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type batter

Damage or wear to type, resulting in a defective impression. Because each battered type creates a unique impression, Hinman, Blayney, and others have successfully used evidence from ...

Democracy and Social Welfare

Democracy and Social Welfare   Reference library

The New Oxford Companion to Economics in India (3 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2012

...fortunes of all seemed to go up and up together in the 1980s and early 1990s, but when the economic crises came (and divided they fell) in the late 1990s, democracy and political and civil rights were desperately missed by those whose economic means and lives were unusually battered. Democracy suddenly became a central issue in these countries, with South Korea taking a major lead, and it led to the consolidation of democracy elsewhere as well, including in Thailand. India has certainly benefited from the protective role of democracy in giving the rulers...

Arms Industry

Arms Industry   Reference library

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Economic History

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2005
Subject:
Social sciences, Economics
Length:
7,152 words
Illustration(s):
1

...iron only gradually replaced bronze for military purposes. The Romans went one step further, equipping their legionnaires with even stronger steel swords, manufactured in Spain. Other technological developments in the ancient world included chariots, catapults, battering rams and other types of siege engine, Greek fire (a sort of flame-thrower), and warships sporting bronze-tipped rams. Technology transfer appears to have been relatively rapid within the Eurasian world, aided by the passage of armies back and forth across the Middle East. Weapons, armor,...

Chemical Industries

Chemical Industries   Reference library

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Economic History

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2005
Subject:
Social sciences, Economics
Length:
10,982 words
Illustration(s):
3

... Technological Developments and Their Importance to the Industry Three types of innovations have recurred throughout the history of the chemical industry. The first type involves the creation of processes for making chemical substances that are also found in nature but occur naturally in limited quantity or are cheaper to produce in an industrial plant. The Haber-Bosch nitrogen fixation process ( 1912 ) and synthetic indigo process ( 1897 ) are cases in point. The second type of innovation involves the substitution of an existing industrial process for a...

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