You are looking at 1-19 of 19 entries  for:

  • All: type batter x
  • Warfare and Defence x
clear all

View:

Overview

type batter

Damage or wear to type, resulting in a defective impression. Because each battered type creates a unique impression, Hinman, Blayney, and others have successfully used evidence from ...

carriers

carriers   Reference library

Tom Hone

The Oxford Companion to World War II

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2003

...aircraft carriers,’ or merchant ship conversions. Basic types were Casablanca (8,400 metric tons; 50 built) and Commencement Bay (17,000 metric tons; 19 built). Most RN escort carriers were obtained through Lend-Lease , such as the eleven Attacker type (10,360 metric tons), but there were also very austere additions of flight decks and three or four aircraft to each of nineteen grain and oil bulk carriers. Carriers, Table 1: Royal Navy, US Navy, Imperial Japanese Navy Class/Type Number Commissioned Tonnage No. of A/C Overall Length (in...

fighters

fighters   Reference library

E. A. Munday and Johnnie Johnson

The Oxford Companion to World War II

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2003
Subject:
History, Military History, Social sciences, Warfare and Defence
Length:
6,375 words
Illustration(s):
4

...manoeuvrable American fighters; while the lighter German fighters, capable of dogfighting the US escorts, lacked the fire-power to destroy the bombers. One answer was the heavily armed, and heavily armoured, version of the Focke-Wulfe 190 fighter, nicknamed the Sturmbock (battering ram). These engaged the US bombers from behind at close range and rammed them as a last resort. They were used in a Gruppe of three Staffeln of twelve aircraft each, escorted by more than sixty specially adapted, lighter fighters. These Gefechtsverbände (battle formations)...

Atlantic, battle of the

Atlantic, battle of the   Reference library

Marc Milner

The Oxford Companion to World War II

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2003
Subject:
History, Military History, Social sciences, Warfare and Defence
Length:
4,598 words
Illustration(s):
3

...and U-boats punished heavily. VLR Liberators closed the air gap in May, and more escort carriers arrived to join the battle. Nearly 100 U-boats were sunk in the Atlantic during the first five months of 1943 : 47 in May alone (see Map 6). At the end of May, Dönitz withdrew his battered packs: as far as the course of the war was concerned, the battle of the Atlantic was decided by the spring of 1943 . Historians point to the decisive role of ULTRA in the Atlantic war, particularly in early 1943 when the German defeat followed quickly after the breakthrough...

siege engines

siege engines   Reference library

The Oxford Companion to Military History

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2004
Subject:
History, Military History, Social sciences, Warfare and Defence
Length:
943 words
Illustration(s):
1

...engines were devices designed to reduce the time taken to capture a besieged castle or other fortification . There were a number of different types, the most prominent and certainly the simplest to construct being the battering ram. In its primitive form this was little more than a large beam or tree trunk that could be propelled continually against a wall or gate until a breach was made. It was frequently capped with metal (sometimes a symbolic ram's head) to strengthen the striking surface, and the survival of those operating it was greatly enhanced...

Artillery

Artillery   Reference library

The Oxford Companion to American Military History

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2004

...employed smoothbore, muzzle‐loading, black powder, cast‐bronze cannons and howitzers. Cannons, also called guns by the nineteenth century, had powerful, flat trajectories to batter down fortification walls or to shatter troop formations, while howitzers had curved trajectories for lobbing projectiles over fortification walls or into troop formations. Colonial artillery fired several types of projectiles, among them: solid shot, an exploding shell that was detonated by a fuse; canister, which was a can filled with musket balls; and grapeshot, a cluster of iron...

castle

castle   Reference library

The Oxford Companion to Military History

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2004
Subject:
History, Military History, Social sciences, Warfare and Defence
Length:
1,600 words
Illustration(s):
1

...I had seen on crusade. The invention of gunpowder was crucial in changing the castle into the forts and fortresses of the 16th century. Castles were built tall, often in high positions to reduce the possibility of storm. The bases of the walls were thickened with an angled ‘batter’ to defend against siege artillery (hurling stones), rams, and bores rolled against the walls and also undermining. But, c. 1400 , gunpowder artillery was becoming larger and much more powerful. Already, in Italy, new ‘bastion’ fortresses were under construction, with the...

