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type batter

Damage or wear to type, resulting in a defective impression. Because each battered type creates a unique impression, Hinman, Blayney, and others have successfully used evidence from ...

Confraternities

Confraternities   Reference library

The Oxford Encyclopedia of the Reformation

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2005
Subject:
History, modern history (1700 to 1945), Religion
Length:
1,831 words

...sick; they provided alms-houses and hospices for travelers, the sick, and the aged; confraternities ran great hospitals (as in Rome, Naples, Toledo); they coped with foundlings and abandoned children; they provided conservatories for vulnerable girls, repentant prostitutes, and battered wives. Confraternities of Christian doctrine (as across north-central Italy and in Valladolid and Zamora) improved knowledge of Christian doctrine—and sometimes literacy. Much of these devotional and philanthropic activities can be seen as buttressing the Catholic cause and...

Social-Scientific Approaches

Social-Scientific Approaches   Reference library

Johanna Stiebert

The Oxford Encyclopedia of the Bible and Gender Studies

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2014
Subject:
Religion, Social sciences, Sociology
Length:
5,928 words

...the abusive nature of the woman metaphor in this chapter, in that it characterizes the sexual abuse of girls as their own fault ( Ezek 23:3 ). The second is Naomi Graetz’s ( 1995 ) analysis of the punishment of Hosea’s wife, which Graetz associates with domestic abuse and battered wife syndrome, consequently deeming this metaphor acutely toxic to actual women. There has been some disagreement among feminist biblical scholars as to whether metaphor ought to be read (too?) literally. Christl Maier, for example, emphasizes that the prophetic woman metaphors...

Sexual Violence

Sexual Violence   Reference library

Hilary Lipka, Harold C. Washington, Susan Deacy, Fiona McHardy, John W. Marshall, Marianne Blickenstaff, Mika Ahuvia, and Joy A. Schroeder

The Oxford Encyclopedia of the Bible and Gender Studies

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2014
Subject:
Religion, Social sciences, Sociology
Length:
29,730 words

...depicted naked, as are male captives. Chapman’s The Gendered Language of Warfare in the Israelite-Assyrian Encounter ( 2004 , pp. 160–163) contends that the nakedness of the male enemy soldiers is sometimes combined with images of penetration via the placement and the aim of battering rams, the drawn bows of Assyrian soldiers, and through images of impaled naked males. Such images would indicate that sometimes the nakedness of the defeated enemy in the Neo-Assyrian depictions of battle and siege signifies a sexual vulnerability absent in earlier iconography...

Marriage and Divorce

Marriage and Divorce   Reference library

Sarah Shectman, Annalisa Azzoni, Eva Cantarella, Julie Langford, Mary Rose D’Angelo, Shulamit Valler, and B. Diane Lipsett

The Oxford Encyclopedia of the Bible and Gender Studies

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2014
Subject:
Religion, Social sciences, Sociology
Length:
23,877 words

...for reasons that had little to do with romantic attachment. The familial manipulation of marriages and divorces for political and dynastic advantage is nowhere more visible than in the imperial households. Type of Evidence. There are three main types of evidence for marriage and divorce in Rome: literary, legal, and epigraphic. Each type of evidence presents challenges for scholars who interpret them. Descriptions of marriage, divorce, and weddings appear in many different genres from the middle republic to late empire, in Greek and Latin sources. The...

Feminism

Feminism   Reference library

Claudia Setzer, Susanne Scholz, and Surekha Nelavala

The Oxford Encyclopedia of the Bible and Gender Studies

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2014
Subject:
Religion, Social sciences, Sociology
Length:
14,515 words

...Christian Discourse: Thinking beyond Thecla . London: T&T Clark, 2009. Washington, Harold C. , Susan Lochrie Graham , and Pamela Thimmes , eds. Escaping Eden: New Feminist Perspectives on the Bible . Sheffield, U.K.: Sheffield Academic Press, 1998. Weems, Renita J. Battered Love: Marriage, Sex, and Violence in the Hebrew Prophets . Minneapolis: Fortress, 1995. Williams, Delores S. “The Color of Feminism, or Speaking the Black Woman’s Tongue.” Journal of Religious Thought 43, no. 1 (Spring/Summer 1986): 42–58. Wire, Antoinette Clark . “Theological...

Imagery, Gendered

Imagery, Gendered   Reference library

Elizabeth W. Goldstein, Ken Stone, Julia M. O’Brien, Carole R. Fontaine, Greg Carey, Michal Beth Dinkler, and Susan Grove Eastman

The Oxford Encyclopedia of the Bible and Gender Studies

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2014
Subject:
Religion, Social sciences, Sociology
Length:
26,610 words

...transport one set of characteristics or relationships into the conceptual domain of another. In the Prophets, the divine-human encounter becomes a warrior’s rape of a woman captured in war, a father’s anguished yet justified beating of a disobedient son, a husband’s jealous battering of his whoring wife, a mother’s compassion for her helpless infant, or a farmer’s care for and exasperation over his fickle crops. Drawing heavily from the conceptual domain of human relationships, prophetic metaphor reflects the patriarchal/heteronormative character of ancient...

