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type batter

Damage or wear to type, resulting in a defective impression. Because each battered type creates a unique impression, Hinman, Blayney, and others have successfully used evidence from ...

type batter

type batter   Reference library

The Oxford Companion to the Book

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2010
Subject:
History, Social sciences
Length:
51 words

... batter Damage or wear to *type , resulting in a defective *impression . Because each battered type creates a unique impression, *Hinman , *Blayney , and others have successfully used evidence from damaged types to study such matters as *compositors ’ stints and the order in which *forme s were set. Michael F. Suarez,...

carriers

carriers   Reference library

Tom Hone

The Oxford Companion to World War II

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2003

...aircraft carriers,’ or merchant ship conversions. Basic types were Casablanca (8,400 metric tons; 50 built) and Commencement Bay (17,000 metric tons; 19 built). Most RN escort carriers were obtained through Lend-Lease , such as the eleven Attacker type (10,360 metric tons), but there were also very austere additions of flight decks and three or four aircraft to each of nineteen grain and oil bulk carriers. Carriers, Table 1: Royal Navy, US Navy, Imperial Japanese Navy Class/Type Number Commissioned Tonnage No. of A/C Overall Length (in...

fighters

fighters   Reference library

E. A. Munday and Johnnie Johnson

The Oxford Companion to World War II

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2003
Subject:
History, Military History, Social sciences, Warfare and Defence
Length:
6,375 words
Illustration(s):
4

...manoeuvrable American fighters; while the lighter German fighters, capable of dogfighting the US escorts, lacked the fire-power to destroy the bombers. One answer was the heavily armed, and heavily armoured, version of the Focke-Wulfe 190 fighter, nicknamed the Sturmbock (battering ram). These engaged the US bombers from behind at close range and rammed them as a last resort. They were used in a Gruppe of three Staffeln of twelve aircraft each, escorted by more than sixty specially adapted, lighter fighters. These Gefechtsverbände (battle formations)...

Atlantic, battle of the

Atlantic, battle of the   Reference library

Marc Milner

The Oxford Companion to World War II

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2003
Subject:
History, Military History, Social sciences, Warfare and Defence
Length:
4,598 words
Illustration(s):
3

...and U-boats punished heavily. VLR Liberators closed the air gap in May, and more escort carriers arrived to join the battle. Nearly 100 U-boats were sunk in the Atlantic during the first five months of 1943 : 47 in May alone (see Map 6). At the end of May, Dönitz withdrew his battered packs: as far as the course of the war was concerned, the battle of the Atlantic was decided by the spring of 1943 . Historians point to the decisive role of ULTRA in the Atlantic war, particularly in early 1943 when the German defeat followed quickly after the breakthrough...

Chemical Leavening

Chemical Leavening   Reference library

Sandra L. Oliver

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Food and Drink in America (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2013

...of chemicals known to work as leavening agents resulted in the most common and popular modern types. Along the way, there was much controversy and confusion about the dangers of using the agents and charges and countercharges of ingredient adulteration. Chemical leavenings replaced yeast and beaten egg whites. A blending of acid and alkali creates the gas required to raise batter or dough, usually accomplished by introducing an alkali to acid ingredients in the batter or by adding both an acid and an alkali to the ingredients. Since basic principles of...

Crepes

Crepes   Reference library

Lauren Bloomberg

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Food and Drink in America (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2013

...usually folded into triangles and wrapped in wax paper so that they can be eaten while one walks or without much excessive mess. In order to prepare crepes a batter must be made and left to sit. Then, by French practice, a bit is poured into a small crepe pan. The cook then quickly picks the pan off of the heating source and swirls the batter to lightly coat the pan. It takes mere minutes for the batter to form the pancake before it must be flipped out of the pan. Butter is most commonly used as a lubricant to prevent the crepe from sticking. The Crepe Suzette...

Sally Lunn

Sally Lunn   Reference library

Virginia Scott Jenkins

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Food and Drink in America (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2013

...with baking powder. Still other variants include cornmeal, sour cream, or buttermilk. It can be baked in a shallow cake pan, a ring mold, a Turk's head mold, a bread pan, a bundt or tube pan, or even in muffin tins. One recipe makes a very light corn bread, baked as a dropped batter on a baking sheet. Whatever the form, Sally Lunn is generally cut into wedges, slices, or squares and served hot with butter and jam. It is a favorite Virginia hot bread and is claimed by Colonial Williamsburg , where visitors can dine on Sally Lunn in the museum's taverns and...