Artillery

Artillery   Reference library

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Medieval Warfare and Military Technology

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2010

.... From the 1420s, other types of gunpowder weapons are noted in accounts and inventories. In the Burgundian sources, for example, veuglaires seem to have been a shorter weapon with a large bore, while crappadeaux were long and thin. This mirrors the development at the end of the fifteenth century and the beginning of the sixteenth of the two classes of guns that went on to dominate artillery in the subsequent three centuries, the canon and the culverin . The former was a shorter, large-caliber weapon used for battering walls and fortifications,...

fortification and siegecraft

fortification and siegecraft   Reference library

The Oxford Companion to Military History

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2004
Subject:
History, Military History, Social sciences, Warfare and Defence
Length:
2,756 words
Illustration(s):
1

... siege engines ). These techniques remained largely unchanged until the introduction of gunpowder . Assyria's expansionist policy created the need to constantly reduce fortified population centres that resisted the Assyrian yoke. An earth ramp was used to bring a metal-tipped battering ram into position. To prevent the defenders dropping rocks or burning materials onto it, the ram was often housed with an elaborate canopy, and continually doused with water. Propaganda and the threat of fire and the sword was used to encourage capitulation . Blockade was a...

Fortifications

Fortifications   Reference library

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Medieval Warfare and Military Technology

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2010

...and making a breach in the wall. Mining was performed by driving a tunnel under the wall, propping the foundations up, and then setting fire to the props, leading to collapse. Other forms of attack were sapping by attacking the foundations just below ground level or using a battering ram or simply with scaling ladders. These threats were all taken into account in the design and siting of fortifications. Fortification. The first step in the fortification of a castle was the choice of a site that allowed maximum use of natural features. (Towns, too, were...

tanks

tanks   Reference library

The Oxford Companion to Military History

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2004
Subject:
History, Military History, Social sciences, Warfare and Defence
Length:
2,971 words
Illustration(s):
1

...the design as we know it was due largely to the engineers Walter Wilson and William Tritton , but nothing would have been achieved without the driving force of Albert Stern , secretary to the Landships Committee. The earliest British tanks were little more than mechanical battering rams, designed to cross a few hundred yards of rough ground, crush wire, and suppress opposition, enabling the infantry to gain their objective. Slow speed and poor manoeuvrability rendered them unsuitable for more subtle tactics or wide-ranging operations, while their firepower...

Weaponry, Naval

Weaponry, Naval   Reference library

The Oxford Companion to American Military History

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2004

...turned out well. The decision to arm the frigate Essex exclusively with carronades—a short piece invented in Europe that could deliver as heavy a ball at short range as a much heavier “long gun”—proved disastrous when a British frigate used the greater range of its long guns to batter the helpless American vessel into submission. But a new class of “big frigates,” among them the famous USS Constitution , proved more than a match for their Royal Navy counterparts and prompted Britain to build similar vessels. The forty‐four‐gun frigates were cleverly designed,...

Franks, Merovingian

Franks, Merovingian   Reference library

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Medieval Warfare and Military Technology

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2010

...Saint-Bertrand-de-Comminges in Gascony by the troops of King Guntram. The last chapter of the book is dedicated to the techniques of siege warfare, where the author sees “the technological legacy of the later Roman Empire … in the deployment of various types of siege equipment, such as the onagri , the battering rams, and the agger .” Nevertheless, Bachrach also sees significant changes in the organization of military affairs during the sixth century. Under Clovis’s grandsons the “local levy” was introduced as “a great innovation”; this loses its importance...

Crusades

Crusades   Reference library

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Medieval Warfare and Military Technology

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2010
Subject:
History, Military History, Social sciences, Warfare and Defence
Length:
48,851 words
Illustration(s):
8

...the rear guard, were hit hard by Muslim archery. Eventually, they charged without waiting for Richard’s signal, forcing him to send in the rest of his cavalry to support them. Saladin’s forces, unused to this type of defense and facing fresh knights, broke. Saladin managed to counterattack once before a second charge drove his army from the field—battered but not destroyed. Casualties on both sides were fairly light, but Saladin’s reputation had suffered a further blow. Richard continued to Jaffa, and rebuilt its fortifications while pondering the next move....