Lahore

Lahore   Reference library

The Grove Encyclopedia of Islamic Art and Architecture

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2009
Subject:
Art & Architecture, Religion
Length:
1,727 words
Illustration(s):
1

...earliest Mughal site is the garden and pavilion (c. 1530 ) of Kamran , half-brother of the emperor Humayun ( see Mughal , §II, B ), which stood on the right bank of the Ravi. Both garden and pavilion were extensively reconstructed in the 17th century, after which they were battered by flooding and eventually cut off by a river meander; they were radically reconstructed by the government of Punjab in 1990 . A more enduring Mughal monument is Lahore Fort, a roughly square enclosure standing high above the Ravi floodplain. It was first improved by Akbar (...

Military architecture and fortification

Military architecture and fortification   Reference library

The Grove Encyclopedia of Islamic Art and Architecture

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2009
Subject:
Art & Architecture, Religion
Length:
10,258 words
Illustration(s):
4

...the middle of the 16th century the Algerian littoral came under Ottoman control. At Algiers the Turks enclosed the town with walls of the traditional type, preceded by a ditch and having nine gates. Flanked by bastions, the Turkish gateways were, with the exception of that linking the city with the interior of the kasba, of simple straight-axis plan, in contrast to the bent entrances common in Morocco. The battered walls of the city and fortress (h. 12 m; w. 1.6–2.5 m) are occasionally marked by rectangular salients. A wall-walk extends along the top of the...

Minaret

Minaret   Reference library

The Grove Encyclopedia of Islamic Art and Architecture

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2009
Subject:
Art & Architecture, Religion
Length:
3,591 words
Illustration(s):
3

...sight as Ottoman domination extended into Syria, Egypt, North Africa, Greece and the Balkans. Nevertheless the traditional square minaret continued to hold its own in North Africa as did a hybrid octagonal type. Beyond the traditional North African and southwest Asian lands of Islam, minarets have a varied history. In West Africa, for example, the battered mud tower over the mihrab of traditional mosques shows some formal similarities to Almohad experiments in minaret placement, while along the East African coast the traditional staircase minaret was most...

Harness and trappings

Harness and trappings   Reference library

The Grove Encyclopedia of Islamic Art and Architecture

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2009
Subject:
Art & Architecture, Religion
Length:
2,365 words

...of mail-and-plate, and in its present state weighs 118 kg; six of its original eight pieces survive (two of the three panels for the right side are missing), and it would originally have weighed 159 kg. (Such heavy protection was particularly useful when elephants were used as battering rams against castle doors, which were often fitted with sharp projecting spikes.) The side elements include square panels decorated with embossed trotting elephants, lotus flowers, birds and fish, but the armor is otherwise plain except for the scalloped edges of the small...

War

War   Reference library

Jerome F. D. Creach

The Oxford Encyclopedia of the Bible and Theology

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2015
Subject:
Religion
Length:
4,367 words

...effort was the battering ram. A simple version was simply a fortified shelter for soldiers who hit and chipped away at the wall with a pole from inside. More complex battering rams were machines on wheels the army hoisted up a ramp constructed for the purpose. Soldiers inside the machine would then hammer the wall with a large ram that moved as a swing. This technique was commonly used by the Assyrians and Babylonians, as their artwork illustrates (see Yadin, 1963 , Vol. 2, pp. 314–315). Perhaps the most famous use of siege ramp and battering ram was in the...

Housing

Housing   Reference library

The Grove Encyclopedia of Islamic Art and Architecture

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2009
Subject:
Art & Architecture, Religion
Length:
4,001 words
Illustration(s):
3

...dressed by occasional screened overhanging windows to project wealth and influence. Further south a distinctive additional flavor is apparent in Abha, a highland region benefiting from greater rainfall where there is a strong tradition of banded rubble walling laced with timber. Battered walls and small openings combine to produce a semi-fortified aspect even more apparent in the higher and greener lands of the Yemen. Here the courtyard traditions are abandoned. The clustered multi-story houses of Jiddah become towered streets, patterned and pulsating with...

Vernacular architecture

Vernacular architecture   Reference library

The Grove Encyclopedia of Islamic Art and Architecture

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2009
Subject:
Art & Architecture, Religion
Length:
17,884 words
Illustration(s):
10

...of the Harappan civilization that flourished on the banks of the Indus from the early 3rd to the late 2nd millennium bce . Other house-types are depicted in rock carvings, reliefs and wall paintings from the period c. 200 bce –500 ce . Two types of village cottage in particular that were still being extensively built in the late 20th century can be identified from these sources: one type had thick battered mud walls and a curvilinear thatched roof with overhanging eaves, probably with a bamboo structure, while the other had timber and bamboo walls...

