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type batter

Damage or wear to type, resulting in a defective impression. Because each battered type creates a unique impression, Hinman, Blayney, and others have successfully used evidence from ...

Nationalism

Nationalism   Reference library

The Oxford Companion to Politics of the World (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2004
Subject:
Social sciences, Politics
Length:
4,242 words

...seemed profoundly discredited by its association with Nazism, fascism , and anti-Semitism . In Eastern Europe, most of the new states of 1920 had fallen under Moscow-controlled communist regimes at least formally committed to the concept of proletarian internationalism. In a battered Western Europe under U.S. domination, institutions were being initiated that would lead to a putatively supranational European Union . Hence, although anticolonial nationalist movements were gaining ever-greater impetus in Asia and Africa, it was tempting to regard them as...

Women and Migration

Women and Migration   Reference library

Maura I. Toro-Morn

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Latinos and Latinas in Contemporary Politics, Law, and Social Movements

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2015
Subject:
Social sciences, Politics, Law
Length:
3,216 words

...Immigration Appeals granted asylum to Rodi Alvarado Pena, a Guatemalan woman who had been victimized by her husband for more than ten years. More recently, the Department of Homeland Security granted asylum to a Mexican woman, known as L.R., who was sexually abused and severely battered by her common-law husband. L.R. testified in court that she endured rape at the point of guns and machetes and that her common-law husband once tried to burn her alive. Clearly, more work needs to be done to fully document how gender-based oppression—including intimate partner...

Nationalism

Nationalism   Reference library

Benedict R. O’Gorman Anderson

The Oxford Companion to Comparative Politics

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2012
Subject:
Social sciences, Politics
Length:
4,266 words

...seemed profoundly discredited by its association with Nazism, fascism, and antisemitism. In Eastern Europe, most of the new states of 1920 had fallen under Moscow-controlled Communist regimes at least formally committed to the concept of proletarian internationalism. In a battered Western Europe under US domination, institutions were being initiated that would lead to a putatively supranational European Union. Hence, although anticolonial nationalist movements were gaining ever-greater impetus in Asia and Africa, it was tempting to regard them as signs of...

Nationalism

Nationalism   Reference library

Benedict R. O’Gorman Anderson

The Oxford Companion to International Relations

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2014
Subject:
Social sciences, Politics
Length:
4,246 words

...seemed profoundly discredited by its association with Nazism, fascism, and antisemitism. In Eastern Europe, most of the new states of 1920 had fallen under Moscow-controlled communist regimes at least formally committed to the concept of proletarian internationalism. In a battered Western Europe under US domination, institutions were being initiated that would lead to a putatively supranational European Union. Hence, although anticolonial nationalist movements were gaining ever-greater impetus in Asia and Africa, it was tempting to regard them as signs of...

The Evolution of International Organizations as Institutional Forms and Historical Processes since 1945: Quis custodiet ipsos custodies?

The Evolution of International Organizations as Institutional Forms and Historical Processes since 1945: Quis custodiet ipsos custodies?   Reference library

Jacques Fomerand

The International Studies Encyclopedia

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2017
Subject:
Social sciences, Politics, Warfare and Defence
Length:
10,917 words

...the demise of bipolarity and an emerging global civil society spurred by the spread of information technology offered new horizons of “plausible aspirations” for “global constitutionalism” ( Falk et al. 1993 ) or a variety of “transnational democracy” ( Falk 1995 ). Battered by realists as incorrigible idealists and utopians ( Mangone 1951 ; Bull 1977 ; Baratta 2003 ), the ranks of normative IGO students have shrunk to a handful of academics advocating, more modestly, greater international cooperation on the basis of enforceable international...

Global Governance in Foreign Policy

Global Governance in Foreign Policy   Reference library

Álvaro Mendez

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Foreign Policy Analysis

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2018
Subject:
Social sciences, Politics
Length:
14,169 words

...Lebanon in 1982 . It first had to seek U.S. permission and at least the acquiescence of the Europeans. After the war was over and a ceasefire was being negotiated, the West tried to exploit the situation to “institutionalize … [the] consequences … a pro-Western President … battering of Syrian [military] forces … ousting of the PLO from Lebanon. Furthermore … the U.S. thought it [could] sweep the Syrians out of the Soviet orbit and into its own” ( Aran, 2009 , p. 42). The upshot was that Israel was (over-)empowered and encouraged to indulge itself in its...

Diplomacy

Diplomacy   Reference library

Paul Sharp

The International Studies Encyclopedia

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2017
Subject:
Social sciences, Politics, Warfare and Defence
Length:
14,608 words

...in foreign policy, but diplomacy and foreign policy, as Nicolson was later to argue, were emphatically not the same thing ( Nicolson 1969 ; James 1993 ). It would be a mistake, however, to regard this period as a heyday from which diplomacy entered into a long decline, battered by a series of exogenous social and scientific revolutions and the huge expansion of productive, destructive, and communicative capacities in which these developments resulted ( Mayall 1990 ). Even in its heyday, the system of modern or old diplomacy was never as settled or as...

Terrorism as a Global Wave Phenomenon: Anti-Colonial Wave

Terrorism as a Global Wave Phenomenon: Anti-Colonial Wave   Reference library

David C. Rapoport

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Empirical International Relations Theory

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2018
Subject:
Social sciences, Politics
Length:
9,084 words

...Then there was the IRA disaster in 1939 , when it only made attacks in England. Algeria’s FLN was the only successful group to make strikes in a metropolitan homeland. Its target was a rival, the Algerian Nationalist Movement (MNA), which it eliminated in the “Café War,” battering French transportation facilities in the process. The decision to strike in France occurred after French paratroopers engaged in a horrible torture campaign that provoked much international hostility. Indeed, the torture outraged some French citizens so much that they helped the...

The Development Paradigm and Its Critics

The Development Paradigm and Its Critics   Reference library

James H. Mittelman

The International Studies Encyclopedia

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2017
Subject:
Social sciences, Politics, Warfare and Defence
Length:
10,777 words

...The rest is darkness [. . .] and darkness is not a subject of history” (quoted in Mazrui 1972 :7). This Eurocentric view of agency came under attack at a time of nationalist movements and in the age of decolonization. Levels of Criticism Level One: Modernization Battered by its critics, imperial doctrine slowly lost legitimacy. A new theory was needed to replace the “white man’s burden” and the mission civilisatrice . A changing world order prompted moral critiques of the old perspectives on development and set the stage for new concepts. And...

Human Smuggling and Human Trafficking

Human Smuggling and Human Trafficking   Reference library

Nadejda K. Marinova

The International Studies Encyclopedia

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2017
Subject:
Social sciences, Politics, Warfare and Defence
Length:
13,259 words

...Migration and Alien Employment. In D. Kyle and R. Koslowski (eds.) Global Human Smuggling: Comparative Perspectives . Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University Press, pp. 318–36. Miller, M.J. , and Wasilewski, G. (2011) An Underappreciated Dimension of Human Trafficking: Battered and Trafficked Women and Public Policy. Human Rights Review (12) (3), 301–14. Moises, N. (2005) Illicit: How Smugglers, Traffickers, and Copycats Are Hijacking the Global Economy . New York: Doubleday. Molland, S. (2010) The Value of Bodies: Deception, Helping and Profiteering...

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