Puddings

Puddings   Reference library

Joseph M. Carlin

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Food and Drink in America (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2013

...both British and American cookery, there was little attempt to provide stabilization or codification of this class of food. In an attempt to bring some semblance of order, Mrs. Whitney broke down puddings into four general divisions: puddings with crusts, soft-mixed puddings, batter puddings, and sandwich puddings. Puddings with crusts include apple dumplings (boiled, steamed, or baked), Huckleberry hollow and pandowdy, which are deep-dish desserts. Soft-mixed puddings include boiled or baked bread pudding, Indian pudding, and plum pudding and baked rice,...

siege engines

siege engines   Reference library

The Oxford Companion to Military History

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2004
Subject:
History, Military History, Social sciences, Warfare and Defence
Length:
943 words
Illustration(s):
1

...engines were devices designed to reduce the time taken to capture a besieged castle or other fortification . There were a number of different types, the most prominent and certainly the simplest to construct being the battering ram. In its primitive form this was little more than a large beam or tree trunk that could be propelled continually against a wall or gate until a breach was made. It was frequently capped with metal (sometimes a symbolic ram's head) to strengthen the striking surface, and the survival of those operating it was greatly enhanced...

Artillery

Artillery   Reference library

The Oxford Companion to American Military History

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2004

...employed smoothbore, muzzle‐loading, black powder, cast‐bronze cannons and howitzers. Cannons, also called guns by the nineteenth century, had powerful, flat trajectories to batter down fortification walls or to shatter troop formations, while howitzers had curved trajectories for lobbing projectiles over fortification walls or into troop formations. Colonial artillery fired several types of projectiles, among them: solid shot, an exploding shell that was detonated by a fuse; canister, which was a can filled with musket balls; and grapeshot, a cluster of iron...

Cake

Cake   Reference library

Stephen Schmidt, Stephen Schmidt, Kim Pierce, Andrew F. Smith, Stephen Schmidt, Cathy K. Kaufman, Jennifer C. Keegan, Cathy K. Kaufman, and Sally Parham

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Food and Drink in America (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2013

...making these cheaper, quicker-baking pound-type cakes for teas. Raisins and spices had always been typical in these cakes, and to make their company tea cakes seem special, women added these enhancements with a liberal hand. And to make their cakes lighter and moister, American women made the fateful decision to add pearl ash and milk to the batter, which compensated for the tenderness and moisture supplied to true pound cake by a full complement of butter and eggs. America almost certainly learned of pearl ash, a type of baking soda refined from wood ashes,...

castle

castle   Reference library

The Oxford Companion to Military History

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2004
Subject:
History, Military History, Social sciences, Warfare and Defence
Length:
1,600 words
Illustration(s):
1

...I had seen on crusade. The invention of gunpowder was crucial in changing the castle into the forts and fortresses of the 16th century. Castles were built tall, often in high positions to reduce the possibility of storm. The bases of the walls were thickened with an angled ‘batter’ to defend against siege artillery (hurling stones), rams, and bores rolled against the walls and also undermining. But, c. 1400 , gunpowder artillery was becoming larger and much more powerful. Already, in Italy, new ‘bastion’ fortresses were under construction, with the...

Yeast

Yeast   Reference library

William Rubel

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Food and Drink in America (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2013

...yeast, often had at least a hint of flavor from hops. Until the late nineteenth century American bread bakers often made bread in a two-step process. They Yeast.  Advertisement for Fleischman's yeast. Collection of Andrew F. Smith multiplied their yeast by adding it to a batter of flour and water. When this “sponge” had risen, which took some hours, they added the remaining ingredients, which then fermented for several more hours. Bread dough sometimes was started the afternoon or evening before the actual baking day. Long rising gives yeast a chance to...