Architecture

Architecture   Reference library

The Grove Encyclopedia of Islamic Art and Architecture

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2009
Subject:
Art & Architecture, Religion
Length:
117,015 words
Illustration(s):
77

...; see also Muqarnas ) north of Samarra. It was built by an Uqaylid prince to honor a descendant of the fifth Shi῾ite imam. From the exterior, the battered brick walls, 10 m to a side and 12 m high, support a high octagonal drum and three tiers of convex and angular elements crowned with a small cupola. The interior is a riot of carved plaster ornament culminating in five diminishing tiers of muqarnas . The type continued to be popular in Iraq, to judge from the 20 or so examples remaining. The handful of shrines to minor Shi῾ite saints in Mosul, such as...

Byzantine art and architecture

Byzantine art and architecture   Reference library

The Oxford Dictionary of Christian Art and Architecture (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2013
Subject:
Art & Architecture, Religion
Length:
12,284 words

...by Christ (945–9) (Paris, Cab. des Médailles) are examples. Individual statues do not seem to appear before the 12th century; the Theotokos Hodegetria ( see madonna types ) in London (V & A) is possibly one of the earliest surviving free-standing statuettes. Only small numbers of marble carvings have survived; those still in Istanbul (Archaeological Mus.) include the battered pieces of an elaborate carved ambo from Salonika, with arcaded niches containing a Madonna and Child and worshippers. The 11th- or 12th-century marble Deësis , with Christ,...

Gothic art and architecture

Gothic art and architecture   Reference library

The Oxford Dictionary of Christian Art and Architecture (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2013
Subject:
Art & Architecture, Religion
Length:
7,068 words

...the norm, and in big polyptychs in Italy the elaborate frames become more complicated and spiky. In Italy also fresco cycles become very important. Very little medieval painting has survived in England because of the depredations of the Reformation and later of the Puritans: the battered wreckage of the superb Westminster retable survives to illustrate the quality of much of what is lost. Manuscripts fared better; once their jewelled or precious metal covers had been pulled off, the book itself was of no further interest. Fortunately, a large amount of stained...

Archaeology and the Bible

Archaeology and the Bible   Reference library

The Oxford Companion to the Bible

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2004
Subject:
Religion
Length:
6,255 words

...presence is evidenced by a fortress at Tell Jemmeh, and a standard found at Tell esh‐Shariʿa. The Assyrian juggernaut of Sennacherib invaded Judah in 701 and overwhelmed city after city, including the key southern fort of Lachish ( 2 Kings 18.13–17 ). The assault with battering rams up a ramp is illustrated in detail by reliefs from Sennacherib's palace at Nineveh . Excavations at Lachish have uncovered the siege ramp, a counter ramp, arrowheads, the crest of a helmet, chain mail, and a chain used by the defenders against the ram. Sennacherib, though...

Gamla

Gamla   Reference library

Danny Syon

The Oxford Encyclopedia of the Bible and Archaeology

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2013
Subject:
Archaeology, Religion
Length:
5,886 words
Illustration(s):
1

...for “kosher” oil. A large oil press was constructed at this time in the Western Quarter, which included a built-in mikvah . This press too is of the Judean type. Yet another, unexcavated oil press is situated at the far western edge of the town. There may be more presses buried underground. A large iron ploughshare found in the Western Quarter and several mills of the Olynthus type and the Pompeian type are sure evidence of grain growing and flour production on a commercial scale. Pollen analysis corroborates the presence of grain and olives and suggests that...

Delhi

Delhi   Reference library

The Grove Encyclopedia of Islamic Art and Architecture

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2009
Subject:
Art & Architecture, Religion
Length:
9,391 words
Illustration(s):
6

...choosing a site on a rocky outcrop some 8 km east of Qil῾a Rai Pithaura. Its massive walls, large stretches of which are still standing, were roughly octagonal in plan with a perimeter of about 6 km. Made of local quartzite stone, they are 10–15 m high with an inward batter and are said to have had 56 bastions and 52 gates. The vast walled area was divided into two main parts. On one side was the fort, separated and secured by walls and bastions. Part of it was demarcated for palaces, including the no longer extant Jahannuma, praised in contemporary...

Narrative

Narrative   Reference library

Assnat Bartor

The Oxford Encyclopedia of the Bible and Law

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2015
Subject:
Religion, Law
Length:
6,254 words

...Gibeonites feared they would suffer the same fate and sought to attach themselves to the conquerors. They realized that they would have to deceive the Israelites; otherwise, as Canaanites, they would be similarly doomed for destruction. So they took worn-out clothes and torn and battered belongings, to appear as though they had been through a long and grueling journey, and presented themselves thus: “We have come from a far country” ( v. 6 ). Joshua and the other leaders of the Israelites fell for the ruse and made a covenant with them, promising on oath that...

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