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type batter

Damage or wear to type, resulting in a defective impression. Because each battered type creates a unique impression, Hinman, Blayney, and others have successfully used evidence from ...

type batter

type batter   Reference library

The Oxford Companion to the Book

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2010
Subject:
History, Social sciences
Length:
51 words

... batter Damage or wear to *type , resulting in a defective *impression . Because each battered type creates a unique impression, *Hinman , *Blayney , and others have successfully used evidence from damaged types to study such matters as *compositors ’ stints and the order in which *forme s were set. Michael F. Suarez,...

Irregular Verbs

Irregular Verbs   Reference library

Garner’s Modern English Usage (4 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2016
Subject:
Language reference, Usage and Grammar Guides
Length:
1,254 words
Publisher:
Oxford University Press

...that noun is then used as a verb, the inflection is regular rather than irregular. For example, in baseball a ball that is hit into the air is a fly ball , often shortened to a fly . When a batter hits one, we say that he flied (not flew ) out to left field. ( See fly .) When the ball makes a beeline to an outfielder without touching the ground, we say that the batter line-drived (not line-drove ) it. ( See drive .) When someone gets the cold-shoulder treatment from associates, we may even say, colloquially, that the person has been ✳deep-freezed ,...

Concord

Concord   Reference library

Garner’s Modern English Usage (4 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2016
Subject:
Language reference, Usage and Grammar Guides
Length:
1,925 words
Publisher:
Oxford University Press

...others .) • “Designated hitter Jason Layne, already sporting a black eye, was hit by a pitch [read pitches ] twice.” Rick Cantu , “Texas Baseball Team Thumps Favorite Tech,” Austin Am.-Statesman , 15 Mar. 1996 , at C1, C9. (The grammar here misleadingly suggests that the batter was hit twice by the same pitch.) A related problem occurs in the following sentence, in which both is followed by a singular complement ( candidate ): “Today, both camps were enthusiastic about how their candidate fared.” Richard L. Berke , “Rival Camps in Final Debate...

Painting

Painting   Reference library

An Oxford Companion to the Romantic Age

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2009
Subject:
History, modern history (1700 to 1945), Literature
Length:
5,778 words
Publisher:
Oxford University Press

...While Alison's theories offered one avenue of interpretation and justification for pictures like Flatford Mill , the *picturesque theory of writers such as William *Gilpin and Uvedale *Price gave objects like Constable's gnarled tree, clump of plants, twisting brook, and battered stump an independent aesthetic value as signs of an unspoilt, weathered, and ‘natural’ British landscape endearingly resistant to the claims of modernity. Gilpin 's Three Essays: On Picturesque Beauty; On Picturesque Travel; and of Sketching Landscape ( 1792 ), suggested that...

11 The Technologies of Print

11 The Technologies of Print   Reference library

The Oxford Companion to the Book

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2010
Subject:
History, Social sciences
Length:
10,192 words
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
Illustration(s):
8

...which could be stored in barrels, and was commonly bought from specialist makers. Unlike paper and ink, type was not wholly consumed by production. However, type gradually wore out in use or was damaged (known as *type batter ) and needed to be replaced: this was done at a rate that reflected the printer’s standards and the economics of his operation. Surviving records from the early 16 th century show that some printers bought sets of matrices for the types they used and a mould to go with them, hiring a specialist founder or caster to make a *fount or...

18 Theories of Text, Editorial Theory, and Textual Criticism

18 Theories of Text, Editorial Theory, and Textual Criticism   Reference library

The Oxford Companion to the Book

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2010
Subject:
History, Social sciences
Length:
5,963 words
Publisher:
Oxford University Press

...Transcription always involves change and error, as well as a conscious or unconscious process of editing. *Composition (the setting of type) adds technically specific issues: the wrong case, the wrong *fount , the *turned letter . Performance texts may be transcribed or printed from faulty memorial reconstruction ( see bad quartos of shakespeare’s plays ). Type and typeset *formes are subject to ‘batter’, type movement, and loss. Etched or engraved plates are prone to wear and damage. Authors emend and revise, before, during, and after the...

maul

maul   Quick reference

The Concise Oxford Dictionary of Archaeology (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2009
Subject:
Archaeology, History
Length:
14 words

...[Ar] A type of massive, heavy, stone hammer used for battering rock...

fritto misto

fritto misto   Quick reference

A Dictionary of Food and Nutrition (4 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2014

...misto Italian ; small thin pieces of a variety of types of meat, fish, or vegetables, coated with egg and breadcrumbs or batter, and deep...

batter

batter   Reference library

The Oxford Companion to Food (3 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2014

...whilst retaining flavour and juices. Wherever deep-frying is an important cooking method, something similar to batter will have evolved, although the ingredients may differ substantially from those used in Europe. Japanese tempura recipes call for various combinations of flour, egg (or egg yolk alone), and water; Chinese deep-fried recipes for wheat flour, cornflour, and water; and the Indian pakora , a type of vegetable fritter, uses a batter of chickpea flour and water. Among professionals, the word describes any paste of flour and liquid, for example, a...

kadaif

kadaif   Quick reference

The Diner’s Dictionary (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2013

...wheat . It is an eastern Mediterranean confection made from a leavened flour-and-water batter sieved into very thin strands which are rolled round a filling of chopped nuts, baked, and then soaked in syrup. Kadaif, or kadayif, is its Turkish name. In Greece it is kataifi. Both come from Arabic qata’if, which refers to a type of pancake. In Arab countries, particularly Egypt and Syria, the vermicelli-pastry confection, which is made from the same batter as kadaif, is known as kunafa...