Artillery

Artillery   Reference library

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Medieval Warfare and Military Technology

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2010

.... From the 1420s, other types of gunpowder weapons are noted in accounts and inventories. In the Burgundian sources, for example, veuglaires seem to have been a shorter weapon with a large bore, while crappadeaux were long and thin. This mirrors the development at the end of the fifteenth century and the beginning of the sixteenth of the two classes of guns that went on to dominate artillery in the subsequent three centuries, the canon and the culverin . The former was a shorter, large-caliber weapon used for battering walls and fortifications,...

Breakfast Foods

Breakfast Foods   Reference library

Sylvia Lovegren

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Food and Drink in America (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2013

...frequently used to make them up, as were bread crumbs that had been soaked overnight in buttermilk. An interesting recipe for snow pancakes was fairly familiar in northern climates—freshly fallen snow took the place of eggs in the batter, using the air trapped in the snow crystals to leaven the dough. Snow fritters, deep-fried batter made with snow, were also enjoyed, as were fritters made with everything from apples to tomatoes to corn to oysters. Some cooks served sweet fritters dusted with powdered sugar, while others passed syrup or molasses and butter. To...

fortification and siegecraft

fortification and siegecraft   Reference library

The Oxford Companion to Military History

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2004
Subject:
History, Military History, Social sciences, Warfare and Defence
Length:
2,756 words
Illustration(s):
1

... siege engines ). These techniques remained largely unchanged until the introduction of gunpowder . Assyria's expansionist policy created the need to constantly reduce fortified population centres that resisted the Assyrian yoke. An earth ramp was used to bring a metal-tipped battering ram into position. To prevent the defenders dropping rocks or burning materials onto it, the ram was often housed with an elaborate canopy, and continually doused with water. Propaganda and the threat of fire and the sword was used to encourage capitulation . Blockade was a...

Chesapeake Bay Region

Chesapeake Bay Region   Reference library

Virginia Scott Jenkins

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Food and Drink in America (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2013

...fried chicken (served with cream gravy) may have had its origins in Africa. Sweet potato biscuits are in the Indian tradition of bread made from sweet potatoes, chestnuts, beans, and corn. Peanuts, black-eyed peas, okra, and watermelon came from Africa. Corn pudding, spoon bread (batter bread in Virginia), unsweetened white corn bread, hominy, grits, and sweet potato and pumpkin pies are all adaptations using local ingredients. (White potato pie is found on the Eastern Shore.) Brunswick stew (made with squirrel and onions) originated in Brunswick County,...

Fortifications

Fortifications   Reference library

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Medieval Warfare and Military Technology

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2010

...and making a breach in the wall. Mining was performed by driving a tunnel under the wall, propping the foundations up, and then setting fire to the props, leading to collapse. Other forms of attack were sapping by attacking the foundations just below ground level or using a battering ram or simply with scaling ladders. These threats were all taken into account in the design and siting of fortifications. Fortification. The first step in the fortification of a castle was the choice of a site that allowed maximum use of natural features. (Towns, too, were...

tanks

tanks   Reference library

The Oxford Companion to Military History

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2004
Subject:
History, Military History, Social sciences, Warfare and Defence
Length:
2,971 words
Illustration(s):
1

...the design as we know it was due largely to the engineers Walter Wilson and William Tritton , but nothing would have been achieved without the driving force of Albert Stern , secretary to the Landships Committee. The earliest British tanks were little more than mechanical battering rams, designed to cross a few hundred yards of rough ground, crush wire, and suppress opposition, enabling the infantry to gain their objective. Slow speed and poor manoeuvrability rendered them unsuitable for more subtle tactics or wide-ranging operations, while their firepower...

Globalization of American Food

Globalization of American Food   Reference library

Walter Carroll

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Food and Drink in America (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2013

...complete and dogs with all. Not surprisingly these come with pretty much everything on them. In Denmark and Norway, they are served with bacon and cheese. In South Korea, street vendors offer numerous kinds of hot dogs, some coated with sugar, while in Seoul one can buy a batter-dipped hot dog that may be wrapped in bacon. There are recognizable hot dog brands, such as Nathan's in the United States, but hot dog chains differ from those for hamburgers in that there are no iconic global brands such as McDonald's. Nonetheless, American hot dogs clearly make...

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