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type batter

Damage or wear to type, resulting in a defective impression. Because each battered type creates a unique impression, Hinman, Blayney, and others have successfully used evidence from ...

fritto misto

fritto misto   Quick reference

A Dictionary of Food and Nutrition (4 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2014

...misto Italian ; small thin pieces of a variety of types of meat, fish, or vegetables, coated with egg and breadcrumbs or batter, and deep...

kadaif

kadaif   Quick reference

The Diner’s Dictionary (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2013

...wheat . It is an eastern Mediterranean confection made from a leavened flour-and-water batter sieved into very thin strands which are rolled round a filling of chopped nuts, baked, and then soaked in syrup. Kadaif, or kadayif, is its Turkish name. In Greece it is kataifi. Both come from Arabic qata’if, which refers to a type of pancake. In Arab countries, particularly Egypt and Syria, the vermicelli-pastry confection, which is made from the same batter as kadaif, is known as kunafa...

shortening bread

shortening bread   Quick reference

The Diner’s Dictionary (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2013

...bread A type of American bread made by frying a batter mixture containing cornmeal, eggs, milk, and some sort of fat, such as butter. A speciality of the southern states, it achieved wider fame thanks to a line in a traditional plantation song that runs ‘Mammy’s little baby loves short’nin’...

hopper

hopper   Quick reference

The Diner’s Dictionary (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2013

...A type of saucer-shaped pancake characteristic of southern India and Sri Lanka. Its yeast batter , made from rice flour, is cooked in a bowl-shaped pan, which gives the hopper its particular form: thick in the middle, thin and lacy towards the edge. Often a whole egg is cooked in the centre. Its name in Tamil is appam (probably a descendant of Sanskrit apupa ‘fried delicacy’), and a variant form of this, appa, was folk-etymologically transformed in Anglo-Indian English into hopper. See also string hopper...

fraise

fraise   Quick reference

The Diner’s Dictionary (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2013

...A type of thick pancake typically incorporating pieces of bacon . Conceptually it is perhaps closer to an omelette , but made with batter rather than beaten eggs and butter. It is now largely a thing of the past, although sweet versions containing fruit survived into the twentieth century: Florence White in her Good Things in England ( 1932 ), quotes a recipe for an ‘apple fraize’. The term, which also occurs in the form froise, dates back to the early fourteenth century. It probably came from an unrecorded Old French * freis or * freise, which...

Dinosaurs

Dinosaurs   Reference library

Encyclopedia of Evolution

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2005
Subject:
Science and technology, Life Sciences, Social sciences, Anthropology
Length:
3,672 words
Illustration(s):
2

...the “margin-headed” ornithischians, and it includes two distinctive groups. Pachycephalosaurs are the “thick-headed” ornithischians. They evolved high domes of thickened bones over the top of the brain. Mechanical analyses suggest that pachycephalosaurs used their heads as battering rams, probably in battles for mates and territory. The ceratopsians are the horned ornithischians. Early ceratopsians were relatively small, like the early ornithopods and pachycephalosaurs, but the later forms were were rhino-sized animals that reverted to locomotion on all...

Human Health

Human Health   Reference library

Encyclopedia of Global Change

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2005

...subject to multiple stresses, natural environments can exhibit symptoms that signal reduced resilience, resistance, and regenerative capabilities. Ecosystems are not fragile, and their flexibility and survival strategies can be strengthened by systematic stress (the alternating battering of seasonal changes in temperate ecosystems, for example). But their tolerance for abuse has its limits. Water, food, and health are three of our basic needs. These issues are interrelated, and global change threatens to change all three. Maintenance of health entails providing...

Effects of Rapid Climate Change on Violence and Conflict

Effects of Rapid Climate Change on Violence and Conflict   Reference library

Courtney Plante, Johnie J. Allen, and Craig A. Anderson

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Climate Change Communication

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2018

...researchers have capitalized on the abundance of professional sport data to show similar effects, as they did in one study comparing the frequency with which Major League Baseball pitchers struck the opposing team’s batter. Across thousands of games, researchers found that on hotter days, pitchers were significantly more likely to strike batters, even after statistically controlling for variables related to the pitcher’s control ( Reifman et al., 1991 ; Larrick et al., 2011 ). These studies showcase more than just the creativity of researchers; they also illustrate...

Belief Systems

Belief Systems   Reference library

Encyclopedia of Global Change

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2005

...influence in energizing the ecology movement, we are still too close to most of its successors to judge their staying power. Certainly, there were many popular books written on ecological themes in the years after Carson, among them the phenomenally successful, though critically battered, The Greening of America ( 1969 ), by Charles A. Reich , and The Making of a Counter Culture ( 1969 ), by Theodore Roszak . Both were studies of youth as revolutionaries overturning the mechanistic, technocratic world, but both had environmental implications. A few years...

baseball and softball

baseball and softball   Quick reference

Food and Fitness: A Dictionary of Diet and Exercise (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2016

...of the hips, shoulders, arms, and wrists. These movements put a lot of strain on the neck, shoulders, and upper back. Batters therefore require good upper body strength and flexibility. Fielding requires good all-round fitness: fielders have to be able to run quickly and catch a ball (usually with the non-dominant gloved hand) and then throw it accurately. All baseball players have to throw the ball at one time or another, but it is the major function of pitchers. By coordinating the movements of all the muscles of the upper body, a pitcher can release the ball...

Motor Vehicles

Motor Vehicles   Reference library

Clay McShane and Christopher W. Wells

The Oxford Encyclopedia of the History of American Science, Medicine, and Technology

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2015

...the American market. In a decade of oil shortages, Detroit could not match the Japanese in cost, quality, or fuel efficiency. Chrysler escaped bankruptcy only by a government bailout and president Lee Iacocca’s success at marketing. Import taxes and quotas somewhat protected the battered domestic auto industry, and the 1980s brought a revival. Ford responded first, marketing the German-designed, Japanese-engineered Escort and Taurus (also German-engineered) in the mid-1980s. Chrysler also rebounded in the 1980s, adopting Japanese design and production...

mental handicap

mental handicap   Reference library

The Oxford Companion to the Mind (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2006
Subject:
Science and technology, Psychology, Philosophy
Length:
1,823 words

...neonatal period, factors such as high fever, jaundice, failure to breathe properly, or inadequate or unsuitable nutrition may cause retardation. The child's brain may be damaged by poisoning from sucking toys painted with paint containing lead monoxide or cadmium, or by baby battering ( see child abuse ), or by falls. One category in the AAMD list should be looked at with particular attention: diseases and conditions due to unknown or uncertain factors with structural reaction alone manifest—a category into which the ‘wild boy’ of Aveyron might well fit. It...

brain development

brain development   Reference library

The Oxford Companion to the Mind (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2006
Subject:
Science and technology, Psychology, Philosophy
Length:
6,208 words
Illustration(s):
5

...In Spain, Santiago Ramón y Cajal used silver staining to lay the foundations of modern neuroanatomy. Cajal pioneered microscope studies of how the brain develops. He imagined the growing tip of each new nerve fibre probing its way with delicate filaments, ‘a sort of battering ram, possessing an exquisite chemical sensitivity, rapid amoeboid movements and a certain driving force that permits it to push aside, or cross, objects in its way’. He concluded that formation of the right patterns of connections depends upon how this ‘growth cone’ chooses a...

technology in history

technology in history   Reference library

Science, Technology, and Society

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2006

...stone-cutting capabilities, a high degree of inlay work can be seen in the Taj Mahal. The skill of making delicate patterns of different types of grilles, as can be found in Fatehpur Sikri, is also noteworthy. Some of these acquired skills clearly exhibit the integration of knowledge in optics and geometry. In the case of other types of construction technology, with relatively more utility, mention can be made of three types of structures: places of worship, palaces, and mausoleums. Although the final construct in most cases had been highly sophisticated and...

Weasels, Mink, and Polecats

Weasels, Mink, and Polecats   Reference library

The Encyclopedia of Mammals (3 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2007
Subject:
Science and technology, Life Sciences
Length:
5,199 words
Illustration(s):
5

...into direct rivalry with otters. On the benefit side, mink have such a wide choice of prey that they can normally turn to alternatives if one type of prey becomes scarce; such an option is closed to specialists. The adaptability of mink is reflected in the variety of habitats in which they thrive – from the arctic wastes of Alaska to the swamps of the Florida Keys; from inland lakes and rivers to the wave-battered rocks of the Atlantic coast. Johnny D. S. Birks Weasel, Mink, and Polecat Species Two species of weasel are sufficiently distinct to be placed...

murder

murder   Reference library

The Oxford Companion to the Body

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2003
Subject:
Science and technology, Life Sciences
Length:
1,441 words

...as in deaths from gunshot or stab wounds, burning, and bludgeoning. When an individual is battered to death, there will be a lot of blood at the scene and defensive wounds on the victim's arms. The instrument used will often leave a discernible pattern on the body. Murder by burning — which is rare — causes contraction of the muscles; the presence of soot or carbon monoxide in the lungs indicates that the victim was alive when the fire began. Stab wounds show the type of blade used and its length; extensive superficial wounding usually indicates suicide....

ocean-ridge geochemistry

ocean-ridge geochemistry   Reference library

The Oxford Companion to the Earth

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2003
Subject:
Science and technology, Earth Sciences and Geography
Length:
1,582 words
Illustration(s):
1

...or subducts easily into the mantle during plate collisions. Continental crust, being less dense, floats on the underlying mantle rocks and is only rarely subducted. As a result, oceanic crust is produced and recycled at a rapid rate, whereas the continents, though repeatedly battered by collisions and rifting, remain. The oceanic crust is produced by volcanic processes along the globe-circling system of mid-ocean ridges (Fig. 1) and consists of three main layers. The topmost is sediment cover that thickens as ocean crust ages and spreads away from the axis...

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