shortening bread

shortening bread   Quick reference

The Diner’s Dictionary (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2013

...bread A type of American bread made by frying a batter mixture containing cornmeal, eggs, milk, and some sort of fat, such as butter. A speciality of the southern states, it achieved wider fame thanks to a line in a traditional plantation song that runs ‘Mammy’s little baby loves short’nin’...

trireme

trireme   Quick reference

The Concise Oxford Dictionary of Archaeology (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2009
Subject:
Archaeology, History
Length:
44 words

...[Ar] The earliest type of Greek warship which used a battering ram in the prow as its main weapon. Named after the three banks of oars by which it was propelled, it was the standard warship of the 5th and 4th centuries bc...

naos

naos   Quick reference

A Dictionary of Architecture and Landscape Architecture (3 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2015
Subject:
Art & Architecture
Length:
72 words
Illustration(s):
1

...1. Inner cell or sanctuary of a Greek temple , equivalent to the Roman cella , containing the deity’s statue. 2. Sanctuary of a centrally planned Byzantine church. 3. Small shrine , often portable, e.g. the battered -sided Egyptian type, carried by a Naöphorus figure. J.Curl ( 2005 ) ; D ( 1950 ) naos ( 3 ) ( above ) Naöphorus ( right ) (Museo Nazionale,...

hopper

hopper   Quick reference

The Diner’s Dictionary (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2013

...A type of saucer-shaped pancake characteristic of southern India and Sri Lanka. Its yeast batter , made from rice flour, is cooked in a bowl-shaped pan, which gives the hopper its particular form: thick in the middle, thin and lacy towards the edge. Often a whole egg is cooked in the centre. Its name in Tamil is appam (probably a descendant of Sanskrit apupa ‘fried delicacy’), and a variant form of this, appa, was folk-etymologically transformed in Anglo-Indian English into hopper. See also string hopper...

fritter

fritter   Reference library

Laura Mason

The Oxford Companion to Food (3 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2014

...of fritter introduced in the 18th century were of flavoured ground rice; a thin type in the shape of a true lover’s knot (as in a pretzel) was piped with a forcing bag. This shape survives in the old French bugne and the American cruller . A few types of fritter from around the world are described below, merely to exemplify the ubiquity and variety of forms which this item displays. Apple and banana fritters , a popular dessert in Chinese restaurants in the West. A light batter containing whisked egg whites is used to encase the prepared fruit, and the...

crumpet

crumpet   Reference library

The Oxford Companion to Food (3 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2014

... a type of thick, perforated pancake made from a yeast-leavened batter containing milk. Crumpets are cooked on a lightly greased griddle , confined in ring moulds. Since the 19th century, the leaven in the batter has been boosted by a little bicarbonate of soda just before cooking. Batter consistency is important: the characteristic mass of tiny holes will not develop if it is too thick. Crumpets are only turned briefly on the griddle, the underside taking on a pale gold colour and smooth surface, while the top remains pallid. This is intentional...

Génoise

Génoise   Reference library

The Oxford Companion to Food (3 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2014

... a type of sponge cake (which may be called Genoese, in Britain, but is not to be confused with Genoa cake, which is really a type of light fruit cake ). Whole eggs are beaten with sugar over hot water until thick. The heat gives maximum lightness to a sponge that has no chemical leavening. Then flour and melted butter are folded in. This type of sponge may be simply dusted with icing sugar and eaten plain; or split and filled with jam and cream, or butter icing . The top may also be iced. Sheets of génoise are used to make swiss rolls . Génoise-type...

fraise

fraise   Quick reference

The Diner’s Dictionary (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2013

...A type of thick pancake typically incorporating pieces of bacon . Conceptually it is perhaps closer to an omelette , but made with batter rather than beaten eggs and butter. It is now largely a thing of the past, although sweet versions containing fruit survived into the twentieth century: Florence White in her Good Things in England ( 1932 ), quotes a recipe for an ‘apple fraize’. The term, which also occurs in the form froise, dates back to the early fourteenth century. It probably came from an unrecorded Old French * freis or * freise, which...

dosa

dosa   Reference library

Helen Saberi

The Oxford Companion to Food (3 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2014

...and soupy) and coconut chutney . Dosas can be made with a variety of batters, each giving a slightly different texture or colour, but the traditional dosas are made with rice and lentils ( urd dal ) mixed with water, a little butter and sometimes flavoured with fenugreek, then left to ferment overnight. The mixture is then ground to a batter the next day before being fried on a griddle or on a traditional dosa kalu (‘dosai stone’). The dosa kalu is in fact made of cast iron. Other types of dosa include: ◆ Rava dosa , sometimes called sooji dosa , made...

oatcakes

oatcakes   Reference library

Laura Mason

The Oxford Companion to Food (3 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2014

...where the cakes were thin, soft, and moist. A batter made from fine oatmeal was used. This was lightly fermented, either by leaving it overnight to sour naturally, or with yeast. In its simplest form, the batter was poured onto a bakestone to make a rather thick oatcake. A finer type was called riddle bread, because a pool of batter was shaken or ‘riddled’ on a special board to make it spread thinly. The thinnest, finest type was thrown oatcake, which developed during the 19th century. The batter was transferred from the riddle board on to a sheet of...

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