Iberia

Iberia   Reference library

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Medieval Warfare and Military Technology

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2010
Subject:
History, Military History, Social sciences, Warfare and Defence
Length:
36,499 words
Illustration(s):
6

...the foreign troops finally agreed to join Afonso’s assault on Lisbon. The siege of the city began on 1 July after the Muslim defenders of the city formally rejected the fairly mild surrender terms offered by the invaders. Despite the extensive use of counterweight artillery that battered the walls of Lisbon for five months, starvation and disease caused more damage to the defenders. The Muslim garrison finally called for negotiations and Afonso basically extended the same terms he had given when he first invested the city: the garrison would open the gates to...

Britain

Britain   Reference library

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Medieval Warfare and Military Technology

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2010
Subject:
History, Military History, Social sciences, Warfare and Defence
Length:
55,708 words
Illustration(s):
11

...all the Scottish magnates who still resisted submitted. Edward then settled down to reduce at his leisure the single remaining Scottish garrison, that of Stirling Castle. The siege was a showpiece of the latest medieval siege technique: besides the deployment of trebuchets and battering rams, saltpeter and sulfur were supplied to the besiegers, suggesting that Greek fire was used. After heroic resistance the defenders attempted to surrender, but Edward tried out his latest siege engine on them before accepting. After 1304 , Edward believed that he had finally...

The Evolution of International Organizations as Institutional Forms and Historical Processes since 1945: Quis custodiet ipsos custodies?

The Evolution of International Organizations as Institutional Forms and Historical Processes since 1945: Quis custodiet ipsos custodies?   Reference library

Jacques Fomerand

The International Studies Encyclopedia

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2017
Subject:
Social sciences, Politics, Warfare and Defence
Length:
10,917 words

...the demise of bipolarity and an emerging global civil society spurred by the spread of information technology offered new horizons of “plausible aspirations” for “global constitutionalism” ( Falk et al. 1993 ) or a variety of “transnational democracy” ( Falk 1995 ). Battered by realists as incorrigible idealists and utopians ( Mangone 1951 ; Bull 1977 ; Baratta 2003 ), the ranks of normative IGO students have shrunk to a handful of academics advocating, more modestly, greater international cooperation on the basis of enforceable international...

Diplomacy

Diplomacy   Reference library

Paul Sharp

The International Studies Encyclopedia

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2017
Subject:
Social sciences, Politics, Warfare and Defence
Length:
14,608 words

...in foreign policy, but diplomacy and foreign policy, as Nicolson was later to argue, were emphatically not the same thing ( Nicolson 1969 ; James 1993 ). It would be a mistake, however, to regard this period as a heyday from which diplomacy entered into a long decline, battered by a series of exogenous social and scientific revolutions and the huge expansion of productive, destructive, and communicative capacities in which these developments resulted ( Mayall 1990 ). Even in its heyday, the system of modern or old diplomacy was never as settled or as...

The Development Paradigm and Its Critics

The Development Paradigm and Its Critics   Reference library

James H. Mittelman

The International Studies Encyclopedia

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2017
Subject:
Social sciences, Politics, Warfare and Defence
Length:
10,777 words

...The rest is darkness [. . .] and darkness is not a subject of history” (quoted in Mazrui 1972 :7). This Eurocentric view of agency came under attack at a time of nationalist movements and in the age of decolonization. Levels of Criticism Level One: Modernization Battered by its critics, imperial doctrine slowly lost legitimacy. A new theory was needed to replace the “white man’s burden” and the mission civilisatrice . A changing world order prompted moral critiques of the old perspectives on development and set the stage for new concepts. And...

Human Smuggling and Human Trafficking

Human Smuggling and Human Trafficking   Reference library

Nadejda K. Marinova

The International Studies Encyclopedia

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2017
Subject:
Social sciences, Politics, Warfare and Defence
Length:
13,259 words

...Migration and Alien Employment. In D. Kyle and R. Koslowski (eds.) Global Human Smuggling: Comparative Perspectives . Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University Press, pp. 318–36. Miller, M.J. , and Wasilewski, G. (2011) An Underappreciated Dimension of Human Trafficking: Battered and Trafficked Women and Public Policy. Human Rights Review (12) (3), 301–14. Moises, N. (2005) Illicit: How Smugglers, Traffickers, and Copycats Are Hijacking the Global Economy . New York: Doubleday. Molland, S. (2010) The Value of Bodies: Deception, Helping and Profiteering...

View: