottoman Empire was dismembered and the Turkish Republic,...

Evolution

Evolution   Reference library

Brian M. Fagan and Brian M. Fagan

The Oxford Companion To Archaeology (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2012
Subject:
Archaeology
Length:
2,044 words

...Wars. But a minority believed the find was a primitive human being, perhaps the maker of the crude stone tools found not only in the Somme valley, but in caves and rock shelters throughout Europe. Meanwhile, the Royal Society had commissioned new excavations at Kent’s Cavern and at nearby Brixham Cave, where the archaeologist William Pengelly found the bones of extinct animals and stone tools sealed in a thick stalagmite layer. By this time news of Perthes’s discoveries had drifted across the English Channel to the scientific establishment in...

France

France   Reference library

Margarita Díaz-Andreu

The Oxford Companion To Archaeology (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2012
Subject:
Archaeology
Length:
2,521 words

...be organized outside Europe. On French soil the establishment of the Second Empire ( 1852–­1870 ) saw a renewed interest in Roman archaeology. Emperor Napoleon III sponsored the making of an archaeological map of the Gauls and funded excavations at Alesia ( 1860 ) and Mont Beuvray (Bibracte) ( 1867 ). He also paid for the establishment of a Museum of National Antiquities at St. Germain ( 1867 ). The surge in nationalist feelings was further reinforced after France’s defeat in 1870 in the Franco-Prussian War and some of the changes that came about then would...

Eastern Europe

Eastern Europe   Reference library

Predrag Novaković

The Oxford Companion To Archaeology (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2012
Subject:
Archaeology
Length:
4,094 words

...the paramount political task of creating a new Bosnian multiethnic and multiconfessional nation founded on a common language and common pre-Ottoman history, loyal to the Austrian crown. With the end of the First World War and the considerable reshaping of the European political and social geography (dissolution of the old empires; establishment of a number of new countries: e.g., Czechoslovakia, Poland, Yugoslavia, Lithuania, Estonia, Latvia, Hungary, and Austria; and modernization and industrialization of a great deal of Central and Southeastern Europe),...

Turkey

Turkey   Reference library

Cigdem Atakuman

The Oxford Companion To Archaeology (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2012
Subject:
Archaeology
Length:
2,456 words

...of the Empire by the end of World War I ( 1914–1918 ), irredentist ideas were abandoned and building of an ethnically and geographically defined nation-state in Anatolia became the fundamental basis of the Turkish War of Independence ( 1919–1922 ), which started under the leadership of Mustafa Kemal Atatürk ( 1881–1938 ). 1923–1950: Early Republican Secular Nationalism and Archaeology. The Turkish Republic was declared on 29 October 1923. Although the Islamic signifiers were used during the Independence War, the caliphate was soon abolished in March...

Imperialism

Imperialism   Reference library

Margarita Díaz-Andreu

The Oxford Companion To Archaeology (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2012
Subject:
Archaeology
Length:
1,476 words

...In the colonies, the importance conferred on the study of antiquity, especially the monumental past, led to its initial institutionalization in the colonies themselves. There was no one formula for how such institutionalization took place: some imperial powers favored the establishment of learned societies and museums (as was the case in Indonesia), others founded foreign schools (Indochina), and yet others government heritage offices (India and Iraq). After some time all of these bodies would be established in each colony. In the areas of informal...

Central Europe

Central Europe   Reference library

Arkadiusz Marciniak

The Oxford Companion To Archaeology (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2012
Subject:
Archaeology
Length:
1,656 words

...in large-scale infrastructure projects, such as pipelines from Russia to Western Europe and the network of motorways that demand large-scale archaeological “rescue” excavations. They have triggered an emergence and rapid increase in the commercial sector, manifested in the establishment of a large number of private archaeological firms. The future of Central European archaeology remains unclear. Its distinctive character is at risk, as smaller countries in the region no longer need to identify themselves as “non-Soviet.” It is striking that archaeologists from...

Crusader Archaeology

Crusader Archaeology   Reference library

Adrian J. Boas

The Oxford Companion To Archaeology (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2012
Subject:
Archaeology
Length:
1,763 words

...Archaeology For the Kingdom of Jerusalem, the central area in the Levant under Frankish rule, Crusader history is generally divided into two periods: the first commencing with the capture of Jerusalem by the armies of the First Crusade on 15 July 1099 , followed by the establishment of the kingdom, and extending until its almost entire collapse following the Battle of Hattin on 4 July 1187 ; and a second period sometimes referred to as “the Kingdom of Acre,” which followed the Christian recovery of Acre during the Third Crusade on 12 July 1191 , and the...

Sub-Saharan Africa

Sub-Saharan Africa   Reference library

Paul J. Lane

The Oxford Companion To Archaeology (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2012
Subject:
Archaeology
Length:
2,022 words

...societies might be judged. Both strategies tended to deny African societies any potential for independent cultural development or technological invention. Both models implicitly, and in rarer cases (e.g., in southern Africa) explicitly, gave apparent legitimacy to the establishment of colonial rule and the broader “civilizing” mission of European colonialism ( Shepherd, 2002 ). Allied with this was a general preoccupation with the remoter periods of time associated with Stone Age traditions and technologies. This neglect of the later archaeological record...

