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type batter

Damage or wear to type, resulting in a defective impression. Because each battered type creates a unique impression, Hinman, Blayney, and others have successfully used evidence from ...

Chemical Leavening

Chemical Leavening   Reference library

Sandra L. Oliver

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Food and Drink in America (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2013

...of chemicals known to work as leavening agents resulted in the most common and popular modern types. Along the way, there was much controversy and confusion about the dangers of using the agents and charges and countercharges of ingredient adulteration. Chemical leavenings replaced yeast and beaten egg whites. A blending of acid and alkali creates the gas required to raise batter or dough, usually accomplished by introducing an alkali to acid ingredients in the batter or by adding both an acid and an alkali to the ingredients. Since basic principles of...

Crepes

Crepes   Reference library

Lauren Bloomberg

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Food and Drink in America (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2013

...usually folded into triangles and wrapped in wax paper so that they can be eaten while one walks or without much excessive mess. In order to prepare crepes a batter must be made and left to sit. Then, by French practice, a bit is poured into a small crepe pan. The cook then quickly picks the pan off of the heating source and swirls the batter to lightly coat the pan. It takes mere minutes for the batter to form the pancake before it must be flipped out of the pan. Butter is most commonly used as a lubricant to prevent the crepe from sticking. The Crepe Suzette...

Sally Lunn

Sally Lunn   Reference library

Virginia Scott Jenkins

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Food and Drink in America (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2013

...with baking powder. Still other variants include cornmeal, sour cream, or buttermilk. It can be baked in a shallow cake pan, a ring mold, a Turk's head mold, a bread pan, a bundt or tube pan, or even in muffin tins. One recipe makes a very light corn bread, baked as a dropped batter on a baking sheet. Whatever the form, Sally Lunn is generally cut into wedges, slices, or squares and served hot with butter and jam. It is a favorite Virginia hot bread and is claimed by Colonial Williamsburg , where visitors can dine on Sally Lunn in the museum's taverns and...

Puddings

Puddings   Reference library

Joseph M. Carlin

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Food and Drink in America (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2013

...both British and American cookery, there was little attempt to provide stabilization or codification of this class of food. In an attempt to bring some semblance of order, Mrs. Whitney broke down puddings into four general divisions: puddings with crusts, soft-mixed puddings, batter puddings, and sandwich puddings. Puddings with crusts include apple dumplings (boiled, steamed, or baked), Huckleberry hollow and pandowdy, which are deep-dish desserts. Soft-mixed puddings include boiled or baked bread pudding, Indian pudding, and plum pudding and baked rice,...

Cake

Cake   Reference library

Stephen Schmidt, Stephen Schmidt, Kim Pierce, Andrew F. Smith, Stephen Schmidt, Cathy K. Kaufman, Jennifer C. Keegan, Cathy K. Kaufman, and Sally Parham

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Food and Drink in America (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2013

...making these cheaper, quicker-baking pound-type cakes for teas. Raisins and spices had always been typical in these cakes, and to make their company tea cakes seem special, women added these enhancements with a liberal hand. And to make their cakes lighter and moister, American women made the fateful decision to add pearl ash and milk to the batter, which compensated for the tenderness and moisture supplied to true pound cake by a full complement of butter and eggs. America almost certainly learned of pearl ash, a type of baking soda refined from wood ashes,...

Yeast

Yeast   Reference library

William Rubel

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Food and Drink in America (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2013

...yeast, often had at least a hint of flavor from hops. Until the late nineteenth century American bread bakers often made bread in a two-step process. They Yeast.  Advertisement for Fleischman's yeast. Collection of Andrew F. Smith multiplied their yeast by adding it to a batter of flour and water. When this “sponge” had risen, which took some hours, they added the remaining ingredients, which then fermented for several more hours. Bread dough sometimes was started the afternoon or evening before the actual baking day. Long rising gives yeast a chance to...

Breakfast Foods

Breakfast Foods   Reference library

Sylvia Lovegren

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Food and Drink in America (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2013

...frequently used to make them up, as were bread crumbs that had been soaked overnight in buttermilk. An interesting recipe for snow pancakes was fairly familiar in northern climates—freshly fallen snow took the place of eggs in the batter, using the air trapped in the snow crystals to leaven the dough. Snow fritters, deep-fried batter made with snow, were also enjoyed, as were fritters made with everything from apples to tomatoes to corn to oysters. Some cooks served sweet fritters dusted with powdered sugar, while others passed syrup or molasses and butter. To...

Chesapeake Bay Region

Chesapeake Bay Region   Reference library

Virginia Scott Jenkins

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Food and Drink in America (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2013

...fried chicken (served with cream gravy) may have had its origins in Africa. Sweet potato biscuits are in the Indian tradition of bread made from sweet potatoes, chestnuts, beans, and corn. Peanuts, black-eyed peas, okra, and watermelon came from Africa. Corn pudding, spoon bread (batter bread in Virginia), unsweetened white corn bread, hominy, grits, and sweet potato and pumpkin pies are all adaptations using local ingredients. (White potato pie is found on the Eastern Shore.) Brunswick stew (made with squirrel and onions) originated in Brunswick County,...

Globalization of American Food

Globalization of American Food   Reference library

Walter Carroll

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Food and Drink in America (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2013

...complete and dogs with all. Not surprisingly these come with pretty much everything on them. In Denmark and Norway, they are served with bacon and cheese. In South Korea, street vendors offer numerous kinds of hot dogs, some coated with sugar, while in Seoul one can buy a batter-dipped hot dog that may be wrapped in bacon. There are recognizable hot dog brands, such as Nathan's in the United States, but hot dog chains differ from those for hamburgers in that there are no iconic global brands such as McDonald's. Nonetheless, American hot dogs clearly make...

Indian American Food

Indian American Food   Reference library

Krishnendu Ray and Colleen Taylor Sen

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Food and Drink in America (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2013

...love to snack, and an afternoon tea or tiffin featuring salty savories and sweets is part of daily life. Over the past decade, sweet and snack shops have opened in major Indian shopping districts. Typical offerings include pakoras (vegetables deep fried in a chickpea flour batter), samosas (baked or fried pastries filled with meat or vegetables), bhelpuri , and dozens of varieties of savory snacks and sweets, usually from North India or Gujarat. In New York City, popular food carts sell biryani , kabobs, and other Indian dishes. With a few exceptions,...

Historical Overview

Historical Overview   Reference library

Andrew F. Smith, John U. Rees, Rachelle E. Friedman, John U. Rees, Alison Tozzi, Kara Newman, Anne Mendelson, Amy Bentley, Sylvia Lovegren, and Sylvia Lovegren

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Food and Drink in America (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2013

...popular item was the baked potato—often wrapped in foil and cooked on the side of the grill—topped off in the new California style with sour cream and chives. Women were also likely to contribute to the feast by frying chicken or corn dogs (frankfurters fried in a cornmeal batter and served on a stick) in the new portable electric skillet, introduced by Presto in 1953 . Kebabs, or skewer cookery, on the barbecue was also a passion of the age. The noted New York Times writer Craig Claiborne said that the “shish kebab craze was second only to the...

Cookbooks

Cookbooks   Reference library

Janice Bluestein Longone, Janice Bluestein Longone, Anne Mendelson, Becky Mercuri, Carol Mighton Haddix, Alice Ross, Anne L. Bower, Andrew F. Smith, Margaret Puskar-Pasewicz, and Virginia K. Bartlett

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Food and Drink in America (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2013

...recipes from iPads or Kindles as newer generations of cooks do. However, industry experts predict print cookbooks will not disappear anytime soon. There still will be glossy pages to protect from stains or crumbs, favorite recipes marked by folded-down page corners, and those battered, but coveted, books to hand down, mother to child. [ See also Barbecue ; Bayless, Rick ; Beard, James ; Cajun and Creole Food ; Celebrity Chefs ; Child, Julia ; Claiborne, Craig ; Farmers’ Markets ; Franey, Pierre ; French Influences on American Food ; Fusion Food ; ...