Southeast Asia

Southeast Asia   Reference library

Charles Higham

The Oxford Companion To Archaeology (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2012
Subject:
Archaeology
Length:
2,614 words

...The British occupied Burma and Malaysia; the Dutch, Indonesia; and the French, Vietnam, Cambodia, and Laos. These colonial regimes reflected the different character of the occupying power economically, politically, and in terms of archaeological investigations. Before the establishment of colonial rule, there was virtually no indigenous tradition of archaeology. Angkorian, Cham, and Indonesian inscriptions recorded the genealogies of their rulers, but this was driven by a need to establish legitimacy rather than to establish a historical record. The French...

Egyptology

Egyptology   Reference library

Karen Exell

The Oxford Companion To Archaeology (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2012
Subject:
Archaeology
Length:
2,827 words

...at the British Museum prior to the establishment of Egyptology as an academic field of study. Quirke, Stephen . Hidden Hands. Egyptian Workforces in Petrie Excavation Archives, 1880–1924 , 2010. In this at-times-polemical work, the author argues for the acknowledgment of the role of the Egyptian workers in early excavations, and includes the name lists of workers as a first step to this rehabilitation. Reid, Donald M. Whose Pharaohs? Archaeology, Museums, and Egyptian National Identity from Napoleon to World War I , 2002. Includes a discussion of the...

Wari Empire

Wari Empire   Reference library

Katharina J. Schreiber and Tiffiny A. Tung

The Oxford Companion To Archaeology (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2012
Subject:
Archaeology
Length:
1,296 words

...offering deposit, and the site has since been destroyed by modern agriculture. Nasca settlement patterns were completely disrupted when Pacheco was established, and new burial practices are observed during this time; this suggests intense interaction with Wari and perhaps the establishment of Wari control. [ See also Andean Pre-Inca Civilizations, the Rise of: Introduction ; Moche Culture ; Nasca Civilization ; South America: Highlands Cultures of South America ; South America: The Rise of Complex Societies in South America ; Tiwanaku Empire . ] Bennett,...

Pompeii and Herculaneum

Pompeii and Herculaneum   Reference library

Michael Anderson

The Oxford Companion To Archaeology (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2012
Subject:
Archaeology
Length:
2,530 words

...portico donated by the public priestess and fullers’ guild matron Eumachia, a temple dedicated to the imperial cult, a large structure potentially housing a shrine to the public Lares, and the renovation of the pre-existing macellum (market). City-wide developments included establishment or reconstruction of an aqueduct system and monumentalization of the northwestern entrance to the city (Porta Ercolano). Urban Fabric. The unique contribution of Herculaneum and Pompeii to Roman archaeology has been the preservation of complete city blocks with houses, shops,...

Dead Sea Scrolls

Dead Sea Scrolls   Reference library

Neil Asher Silberman and Sidnie White Crawford

The Oxford Companion To Archaeology (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2012
Subject:
Archaeology
Length:
2,173 words

...scrolls have been found. Written on parchment and papyrus, the Qumran Scrolls represent the religious thought of a group or a movement within Judaism that embraced a strict interpretation of the biblical law, and anticipated the imminent arrival of messianic leaders and the establishment of God’s kingdom on Earth. The identities of the scrolls’ owners and their connections to the emergence of early Christianity and rabbinic Judaism have occasioned considerable scholarly discussion and debate. The first of the Dead Sea Scroll discoveries took place in the winter...

Science in Archaeology

Science in Archaeology   Reference library

R. Ervin Taylor

The Oxford Companion To Archaeology (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2012
Subject:
Archaeology
Length:
1,588 words

...geoarchaeological and bioarchaeological reconstruction of environmental contexts for archaeological data. Some investigators suggested the term “archaeological science” as the broadest term to apply to all natural science–based studies in archaeology. In the mid-1970s, the establishment of university chairs in both archaeometry and archaeological science reflected the maturation of the field, as did the appearance in the mid-1970s of specialty publications, such as the Journal of Archaeological Science , and a professional society, the Society for...

Archaeological Societies

Archaeological Societies   Reference library

Nathan Schlanger

The Oxford Companion To Archaeology (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2012
Subject:
Archaeology
Length:
1,788 words

...brought about genuine methodological and theoretical contributions and even breakthroughs. This was notably the case with the Congrès International d’Archéologie et d’Anthropologie Préhistorique (CIAAP), which from the mid-1860s to the late 1870s contributed decisively to the establishment of high human antiquity and the Three Age System. It was only on the strength of this initially transnational impetus that national societies dealing with prehistoric or anthropological archaeology were created, first in Germany ( 1870 ) but only much later in France ( 1904 ),...

North Africa

North Africa   Reference library

Corisande Fenwick

The Oxford Companion To Archaeology (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2012
Subject:
Archaeology
Length:
1,690 words

...sites were rebuilt as part of Italian Fascist propaganda, which emphasized Italy’s Roman heritage. Archaeological recording was of variable quality, and post-Roman layers were typically destroyed without being recorded. Archaeology after Independence. Independence and the establishment of the modern nation-states of Libya ( 1951 ), Morocco ( 1956 ), Tunisia ( 1957 ), and Algeria ( 1962 ) prompted nationalist narratives emphasizing a united Arab-Islamic heritage rather than Roman and Berber histories. In Algeria, for example, the new state dated the...

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