PEABODY, Elizabeth Palmer

PEABODY, Elizabeth Palmer (1804–1894)   Reference library

Monika Elbert

Dictionary of Early American Philosophers

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2013

...Abraham LINCOLN to discuss the abolitionist cause. Also from mid-century on Peabody became a more vocal proponent of women’s rights, attending various conventions, such as the Boston Woman’s Rights Convention in 1855 . On a personal level, she tried to help victimized and battered women and also campaigned for the education of the underprivileged and for freed slaves. In her sixties, Peabody took up the cause of Native Americans, and with her sister Mary helped Paiute Indian leader, Winnemucca, tell her story through writing and through speaking...

Democracy and Social Welfare

Democracy and Social Welfare   Reference library

The New Oxford Companion to Economics in India (3 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2012

...fortunes of all seemed to go up and up together in the 1980s and early 1990s, but when the economic crises came (and divided they fell) in the late 1990s, democracy and political and civil rights were desperately missed by those whose economic means and lives were unusually battered. Democracy suddenly became a central issue in these countries, with South Korea taking a major lead, and it led to the consolidation of democracy elsewhere as well, including in Thailand. India has certainly benefited from the protective role of democracy in giving the rulers...

Muffins

Muffins   Reference library

Stephen Schmidt

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Food and Drink in America (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2013

...the batter and the complications it took to bake it, it is unsurprising that muffins seem not to have been often made during the first half of the nineteenth century. Among the ninety plus warm breakfast and tea cakes that Sarah Rutledge featured in her cookbook of 1849 , only four are muffins. Most other cookbook authors of the period gave muffins similar scant attention. This, however, was about to change. In the 1859 edition of The Young Housekeeper's Friend , Mary Cornelius added two new muffins to the two old-fashioned yeast-raised types that had...

Drum

Drum   Reference library

Jayson Kerr Dobney

The Grove Dictionary of American Music (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2013
Subject:
Music, Social sciences, Regional and Area Studies
Length:
1,559 words

...in the Colonial period. The side drum (so named because it is worn on a sling that hangs to the player's side) was paired with a fife and was in use throughout Europe by the 16th century. Such drums can be documented in North America by the 1630s. The side drum has two heads—the batter head, which is played with two sticks, and the snare head, which has cords (made of gut) that stretch across the diameter of the head and rattle when the drum is played. A length of rope zigzags back and forth between hoops that hold the heads in place; this allows adjustment of...

Drum set

Drum set   Reference library

Thomas J. Kernan

The Grove Dictionary of American Music (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2013
Subject:
Music, Social sciences, Regional and Area Studies
Length:
1,337 words

...In the closing years of the 19th century drummers abandoned the double-drumming technique in favor of keeping both hands free for use on the snare drum and other accessories. Drummers crafted pedals to allow one foot to depress a lever that sent a beater toward the bass drum's batter head. In most cases the pedals also propelled a beater to strike a cymbal that was mounted above the drum's top hoop, between the drummer's legs and his stool, or to one side of the drum head, depending on the pedal's motion and the striking Roy C. Knapp's trap set, including...

Sikh American Food

Sikh American Food   Reference library

Veronica Sidhu

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Food and Drink in America (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2013

...and the birth of the order of the Khalsa) on April 13, and Bandi Chhor Diwas in October. Chaats , those sweet/sour, crunchy/creamy, funky black salt–studded street snacks are enjoyed at the festivals as are the ever-popular samosas (filled turnovers) and pakoras (chickpea-battered vegetables). All of these treats are welcome at teatime as well, a habit picked up from the British colonials. [ See also Indian American Food ; Pakistani American Food ; Vegetarianism .] Bibliography Cole, W. Owen , and Piara Singh Sambhi . The Sikhs: Their Religious...

South Africa

South Africa   Reference library

Encyclopedia of Africa

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2010
Subject:
Social sciences, Regional and Area Studies, History, Regional and National History
Length:
7,584 words
Illustration(s):
3

...Cape of Good Hope and went on to become the first European explorer to reach India by sea. For the next 150 years, European sailors stopped periodically along the Cape, which was about halfway between India and ports in Europe, to collect food and fresh water and to repair their battered ships. In 1647 the crew of the grounded Dutch ship Haarlem were left at Table Bay to salvage the cargo and await the arrival of the following year’s trading fleet. Upon their return to Amsterdam, they recommended the area around Cape Peninsula as a suitable site for a...

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